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Keywords Abstract Learning; training; virtual laboratory; virtual reality. The use of computing technologies in human learning is rapidly growing and advancing in various fields of learning and training. Virtual reality (VR) is one of the growing computer techniques used in schools and training institutes to help improve students' learning experience, create an interactive environment and build students' confidence while working in a physical environment. The benefits of using virtual reality are yet to be fully explored in all fields of endeavour. Virtual reality has been applied in the field of medicine for rehabilitation of patients and in training of medical students. In addition, it has been used in operations management, manufacturing processes and design as well as in the aviation industry for the dissemination of safety information, and maintenance. VR holds great and promising prospects in education, tourism, entertainment, and architecture. Hence, this paper presents a review of the trends of applications of virtual reality technologies, its potentials and prospects for learning in various fields.
Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.3 No.2 (2020) 1
Virtual Reality as a tool for learning: The past, present and the prospect
Yewande M. AkinolaA
Keywords Abstract
virtual laboratory;
virtual reality.
The use of computing technologies in human learning is rapidly growing
and advancing in various elds of learning and training. Virtual reality
(VR) is one of the growing computer techniques used in schools and
training institutes to help improve students’ learning experience, create
an interactive environment and build students’ condence while working
in a physical environment. The benets of using virtual reality are yet to
be fully explored in all elds of endeavour. Virtual reality has been applied
in the eld of medicine for rehabilitation of patients and in training of
medical students. In addition, it has been used in operations management,
manufacturing processes and design as well as in the aviation industry
for the dissemination of safety information, and maintenance. VR holds
great and promising prospects in education, tourism, entertainment,
and architecture. Hence, this paper presents a review of the trends of
applications of virtual reality technologies, its potentials and prospects
for learning in various elds.
Article Info
Received 17 July 2020
Received in revised form 26 August 2020
Accepted 27 August 2020
Available online 27 August 2020
Content Available at :
Journal of Applied Learning
Vol.3 No.2 (2020)
ISSN : 2591-801X
ADepartment of Computer Science, The Federal University of Technology, Akure–Nigeria
Oluwatoyin C. AgbonifoB B Department of Information Systems, The Federal University of Technology, Akure–Nigeria
Oluwafemi A. SarumiCCDepartment of Computer Science, The Federal University of Technology, Akure–Nigeria
Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.3 No.2 (2020) 2
Virtual Reality (VR) refers to an immersive, interactive, multi-
sensory, viewer-centered, three-dimensional computer
generated environment that requires the combination of
technologies to build such environments (Mazuryk & Origin
of VR Technology.
According to Ellis (1994), the development of VR systems
can be traced to the developments of vehicle simulation.
The head-mounted periscope display was invented in 1916.
It was the rst of its kind to use a VR system. The head-
mounted periscope displays developed by Continental
Aviation and Engineering (CAE) are bre-optic helmet-
mounted displays which were designed to replace the bulky,
dome-projection ight simulators. The work in vehicle
simulation goes back to the work of Edwin Link in the late
1920’s (Ellis, 1994). In 1929, a simple and mechanical device
used as an instrument in ight training was developed for
the rst time which was termed a ight simulator (Baarspul,
1990). Furthermore, the Teleoperation technology was
developed next in the 1940’s with its system components
developed during the early 1960’s (Ellis, 1994). In the early
1950’s, cinematographer Morton Heilig developed the
multi-sensory simulator (Sensorama) with wind and scent
production, vibratory sensation and 3D display (Drummond
et al., 2014; Martirosov & Kopecek, 2017). Sensorama was
an early head-mounted display which uses 3D visual, audio,
haptic, olfactory stimuli to view 3D photographic slides, and
was used in the tracking of head orientation and in creating
an immersive experience (Mazuryk & Gervautz, 1996; Boas,
2013). Heilig also invented the Telesphere Mask that was
patented in 1960. The Telesphere Mask was the rst head
mounted device (HMD). The headset provided stereoscopic
3D and wide vision with stereo sound (Mazuryk & Gervautz,
1996). Two Philco Corporation engineers, Comeau and
Bryan developed the rst precursor to the HMD known
as Headsight in 1961. The Headsight is a helmet that has
a video screen for each eye, a magnetic motion tracking
system, cathode ray tube display and a tracking system to
identify head position (Boas, 2013).
Further work by Ivan Sutherland pioneered the personalised
graphics simulation which led to the rst synthetic computer-
generated display used in virtual environments. In 1963,
Ivan Sutherland developed a Sketchpad which was the rst
interactive computer graphics item. The sketchpad uses a
man-machine graphical communications system and a light
pen to perform selection and drawing interactions (Mazuryk
& Gervautz, 1996). In 1966, Thomas A. Furness III introduced
a visual ight simulator for the Air Force (Kumar, 2014). Ivan
Sutherland in 1968 advanced our knowledge in sketchpads
with the invention of the “Ultimate Display”. The Ultimate
Display was the rst computer-aided HMD with internal
sensors that tracked the user’s head movement (Mazuryk
& Gervautz, 1996; Dixon, 2006; Kumar, 2014). Furthermore,
Ivan Sutherland, developed a VR system in the form of a
hardware “The Sword of Damocles’’ in 1968. This VR system
hardware was hung on the ceiling because it was big in size
but had an appropriate head tracking system (Mazuryk &
Gervautz, 1996, Boas, 2013).
Scholars from the University of North Carolina (UNC) in
1971 were able to develop the rst prototype of a force-
feedback system called GROPE (Mazuryk & Gervautz, 1996).
In 1972, General Electric Corporation built a computerised
ight simulator which featured a 180-degree eld of vision
by using three screens surrounding the cockpit (Mazuryk
& Gervautz, 1996). Myron Krueger in 1975 invented an
Articial Reality system termed ‘’VIDEOPLACE’’ which is a
conceptual environment that had never been in existence.
In this system, the silhouettes of the user are captured by
the cameras and were projected on a large screen (Mazuryk
& Gervautz, 1996). Aspen Movie Map was created in 1977
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Aspen Movie
Map was a crude virtual simulation of Aspen in which users
could maneuvre the streets of Colorado. Also, in 1977 Tom
DeFanti and Daniel J. Sandin invented Wired Gloves which
worked with bre-optics and the rst one created were the
Sayre glove (Boas, 2013).
McDonnell-Douglas Corporation integrated VR into its HMD
(the VITAL helmet) for use in the military. A head tracker in
the HMD followed the pilot’s eye movements to match the
computer-generated images. An advanced ight simulator
was developed at the US Air Force’s Aerospace Medical
Research Laboratories (AFAMRL) by Thomas Furness. He
developed the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator
(VCASS) in 1982, visually coupled systems facilities for in
ight, simulated control of threat and weapon systems
(Mazuryk & Gervautz, 1996; Welch, 2009). Similarly, in 1984,
the Virtual Visual Environment Display was designed at the
NASA Ames, USA. This was a stereoscopic monochrome
HMD – an o-the-shelf technology at the time (Mazuryk
& Gervautz, 1996). The Virtual Programming Lab (VPL)
company founded by Jaron Lanier in 1983 fabricated the
rst commercially available VR devices popularly known as
DataGlove in 1984 and the Eyephone HMD in 1988 (Mazuryk
& Gervautz, 1996, Dixon, 2006). The DataGlove heavily
inuenced the manufacturing of other devices such as the
Power Glove by Mattel for