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WATER MANAGEMENT FOR THE FENUGREEK PLANT AND ITS RESPONSE TO BIO- FERTILIZATION IN NORTH SINAI

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted for two successive seasons 2015 and 2016 at Baloza Research Station, (D.R.C.), North Sinai governorates, to elucidate the effect of irrigation quantity (Q1, Q2 and Q3) and bio-fertilization (Rhizobium melioliti (R) as base application for all treatments, Bacillus megatherium (B), Saccharomyces cervisiae (Y) and mixture of them) as well as their combination under drip irrigation system on fenugreek yield and yield components, water consumptive use (Eta), water use efficiency (WUE) and soil microbiological properties. Results showed that, fenugreek plants were varied greatly in their response to water quantities and bio-fertilization treatments. Q1 recorded as best level of water amount for plants growth. Bio-fertilization treatments either single or mixed inoculation enhanced fenugreek growth and yield and stimulate microbial activity in fenugreek rhizosphere which reflected on improvement of yield and growth. However the mixture of bio-fertilizers application recorded the highest values for all the studied parameters under Q1 treatment. Also, water consumptive and water use efficiency by fenugreek plants increased as irrigation water depth decreased. Also, data revealed that the crop coefficient (Kc) were 0.68, 0.96, 1.06 and 0.78 for initial, development, med. and late season, respectively. Generally, it can be recommended that applying the highest amount of water irrigation 100% (Q1) with triple inoculation (RBY) is suitable for increase the productivity of Fenugreek plants, its chemical constituents and stimulate microbial activity as well as its water consumption and water use efficiency under Baloza region conditions.
WATER MANAGEMENT FOR THE FENUGREEK
PLANT AND ITS RESPONSE TO BIO-
FERTILIZATION IN NORTH SINAI
Gehan G. Abd-Elghany1 ; Mona M. El-Shazly2 and
Hanan A. E. A. Hashem3
1Water requirement unit,Desert Research Center El-Mataria, Cairo, Egypt
2 Soil Fertility and Microbiology Departement, Desert Research Center, El-Mataria,
Cairo, Egypt
3Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, Desert Research Center, El-Mataria,
Cairo, Egypt.
Key Words: Fenugreek, water management, Biofertilization, Rhizobium
ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted for two successive seasons 2015
and 2016 at Baloza Research Station, (D.R.C.), North Sinai governorates,
to elucidate the effect of irrigation quantity (Q1, Q2 and Q3) and bio-
fertilization (Rhizobium melioliti (R) as base application for all
treatments, Bacillus megatherium (B), Saccharomyces cervisiae (Y) and
mixture of them) as well as their combination under drip irrigation
system on fenugreek yield and yield components, water consumptive use
(Eta), water use efficiency (WUE) and soil microbiological properties.
Results showed that, fenugreek plants were varied greatly in their
response to water quantities and bio-fertilization treatments. Q1 recorded
as best level of water amount for plants growth. Bio-fertilization
treatments either single or mixed inoculation enhanced fenugreek growth
and yield and stimulate microbial activity in fenugreek rhizosphere which
reflected on improvement of yield and growth. However the mixture of
bio-fertilizers application recorded the highest values for all the studied
parameters under Q1 treatment. Also, water consumptive and water use
efficiency by fenugreek plants increased as irrigation water depth
decreased. Also, data revealed that the crop coefficient (Kc) were 0.68,
0.96, 1.06 and 0.78 for initial, development, med. and late season,
respectively. Generally, it can be recommended that applying the highest
amount of water irrigation 100% (Q1) with triple inoculation (RBY) is
suitable for increase the productivity of Fenugreek plants, its chemical
constituents and stimulate microbial activity as well as its water
consumption and water use efficiency under Baloza region conditions.
INTRODUCTION
Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgraecum) is an annual herb that
belongs to the family Leguminosae (currently known as Fabaceae)
widely grown in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Due to its strong
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 494 - 515
flavor and its aroma, fenugreek is one of such plants whose leaves and
seeds are widely consumed as a spice in food preparations, and as an
ingredient in traditional medicine. It is rich source of calcium, iron, β-
carotene and other vitamins (Sharma et al, 1996).The seeds of fenugreek
contain lysine and L-tryptophan rich proteins, mucilaginous fiber and
other rare chemical constituents such as saponins, coumarin,
fenugreekine, nicotinic acid, sapogenins, phytic acid, scopoletin and
trigonelline which are thought to account for many of its presumed
therapeutic effects, may inhibit cholesterol absorption and to help lower
sugar levels (Bukhari et al., 2008).
Water is the most limiting factor for plant production in arid and
semiarid regions, and when the source of water is limited, the demand for
water increases. Water management will become an essential practice
used by farmers. The relationships between yield and water consumption
were established and the preferred irrigation programs to be used
(Tekinel et al., 1999). Limited water resources and scarcity of water in
Egypt are the main challenge for agricultural horizontal expanding. With
increasing concerns about the environment, better use of the natural
resource base, less use of chemicals and efficient use of irrigation water
have become increasingly important target of sustainable agriculture in
Egypt. To solve this problem, adopted policies of horizontal and vertical
expanding in agricultural lands and activities had been considered based
saving irrigation water to cultivate another area and crop water
requirements must be estimated accurately, improving irrigation
efficiencies and applying high efficiency irrigation method as localized
irrigation (drip irrigation efficiency 85 - 95%), (Mohammed et al.,
2014).
Bio-fertilizers are environment friendly, less costly, and therefore
lead to sustainable crop production (Naher et al., 2016). In addition, they
produce hormones, vitamins and other growth factors essential for plant
growth Fenugreek, being a legume crop, responds to inoculation with
Rhizobium to meet the partial requirement of nitrogen. Rhizobium
inoculation of fenugreek has been reported to intensification the biomass
of plant and seed production (Singh and Patel, 2016). Many studies have
shown that simultaneous infection with rhizobia and rhizosphere bacteria
increases nodulation and growth in a extensive variety of legumes (Singh
et al., 2013). Bio-fertilizers include nitrogen fixing, phosphate
solubilization and plant growth promoting microorganism. Using of bio-
fertilizers that certain different microbial strains led to decrease the use of
agrochemicals for human safety. Application of bio-fertilizers is improve
the growth of fenugreek plants and play a vital role in increasing the
plant growth (Badar et al., 2016). Also, PGPR have beneficial effects on
legume growth and some strains enhance legume nodulation and nitrogen
495 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017
fixation by affecting the interaction between plant and rhizobia (Parmar
and Dadarwal, 1999).
Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of
water quantity and bio-fertilizer treatments on various growth
parameters, photosynthetic pigments, yield , WUE, WEc, Kc, microbial
properties and yield attributes of fenugreek plants grown under sandy
soil conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present work was carried out at the Experimental Station of
Desert Research Center (D.R.C.) at Baloza (latitude 31o 3\ N and
Longitude 32o 36\ E), North Sinai Governorate during the two
consecutive winter seasons of 2015 and 2016. The mechanical and
chemical properties of the used soil are shown in Table (A) according to
(Page et al., 1984). The chemical analysis of the used water is shown in
Table (B) and meteorological data of Baloza area (mean of 30 years ago)
shown in Table (C).
Table (A).Some physical and chemical properties of the experimental soil.
Particle
size
distribution
(%)
Texture class
EC dSm-1
pH
Soluble ions (meq/l)
Available
nutrients (ppm)
Anions
Sand
Silt
Cl
ay
Ca++
Mg++
Na+
K+
CO3-
-
HCO
3-
SO4-
-
Cl-
N
P
K
90
5
5
Sand
1.37
8.20
1.8
2.1
1.5
0.09
-
3.5
0.84
1.51
60
3.65
144
Table (B). Chemical analysis of irrigation water.
Samples
pH
E.C.
(ppm)
S.A.R
Soluble cations (mm/l)
Soluble anions (mm/l)
Ca++
Mg++
Na+
K+
CO3--
HCO3-
SO4=
Cl-
1 st. season
7.45
1456
3.80
2.90
3.20
8.60
0.60
0.10
5.60
2.10
7.50
2nd. season
7.10
1512
3.52
3.25
3.05
9.50
0.40
0.50
3.81
3.69
8.20
Table C: Meteorological data of Baloza area as average of 30 years ago.
Element
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Max. T(oC)
19.30
20.50
23.80
28.00
27.50
30.00
30.00
32.50
30.00
27.50
23.00
20.00
Min. T(oC)
7.80
8.60
10.50
13.50
15.00
20.00
22.50
22.50
20.00
17.50
14.00
10.00
Mean RH (%)
70.0
70.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
70.0
70.0
70.0
70.0
70.0
70.0
Wind speed
(m/see)
3.97
3.97
4.10
3.87
3.60
3.60
3.92
3.60
3.28
2.81
3.04
3.69
Sunshine, hours
6.60
7.60
8.30
9.20
10.40
11.90
12.00
11.30
10.40
9.20
7.40
6.50
Rs (MJ/m2/d)
11.6
15.0
18.8
22.4
25.3
27.9
27.8
25.7
22.2
17.7
12.9
10.9
G (MJ/m2/d)
-0.35
0.00
0.70
0.18
0.35
0.53
0.18
0.18
-0.35
-0.35
-0.56
-0.49
Ra G
4.75
6.72
8.87
12.11
14.05
15.97
15.32
15.32
12.86
9.10
5.95
4.39
Total rain (mm)
50.0
25.0
15.0
5.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
10.0
20.0
35.0
S =Kpa /oC
0.10
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.17
0.19
0.20
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.13
011
Evp = mm
4.77
5.17
7.16
9.66
10.02
10.56
9.77
8.58
7.05
5.88
1.58
1.18
Seeds of fenugreek were obtained from Research Center of
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Dokky, Giza, Egypt and sown on 15th
October during both seasons, respectively, to study the influence of
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 496
irrigation water quantity, bio-fertilization and their attribute on growth,
yield components, some chemical constituents of fenugreek plants, water
consumptive use, water use efficiency, water economy and microbial
determinations. This work included twelve treatments which were the
combinations between three water quantities (Q1 100%, Q2 80% and Q3
60%) and four bio-fertilization treatments. The water treatments obtained
from the product of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated by
using Penman-Montieth equation multiplied by crop coefficient for every
stage according to (Allen et al., 1998) multiplied by a factors as follow:
Q1 = ETo × Kc × 1.0, Q2 = ETo × Kc × 0.8, and Q3 = ETo × Kc × 0.6.
Since there is no reference to the crop coefficient of fenugreek, the
following values were suggested: 0.4, 1.15, 0.9 and 0.7 for initial,
development, med and late stages, respectively as indicated in Table (D).
Table(D): Applied Water treatments.
Q
Initial
stage
Develop.
stage
Med stage
Late stage
Water Requirements
(ETc)
Applied
Water, m3/fed.
mm
m3/fed.
Q1
46.02
204.21
125.53
86.76
635.96
2671.05
3071.7
Q2
46.02
163.54
100.42
69.41
521.66
2190.98
2519..6
Q3
46.02
122.53
75.32
52.06
335.33
1408.38
1619.6
The bio-fertilization treatments were [Rhizobium meliloti (R) as
base treatment (control), Bacillus megaterium (B) + Rhizobium meliloti
(R), Sacchromycescervisiae yeast (y) + Rhizobium meliloti (R) and
mixture between them (R+B+Y)]. Seeds of fenugreek were washed and
immersed for 30 min in liquid culture of Rhizobium meliloti,
carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC 0.5%) used as an adhesive agent. Seeds
were then dried at room temperature for two hours. Fresh liquid culture
of 48 hr old containing pure local strains of Bacillus megatherium var
phosphaticum (PDB) and Sacchromycescervisiae, previously isolated
from rhizosphere of soils of Baloza region, North Sinai were used. These
had been purified and identified according to (Bergey s Manual, 1994).
They were used as bio-fertilizers in the form of single and mixed
inoculation at the rate of ~108cfu/ml.
The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three
replicates. Irrigation water quantities treatments were distributed in the
main plots, while bio-fertilization treatments were randomly arranged in
the sub-plot. The experimental unit contains 4 rows each of 7.5 meter
length and 50 cm width and the distance between hills within the row
was 20cm, where the area of each plot was 15 m2 and each of plots was
bounded by 1.5 m wide levees to avoid horizontal water movement.
Plants were thinned after complete germination (20 days after sowing)
leaving one plant / hill. Treatments of water quantities were started after
497 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017
initial stage (25 days) from sowing. The applied irrigation water was
added through trickle irrigation system which has 95% application
efficiency. Bio-fertilization strains were added in the root zone twice
every season, the first one after 15 days from thinned plants and second
one after 30 days from first addition. All normal agricultural practices of
growing fenugreek plants were done when ever needed.
The recorded data were:
1. Plant productivity and its components
At harvesting stage (17th March in both seasons), plant height
(cm), branch number /plant and total plant dry weight (g) were estimated.
Seed yield /plant (g) was determined, and then seed yield (kg/ feddan)
was calculated for fenugreek plants. A sample of dry seeds was randomly
taken from each treatment for chemical analysis. Total chlorophyll
content (SPAD unit) was determined in fenugreek fresh leaves by using
SPAD-502 meter (Markwell et al., 1995). Seed fixed oil of fenugreek
was extracted using petroleum ether (40-60oC) in a Soxhlet system HT
apparatus according to the methods of A.O.A.C. (1984). Oil yield per
plant (g) and per feddan (kg) were calculated. Furthermore, nitrogen
content (g) was determined in seeds of fenugreek according to the
methods described by (Chapman and Pratt, 1978). The trigonelline
content (mg/g) of fenugreek seed was determined according to the
equation; trigonelline alkaloid = absorbance of test at 268 nm /
Absorbance of standard (Gorham, 1986).
2. Water consumptive use
The soil moisture content was gravimetrically determined at 3
depths; 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm, immediately before and after one day
of irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration (ETa) for each stage as well
as for the total season were determined, crop coefficient was calculated
for every growth stage according to (Allen et al, 1998), Crop Water Use
Efficiency (WUE), kg/m3 was calculated by dividing the crop yield by
the amount of seasonal evapotranspiration (Giriappa, 1983) and water
economy (WEc), kg/m3 was calculated by dividing the crop yield by the
amount of applied irrigation water (Talha and Aziz, 1979).
3. Microbial determination
Soil samples were collected before planting and after the harvest of
each season (0-30 cm) to analyze the microbial determination. Total
microbial counts were determined on Bunt and Rovira medium
(Nautiyal, 1999) using the decimal plate method technique. Counting the
number of growing phosphate dissolving bacteria was carried out using
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 498
Bunt and Rovira medium after addition of 5 ml sterile solution of 10% of
K2HPO4 and 5ml 10% CaCl2 to each 100 ml of the medium. Also,
counting yeast on yeast extract Malt extract agar medium (Pridham at
al., 1956).
Total soil nitrogen determination was carried out according to
modified Kjeldahel method as described by (Page et al., 1984). Total
phosphor and potassium determined according to (Page et al., 1984).
Statistical analysis:
All collected data were subjected to analysis of variance and
means of treatments were comparedwith the least significant difference
(LSD) test at P≤0.05. The statistical calculations were performedwith
statistic software version 9 (Analytical Software, 2008).
RESULTS
1. Effect of water quantities, bio-fertilization and their interaction
treatments on productivity of fenugreek plants
1.1. Growth parameters
Data in Table 1 generally suggested that, all growth parameters
(plant height, branches number / plant and total dry weight / plant) were
affected by all irrigation water quantities treatments. Moreover, all
growth parameters decreased significantly by decrease the irrigation
quantity from Q1 to Q3 in first and second seasons. Also, the highest
value in this regard obtained from Q1 treatment compared to others.
Moreover, all bio-fertilization treatments {Rhizobium (R) +
Bacillus (B), Rhizobium (R) + Yeast (Y) or R+B+Y} significantly
increased the above mentioned parameters compared with control
treatment (R). The treatment of (R+B+Y) was the superior in this respect
and gave significant increase in plant height, branches number/ plant and
total dry weight / plant compared to other treatments under study. Also,
plant height, branches numbers/plant and total dry weight/plant were
significantly affected by the combination between water quantities and
bio-fertilization applications. Generally, the maximum values of all
growth parameters were achieved when treated fenugreek plants by Q1
(100%) with mixed inoculations (R+B+Y). The minimum value in this
regard was recorded in interaction treatment between Q3 with (R), the
same behavior was recorded in both seasons.
1.2 . Yield components:
Data presented in Table 2 revealed that, irrigation water quantities
Q2 and Q3 induced significant decreases in yield of feungreek plant and
its components as compared with Q1 treatment. Number of pods/plant,
499 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017
seeds yield/plant, seeds yield/feddan and oil yield/plant as well as oil
yield/feddan of fenugreek plant increased significantly by increasing
irrigation water quantity in first and second seasons.
On the other hand, all bio-fertilization treatments increased
significantly all recorded yield parameters (pod number/plant, seeds and
oil yield/plant as well as/fed.) as compared to control treatment in both
seasons. The highest value in this respect observed from the treatment of
R+B+Y and gave significant increase compared with the other ones
under this study.
Moreover, the combination treatments between Q1and (R+B+Y)
was superior in increasing seeds and oil yields of fenugreek plant
compared to the other ones under study in the first and second seasons, in
most cases. All yield parameters (pod number/plant, seeds and oil
yield/plant as well as/feddan) were affected by all interaction treatments
in both seasons.
Table (1). Effect of irrigation water quantity, bio-fertilization and
their interaction treatments on growth parameters of
Fenugreek plants during two seasons (2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Plant height (cm)
R*
53.17d**
50.33g
43.67k
49.06D
59.17d
55.00g
50.67j
54.94D
R+B
54.33c
51.00fg
46.33j
50.56C
60.00c
55.83f
52.00i
55.94C
R+Y
55.83b
51.17f
48.00i
51.67B
61.00b
56.50f
52.67hi
56.72B
R+B+Y
58.33a
52.17e
49.17h
53.22A
62.07a
58.00e
53.17h
57.74A
Mean (Q)
55.42A
51.17B
46.79C
60.56A
56.33B
52.13C
Number of branches/ plant
R
7.00cd
6.00f
4.00h
5.67C
11.00cd
9.00fg
6.67i
8.89C
R+B
7.67bc
6.33ef
5.00g
6.33B
11.67c
9.67efg
7.00i
9.44C
R+Y
8.00b
7.oode
5.00g
6.67B
13.00b
10.00def
7.67hi
10.22B
R+B+Y
9.33a
7.00de
6.00f
7.44A
16.33a
10.67cde
8.67gh
11.89A
Means (Q)
8.00A
6.58B
5.00C
13.00A
9.83B
7.50C
Plant dry weight (g)
R
14.18d
11.22h
8.81 l
11.40D
16.93d
13.54h
10.69k
13.72D
R+B
14.78c
11.72g
9.53k
12.01C
17.70c
14.28g
12.47j
14.82C
R+Y
15.47b
12.33f
10.203j
12.67B
18.17b
14.90f
12.80i
15.29B
R+B+Y
17.11a
13.00e
10.69i
13.60A
18.81a
15.89e
13.26h
15.99A
Means(Q)
15.38A
12.07B
9.81C
17.90A
14.65B
12.30C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and
Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly
different according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability.
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 500
Table (2). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their
interaction treatments on yield parameters of fenugreek
plants during two seasons (2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Number of pods / plant
R*
44.33d**
32.33h
13.67k
30.11D
65.00d
48.00h
22.67 l
45.22D
R + B
47.67c
35.00g
21.33j
34.67C
68.33c
52.67g
33.00k
51.33C
R + Y
53.33b
39.00f
26.00i
39.44B
72.67b
57.00f
37.33j
55.67B
R +B + Y
64.33a
42.00e
31.33h
45.89A
77.67a
61.00e
45.00i
61.22A
Mean (Q)
52.42A
37.08B
32.08C
70.92A
54.67B
34.50C
Seed yield / plant (g)
R
26.93d
22.44h
17.41 l
22.26D
25.77d
21.93g
18.41j
22.04D
R + B
29.33c
23.45g
18.75k
23.84C
27.67c
22.51f
20.04i
23.40C
R + Y
32.19b
24.34f
20.14j
25.56B
28.71b
22.84f
20.45hi
23.99B
R +B + Y
33.41a
25.53e
20.44i
26.46A
33.14a
23.99e
20.76h
25.97A
Mean (Q)
Seed yield / feddan (Kg)
R
1077.1d
897.50h
696.4 l
890.3D
1030.70d
877.20g
736.4j
881.40D
R+B
1173.20c
937.90g
749.9k
953.60C
1106.70c
900.50f
801.50i
936.20C
R+Y
1287.60b
973.60f
805.5j
1022.2B
1148.40b
913.50f
818.00hi
960.00B
R+B+Y
1336.40a
1021.20e
817.60i
1058.40A
1325.70a
959.90e
830.40h
1038.70A
Mean (Q)
1218.60A
957.50B
767.30C
1152.90A
912.80B
796.60C
Seed oil yield / plant (g)
R
2.25 d
1.63 h
0.92 l
1.60 D
2.95 d
2.34 h
1.81 l
2.37 D
R+B
2.94 c
1.72 g
1.01 k
1.89 C
3.22 c
2.44 g
1.98 k
2.55 C
R+Y
3.34 b
1.89 f
1.09 j
2.11 B
3.40 b
2.50 f
2.06 j
2.65 B
R+B+Y
3.62 a
2.04 e
1.42 i
2.36 A
3.94 a
2.74 e
2.18 i
2.95 A
Mean (Q)
3.04 A
1.82 B
1.11 C
3.38 A
2.51 B
2.01C
LSDat5%
Seed oil yield / feddan (Kg)
R
90.06d
65.03 h
36.64 l
63.91 D
118.01 d
93.42 h
72.54 l
94.66 D
R+B
117.67 c
68.81 g
40.50 k
75.66 C
128.93 c
97.71 g
79.59 k
102.07 C
R+Y
133.67 b
75.79 f
43.77 j
84.41 B
135.86 b
100.02 f
82.21 j
106.03 B
R+B+Y
144.77 a
81.63 e
56.98 i
94.46 A
157.76 a
109.62 e
87.03 i
118.13 A
Mean (Q)
121.54 A
72.82 B
44.47 C
135.14 A
100.19 B
80.34 C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly different
according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability.
1.3. Chemical constituents
Illustrated data in Table 3 revealed that, water quantities treatments
(Q2 and Q3) caused to significantly decrease in total chlorophyll content
(SPAD unit) of fenugreek leaves, protein content and trigonellin content
(mg/100g) in seeds during the two tested seasons comparing to Q1
treatment. The treatment of Q3 recorded the lowest values in this respect and
obtained significant decrease in total chlorophyll content of fenugreek
leaves, protein content and trigonellin content in seeds during first and
second seasons compared to the other treatments in this study.
501 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017
In addition, total chlorophyll content of fenugreek leaves, protein
content and trigonellin content in seeds were affected by the bio-fertilization
treatments (R+B, R+Y or R+B+Y) comparing to R treatment (control)
during both seasons. The mixed inoculations treatment (R+B+Y) gave the
maximum values of the above mentioned parameters.
The combination treatments between irrigation water quantity (Q1)
and mixed inoculation recorded the highest values in this regard in both
seasons compared to other combination treatments under study. Total
chlorophyll content of fenugreek leaves, protein content and trigonellin
content in seeds were affected by all combination treatments in this study
during the two seasons.
Table (3). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their
interaction treatments on total chlorophyll, protein
content and trigonellin (mg/100g) of fenugreek seeds
during two seasons (2015 and 2016).
water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Leaf total chlorophyll
R*
50.30d**
46.57g
41.43j
46.10D
57.20c
54.40e
47.80 i
53.13D
R + B
51.40c
47.37f
43.63i
47.47C
58.00b
55.50d
49.07h
54.19C
R + Y
52.80b
47.60f
45.23h
48.54B
58.53b
55.83d
50.90g
55.09B
R +B + Y
54.67a
48.83e
45.60h
49.60A
59.97a
56.57c
53.20f
56.58A
Mean (Q)
52.29A
47.52B
43.98C
58.43A
55.58B
50.24C
Protein content/ plant seeds (g)
R*
6.14 d
4.94 h
3.60 l
4.89 D
5.45 d
4.68 gh
3.87 j
4.67 D
R + B
6.70 c
5.26 g
3.91 k
5.89 C
6.09 c
5.02 f
4.35 i
5.15 C
R + Y
7.39 b
5.53 f
4.26 j
5.73 B
6.51 b
5.18 e
4.63 h
5.44 B
R +B + Y
7.74 a
5.80 e
4.42 i
5.99 A
7.62 a
5.56 d
4.74 g
5.97 A
Mean (Q)
6.99 A
5.38 B
4.05 C
6.42 A
5.11 B
4.40 C
Trigonellin (mg/100g) in seeds
R
0.396c
0.335fg
0.274i
0.335D
0.372d
0.339g
0.290i
0.333D
R+B
0.403c
0.343f
0.306h
0.351C
0.391c
0.348f
0.327h
0.355C
R+Y
0.432b
0.365e
0.328g
0.375B
0.398b
0.354e
0.329h
0.360B
R+B+Y
0.465a
0.380d
0.332fg
0.392A
0.412a
0.359e
0.331h
0.367A
Mean (Q)
0.424A
0.356B
0.310C
0.393A
0.350B
0.319C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and
Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly
different according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability.
2. Effect of irrigation quantities, bio-fertilization and their interaction
treatments on water parameters of fenugreek plants
2.1. Total actual evapotranspiration mm/season
Data presented in Tables (4 and 5) showed that, ETa values were
gradually increased as plant growth progressed and reached their maximum at
development stage. This trend may be due to the less demand for water by the
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 502

growing plants as they reached their maximum growth. Also, the actual
consumptive use of water by fenugreek plants (for every stage or total season),
was increased as the applied irrigation water quantity increased and /or added
bio-fertilizer. Regarding to the interaction effect of irrigation water quantity and
bio-fertilizer, data showed that, the highest values were obtained as a result of
applying the highest irrigation water amount and bio-fertilizer (triple
inoculation); in contrast, the lowest values were obtained as a result of applying
the minimum irrigation water amount and with (R) bio-fertilizer. In spite of the
interaction effect of irrigation water quantity and bio-fertilizer treatment on the
ETa of stages or total season, data indicated that the highest values were
associated with applying the highest irrigation water quantity under (R+B+Y),
while the lowest values were associated with applying the lowest irrigation
water quantity with bio-fertilizer (R), such difference reached 45.1 % and 45.76
% in first and second seasons, respectively.
Table (4). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their
interaction treatments on water consumptive use
(mm/day) of growth stages of fenugreek plants during two
seasons (2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Initial stage
R*
31.84 a **
30.78 de
30.59 ef
31.07 B
30.27 ab
28.85 e
29.59 cd
29.57 B
R+B
31.43 bc
30.14 g
30.15 g
30.57 D
30.52 a
29.59 cd
29.79 bc
29.96A
R+Y
31.59 b
30.55 ef
30.50 f
30.88 C
30.40 a
29.81 bc
29.62 cd
29.95A
R+B+Y
31.56 b
31.24 c
30.89 d
31.23 A
30.31 ab
29.94 abc
29.16 de
29.80AB
Mean (Q)
31.60 A
30.68 B
30.54 B
30.38 A
29.55B
29.54B
Develop. stage
R
193.55 d
153.42 h
123.82 k
156.93 D
192.94 d
152.25 h
124.70 k
156.63 D
R+B
195.14 c
154.75 g
124.64 j
158.18 C
194.82 c
153.00 g
124.94 jk
157.59 C
R+Y
196.66 b
155.19 f
125.05 j
158.97 B
195.70 b
153.48 f
125.10 ij
158.09 B
R+B+Y
197.81 a
156.39 e
126.72 i
160.31 A
196.36 a
154.72 e
125.33 i
158.81A
Mean (Q)
195.79 A
154.94 B
125.06 C
194.96A
153.36 B
125.02 C
Med stage
R
131.17 b
105.49 c
77.84 e
104.83 B
130.47 d
104.93 h
84.88 l
106.76 D
R+B
134.22 a
107.17 c
84.49 d
108.62 A
132.13 c
105.27 g
85.27 k
107.56 C
R+Y
134.62 a
107.51 c
84.82 d
108.98 A
132.86 b
105.91 f
85.54 j
108.10 B
R+B+Y
135.42 a
107.98 c
86.83 d
110.07 A
133.78 a
107.22 e
85.78 i
108.93 A
Mean (Q)
133.86 A
107.04 B
83.49 C
132.31 A
105.83 B
85.37 C
Late stage
R
65.60 d
51.35 h
42.60 l
53.18 D
64.97 d
50.20 h
43.22 k
52.80 D
R+B
68.58 c
52.36 g
43.78 k
54.91 C
68.76 c
50.97 g
43.54 j
54.43 C
R+Y
69.66 b
52.70 f
44.26 j
55.54 B
69.56 b
51.69 f
43.68 j
54.99 B
R+B+Y
71.13 a
53.52 e
44.90 i
56.52 A
70.41 a
53.04 e
44.03 i
55.83 A
Mean (Q)
68.74 A
52.48 B
43.87 C
68.43 A
51.48 B
43.62 C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly different
according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability
503 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017

Table (5). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their
interaction treatments on total actual evapotranspiration,
ETa as mm/season and m3/fed. of fenugreek plants during
two seasons (2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean(F)
First season
Second season
ETa, mm/season
R*
426.50d**
339.39 g
268.85 j
344.91D
421.32 d
336.24 h
278.29 k
345.28D
R+B
435.37 c
344.43 f
278.06 i
352.62C
432.23 c
338.83 g
279.54 jk
350.20C
R+Y
439.53 b
345.96 f
280.62 i
355.37B
435.21 b
340.89 f
280.28 ij
352.12B
R+B+Y
443.92 a
349.13 e
285.34 h
359.46A
438.53 a
344.93 e
281.31 i
354.92A
Mean(Q)
436.33 A
344.72 B
278.22 C
431.82 A
340.22B
279.85 C
ETa, m3/fed.
R
1791.30d
1425.4 g
1129.20 j
1448.60D
1769.5 d
1412.2 h
1168.8 k
1450.2 D
R+B
1828.50 c
1446.60 f
1167.80 i
1481.00C
1815.4 c
1423.1 g
1174.1 jk
1470.8 C
R+Y
1846,00b
1453.00 f
1178.60 i
1492.60B
1827.9 b
1431.7f
1177.2 ij
1478.9 B
R+B+Y
1864.50 a
1466.30e
1198.40h
1509.80A
1841.8 a
1448.7 e
1181.5 i
1490.7 A
Mean (Q)
1832.60 A
1447.80B
1168.50C
1813.7 A
1428.9B
1175.4 C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly different
according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability
2.2. Water Use Efficiency (WUE)
The obtained data of water use efficiency in kg of seeds/m3 are
presented in Table (6). The data indicated that, the WUE by fenugreek
seeds and oil yield decreased with increasing irrigation water quantity
and/or with applying bio fertilizers. The highest values in this respect
observed from triple inoculation (R+B+Y) treatment. While, the
mentioned parameters increased as irrigation water depth decreased. The
highest values of water use efficiency by seeds were 0.72 kg/m3 at the
two studied seasons, which obtained by applying the triple inoculation of
bio-fertilization (R+B+Y) and irrigation by Q1 water depth (Q1RBY),
such treatment gave 1336.4 and 1325.7 kg seeds/ fed. at two seasons,
respectively. The same regard was noticed with oil yield.
From the previously mentioned results, it was found that, the best
treatment of bio-fertilization was mixed inoculation (R+B+Y) on all the
parameters. Therefore, the crop coefficient (Kc) of the fenugreek plants
was calculated under the interaction treatments between the different
water quantities (Q1, Q2 or Q3) and mixed inoculation (R+B+Y) as
outlined in Table (7).
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 504

Table (6). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their
interaction treatments on water use efficiency, WUE
(kg/m3) and water economy, WEc (kg/m3)of fenugreek
plants during two seasons (2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Seeds WEc, kg/m3
R*
0.35 i
0.36 i
0.43 d
0.38 D
0.34 j
0.35 ij
0.45 d
0.38 D
R+B
0.38gh
0.37 h
0.46 c
0.41 C
0.36 hi
0.36 hi
0.49 c
0.40 C
R+Y
0.42 e
0.39 g
0.50 b
0.43 B
0.37 fg
0.36 gh
0.50 b
0.41 B
R+B+Y
0.43 d
0.41 f
0.51 a
0.45 A
0.43 e
0.38 f
0.51 a
0.44 A
Mean (Q)
0.40 B
0.38 C
0.47 A
0.36 B
0.38 B
0.50 A
Seeds WUE, kg/m3
R
0.60 g
0.63 ef
0.62fg
0.62D
0.58f
0.62de
0.63d
0.61D
R+B
0.64 de
0.65 d
0.64de
0.64 C
0.61e
0.63d
0.68bc
0.64C
R+Y
0.70 b
0.67 c
0.68bc
0.68 B
0.63d
0.64d
0.69bc
0.65B
R+B+Y
0.72 a
0.70 b
0.68bc
0.70 A
0.72 a
0.66c
0.70b
0.70 A
Mean (Q)
0.67 A
0.66 A
0.66 A
0.64B
0.64 B
0.68 A
Oil WEc, kg/m3
R
0.029 f
0.026 h
0.023 j
0.026 D
0.028gh
0.027i
0.027i
0.027 D
R+B
0.038 c
0.027g
0.025 i
0.030 C
0.031c
0.028h
0.029g
0.030 C
R+Y
0.044 b
0.030 f
0.027 g
0.034 B
0.042b
0.029g
0.031f
0.034 B
R+B+Y
0.047 a
0.032e
0.035d
0.038 A
0.047 a
0.032e
0.033d
0.037 A
Mean (Q)
0.040 A
0.029 B
0.028 C
0.037A
0.030B
0.030B
Oil WUE, kg/m3
R
0.02h
0.05 f
0.08 d
0.5 C
0.04 h
0.07f
0.10 d
0.07C
R+B
0.02 h
0.05 f
0.10 c
0.06 B
0.04 h
0.07 f
0.11 c
0.07 C
R+Y
0.02 h
0.05 f
0.11 b
0.06 B
0.05g
0.07 f
0.12 b
0.08 B
R+B+Y
0.03 g
0.06 e
0.12 a
0.07 A
0.05g
0.08 e
0.13 a
0.09 A
Mean (Q)
0.02 C
0.05 B
0.10 A
0.04 C
0.07 B
0.12 A
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly different
according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability
Table (7). Effect of interaction treatments between different water
quantities and mixed inoculation on crop coefficient of
fenugreek plants during two seasons (2015 and 2016).
Treatments
ETo mm
ETa mm
Kc
Ini..*
Dev.
Med
Late
Ini..
Dev.
Med
Lat
Ini..
Dev.
Med
Lat
First season
Q1+RBY
46.02
204.21
125.53
86.76
31.60
195.76
133.86
65.60
0.69
0.96
1.07
0.76
Q2+RBY
46.02
163.54
100.42
69.41
30.68
154.94
107.04
51.35
0.67
0.95
1.07
0.74
Q3+RBY
46.02
122.53
75.32
52.06
30.54
125.06
83.49
42.60
0.66
1.02
1.11
0.82
Second season
Q1+RBY
46.02
204.21
125.53
86.76
30.35
194.96
132.31
68.43
0.66
0.95
1.05
0.79
Q2+RBY
46.02
163.54
100.42
69.41
29.55
153.36
105.83
51.48
0.57
0.94
1.05
0.74
Q3+RBY
46.02
122.53
75.32
52.06
29.54
125.02
83.37
43.62
0.64
1.02
1.11
0.84
*Ini,= Initial stage Dev.=Development stage Med= Med stage late= Late stage
Data in Table (7) indicated that, the values of Kc varied with growth
stage and applied irrigation water. Moreover, the values of Kc were
increased with increasing depth of added irrigation water and reached its
505 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017

maximum in med stage with (Q1RBY) treatment. This is due to the effect
of the quantity of irrigation water on soil moisture potential. Also, Kc
increased from a low value at the initial growth stage to a maximum
value during med stage of growth period, then it tended to decrease and
reached its minimum value at late growth stage. Thus, from Table (7) it
was found that, Q1(RBY) was the best treatment, and its recommended
to use crop coefficient (Kc) by values 0.68, 0.96, 1.06 and 0.7 for initial,
development, med. and late season, respectively
3. Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their interaction
treatments on microbial determinations of fenugreek plants
3.1.Total microbial counts
Presented data in Table (8) showed that, the changes in microbial
counts in rhizosphere for fenugreek in response to water quantity and
biofertilization treatments. The initial total microbial counts in soil before
cultivation were 86×105 cfu/g dry soil. Water quantity Q1 recorded the
highest total microbial counts compared to Q2 and Q3. Also, counts were
tended to decrease with decreasing the quantity of irrigation water.
Counts were tended to increase with different bio-fertilization treatments
either in single or mixed application. Regarding bio-fertilization
treatment B. megatherium in presence of R. melioliti recorded the highest
total microbial counts compared to adding yeast with R. melioliti. The
highest mean counts were associated with the triple application and Q1 of
water being 179 and 188 ×105cfu. /g dry soil at first and second season,
respectively.
3.2. Phosphate dissolving bacteria counts (PDB)
The initial Phosphate dissolving bacterial counts in soil before
cultivation were 17×103 cfu/g dry soil. PDB counts tended to decrease
with decreasing water quantities. Moreover, PDB counts increased in
treatment with Rhizobium (R)+B. megatherium (B) which, recorded
32×103cfu/gm dry soil compared to Rhizobium (R) + yeast (Y) which
showed 21×103cfu/gm dry soil and Rhizobium (R) 19 ×103cfu/gm dry
soil ,in 2nd season for example. Moreover, the combination treatment
between triple inoculation (R+B+Y) and Q1 gave the highest value of
PDB counts at the 1st and the 2nd seasons being 37 and 48×103cfu/g soil,
respectively.
3.3. Yeast counts
The initial counts of yeast in Baloza soil was 5.9 ×102cfu/ gm dry
soil. Data recorded in (Table 8) showed a marked increase in counts in
first and second season. Yeast counts tended to decrease with decreasing
water quantity, Q1 recorded highest mean value for yeast counts being 15
and 18.8 ×103cfu/gm dry soil at 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively.
Meanwhile, treatment of R+Y recorded greater value than treatment of
R+B. The counts of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under interaction
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 506

treatment between Q1 and mixed inoculation showed the highest counts
all over the experimental periods being 24 and 29×103cfu/gm dry soil at
first and second seasons, respectively.
Table (8). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their interaction
treatments on microbial determinations during two seasons
(2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Total microbial counts x 105cfu/gm dry soil
R *
129g**
122i
114 l
140 D
146g
143i
131L
122 D
R+B
145d
139e
120j
162 B
172d
165e
149j
135 B
R+Y
132f
127h
117k
149 C
159f
151h
138k
125 C
R+B+Y
179a
166b
151c
175 A
188a
174b
162c
165 A
Mean (Q)
146 A
138 B
125 C
166 A
158 B
145 C
PDB counts x 103cfu/gm dry soil
R
19f
15h
14i
16.0 D
23i
21j
16L
19 D
R+B
32b
28c
25d
28.3 B
39c
36e
31f
32 B
R+Y
21e
18g
13J
17.3 C
27g
23h
19k
21 C
R+B+Y
37a
32b
28c
32.3 A
48a
41b
37d
37 A
Mean (Q)
27 A
23 B
20 C
34 A
30 B
26 C
Yeast counts x 102cfu/gm dry soil
R
7 i
7J
6k
7 D
10 i
9 j
9 j
9 D
R+B
9 g
8h
6k
8 C
13 g
11h
10 i
11 C
R+Y
20 c
16e
11f
16 B
23 c
17e
15f
18 B
R+B+Y
24 a
21b
18d
21 A
29 a
24b
21d
26 A
Mean (Q)
15 A
13 B
10 C
19 A
16 B
14 C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly different
according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability
***Initial total microbial counts in soil before cultivation were 86×105 cfu/g dry soil, initial
Phosphate dissolving bacterial counts in soil before cultivation were 17×103 cfu/g dry soil and
initial yeast counts in soil before cultivation were 5.9×103 cfu/g dry soil
4. Effect of water quantity and bio-fertilization and their interaction
treatments on N, P and K soil content
Presented data in Table (9) showed that, the soil content of N, P
and K at two seasons as affected with three water quantities and four bio-
fertilization treatments, indicated that, the studied nutrients contents in
soil were significantly affected with all treatments. Bio-fertilization
treatments increased NPK content in soil, followed the order mixed bio-
fertilization treatment > R+B > R+Y > R. Water quantities affected
NPK content in soil, Q1 considered as the best followed by Q2 while, Q3
recorded least value for NPK contents in soil. Water quantity Q1 with
mixed bio-fertilization treatment gave highest concentration at the
studied two seasons (207, 21.9 and 311 ppm for N, P & K, respectively at
the 2nd season for example.)
507 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017

Table (9). Effect of water quantity, bio-fertilization and their
interaction treatments on some Macronutrients content
(ppm) in rhizosphere soil of fenugreek plants during two
seasons (2015 and 2016).
Water quantity
(Q)
Bio-
Fertilization
(F)
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Mean (F)
First season
Second season
Nitrogen content in soil (ppm)
R
179d
171h
165i
180 D
186f
180h
174j
171.7 D
R+B
181c
177e
172g
184.7 C
192d
185g
177i
176.7 C
R+Y
182c
179d
175f
191.3 B
198c
190e
186f
178.7 B
R+B+Y
193a
185b
182c
199.7 A
207a
201b
191d
186.7 A
Mean (Q)
183.75 A
178 B
173.5 C
195.75 A
189 B
182 C
Phosphor content in soil (ppm)
R
11.8h
11.6i
11.5 j
11.6 D
12.4i
12.1 k
11.6 L
12.0 D
R+B
14.2d
13.9e
12.7f
13.6 B
16.2d
15.7e
14.5f
15. 5 B
R+Y
12.1g
11.8h
11.5 j
11.8 C
13.5g
12.9h
12.3 j
12.9 C
R+B+Y
19.4a
18.2b
15.1c
17.6 A
21.9a
20.4b
18.6c
20.3 A
Mean (Q)
14.38 A
13.8 B
12.3 C
16.0 A
15.3 B
14.3 C
Potassium content in soil (ppm)
R
249.0 h
242.0 i
233.0l
241.3 D
255.0 h
247.0 i
238.0 k
246. 7 D
R+B
276.0 b
261.0 e
250.0 g
262.3B
284.0 c
263.0 f
243.0 j
263. 3 B
R+Y
253.0 f
249.0 j
234.0k
245. 3 C
266.0 e
259.0 g
238.0
254. 3 C
R+B+Y
291.0 a
274.0 c
268.0 d
277.7A
311.0 a
293.0 b
270.0 d
291. 3 A
Mean (Q)
267.3 A
256.5 B
246.3 C
269 A
265.0 B
247 C
*R=R.melioliti B=B.megatherium Y= S.cervisiae Q1=100%, Q2= 80% and Q3=60%
* *Means having the same letter (s) within the same column are not significantly different
according to LSD for all pairwise comparisons test at 5% level of probability
DISCUSSIONS
Irrigation is an important and effective factor on growth and
flowering traits, because it is associated with many environmental
factors, which influence plant growth and development. Availability of
sufficient amount of moisture optimizes the metabolic process in plant
cells and increases the effectiveness of the mineral nutrients (Saif et al.,
2003). The reduction in plant growth under conditions of low water
quantity level may be due to that water stress caused losses in tissue
water which reduced turgor pressure in the cell, thereby inhibit
enlargement and division of cells (Hsiao and Acevedo, 1974). The
decrease in enlargement and division of cells decrease leaf area and
hence the effective of photosynthetic surface (Jain and Misra, 1970).
Water stress caused an increase in ABA/cytokinin ratio, which in turn
decreases plant growth (Marschner, 1995). He also added that, under
sufficient water conditions there were decrease in ABA and increase in
cytokinin, GA and IAA reflecting good growth and dry matter content.
These results indicate the importance of water supply along plant life for
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 508

increasing plant growth. Our results of irrigation water quantity are in
harmony with those reported by(El-Boraie et al., 2009) on peanut,
(Abou El-Khair et al., 2011) on potato and (Sadak, 2016) on fenugreek,
which stated that, all recorded parameters under this study significantly
increased with increasing irrigation water quantity up to the highest level
and agree with those showed by(El-Boraie, 2006) on irrigation
frequency of some rapeseed varieties, who stated that the WUE by plants
decreased with increasing irrigation water quantity. Also, the presented
results agree with the findings of (Abd El-Ghany, 2012) who founded
that, the values of total consumptive use of water by sorghum plants were
increased as the amounts of irrigation increased. Water quantities greatly
influenced mineral content in soil. These results are in agreement with
those represented by (Ague and Palmer, 2007) and (Abd El-Gawad et
al., 2014). The maximum content obtained with highest quantity (Q1),
which could be attributed to the reduced soil moisture stress in the root
zone. On the other hand, values of crop coefficient (Kc) varied with
growth stage and applied irrigation water. Our results indicate that, Kc
increased with increasing depth of added irrigation water, this may be
due to the effect of the quantity of irrigation water on soil moisture
potential. The results are supported by (Amer et al., 1989); (Tayel et al.,
1990) and (Gaber and El-Dosouky, 1992).
Positive effects of bio-fertilizers on improving crop growth might
be due to increase in nitrogenase activity and synthesis of growth-
promoting substances by phosphate solubilizing (S) and N fixing
bacteria. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria play a strong role in
phosphorus nutrition by enhancing its availability to plants through
release from inorganic and organic soil P pools through solubilization
and mineralization processes (De et al., 2012). It is the reason why
adding bio-fertilizer to the soil increases plant height and other
characteristics of plant growth.
Nutrient augmentation of soils by nitrogen fixing symbiotic
bacteria present in legumes has been famous for centuries (Singh et al.,
2008). Biofertilizers have revealed great potential as additional,
renewable and environmental friendly sources of plant nutrients. These
encourage growth by increasing the availability of primary nutrients
and/or growth incentive to the target crop when applied to seed, plant
surfaces, or soil (Mishra and Dash, 2014). Rhizobium spp. are well
known group of microbes that acts as the major symbiotic fixer of
nitrogen. These bacteria infect the roots of leguminous plants, leading to
the formation of lumps or nodules where the nitrogen fixation takes
place. This symbiosis decreases the requirement for N fertilizers in the
course of growth of leguminous crops (Ali et al., 2012). Rhizobial
species stimulate plant growth either directly (nitrogen fixation,
509 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017

phosphate solubilization, iron chelation and phytohormone production)
or indirectly (destruction of plant pathogenic organisms, initiation of
resistance in host plants against plant pathogens and abiotic stresses), are
stated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Gopalakrishnan et al.,
2015). From the mentioned results before observed that, all growth
parameters, yield and its components were affected by application of bio-
fertilization treatments. The highest values in this respect obtained when
applied triple inoculation of bio-fertilizer. These results coincided with
those reported by (Hamad 2014; Mohammad et al., 2015 and Rabia et
al., 2016) on fenugreek plants. Also, (Sheteawi and Tawfik, 2007)
stated that, applying bio-fertilizer increased WUE where it enhanced
plant efficiency in absorbing water and nutrients from the soil. On the
other hand, mixed treatment followed by Rhizobia + PDB recorded
highest record for PDB counts in rhizosphere of fenugreek plant. These
results are in agreement with those obtained by (Ashrafuzzaman et al.,
2009) and (Abd El-Gawad et al., 2015), who reported that, inoculation
with the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria had stimulation effect on
the population of rhizosphere microorganisms by increasing their
numbers by more than 50% from the initial. Obtained data recorded
marked increase in yeast counts, the promoting effect due to application
of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was not only due to secretion of
different amino acids which increase organic soil nitrogen but also, to
produce plant growth promoting substances, organic acids, vitamins and
antimicrobial substances as well, which increase soil fertility, microbial
community and plant growth (Abd El- Gawad et al., 2014).
Mentioned data before indicated that, inoculation process increased
N, P and K contents. The slightly increase under rhizobia inoculation
(with all treatments) may be due to the N2 fixation by native
microorganisms. Inoculation with B.megatherium and S.cervisiae singly
or mixed with all water quantities cause highest N2 fixation compared
with control. Thus, B.megatherium and S.cervisiae enriched the soil by
phosphate solubilization and other different activities which increased
soil fertility. In the present investigation a mixed inoculation of
fenugreek by B.megatherium and S.cervisiae in presence of rhizobia
under each of water quantities enhanced the growth of fenugreek and
increased the soil fertility as reflected by soil nutrient contents.
Also, it can be recommended that addition of highest water
irrigation amount (Q1) with triple inoculation (RBY) is suitable for
increase the productivity of fenugreek plants, its chemical compassion
and stimulate microbial activity as well as its water consumptive ues and
water use efficiency under Baloza region conditions.
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 510

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123
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DRCQ1 Q2Q3Rhizobium melioliti (R
Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017 514

Bacillus megatherium (B) Saccharomyces cervisiae (Y)
(Eta) WUE
Q1
Q1
Kc

Q1RBY
515 Egypt. J. of Appl. Sci., 32 (12 B) 2017
Chapter
Full-text available
The calcareous soils cover a considerable portion of agricultural desert lands in Egypt, particularly in the north western coastal zone (NWCZ) and Sinai. The accumulation of carbonates in these soils is closely connected to soil genesis and formation. These soils can be defined as the soils which contain more than 14–17% total CaCO3 or more than 4–7% active CaCO3 in relation to the whole soil hydraulic properties. Some of these soils show the presence of caliche horizons. The particle size distribution of CaCO3 among the soil mechanical separates follows the textural class. These soils have variable texture sandy, loamy sand to sandy loam sandy, clay loam, silty clay loam and clay loam. The CaCO3 content varies from 10 to more than 83%. It is generally slightly and moderately to a strongly alkaline reaction where pH values of soil paste ranged from 7.4 to 9.2; organic matter content is generally low and mostly decreases with depth. Soil salinity is varies affected by agriculture system either rainfed or irrigated. In case of rainfed agriculture, it is non-saline to slightly saline, when supplemental irrigation with saline groundwater carried out the soil salinity reached to moderately saline. In case of irrigated agriculture with saline groundwater in some areas, the soil salinity reached to strongly saline. Cation exchange capacity of the soils depends on the clay percent and the CaCO3 percent in the clay and the range of 4.2 and 19.29 m.e./100 g soil. The average available soil moisture differ according to textural classes, and the value of sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sand clay loam, and clay loam is 5.8, 7.95, 11.9, 16.33, and 24.1% respectively. The surface crust is a marked property of calcareous soils. Field observations indicated that natural crusts were quite distinctive from the soil underneath. It was massive and easily separable from the underlying soil due to the presence of relatively very thin coarse textured layer in between crust thickness, under field conditions, it varied from about 0.2 to about 1.0 cm. Seedling emergence was found to be inversely related to crust strength as well as crust moisture content. The mineral compositions of calcareous vary according to the particles size. The presence of CaCO3 and high pH level results in unavailability of phosphate and affects directly or indirectly, availability of other nutrients. Soil texture, CaCO3, are the most important factors that correlate with the total available content of the nutrients. Good soil management makes a calcareous soil produce an abundance of high quantity and quality crop yields. Poor soil management makes it unproductive. Also the selection of suitable crop for this soil is essential and vital to obtain the optimum and sustainable productivity. Appropriate management of calcareous soils requires a combination of soil and water management practices in addition to other management practices such as crop management, control weeds, pests and plant diseases. The combinations of different management practices application significantly affected the yield of most crops.
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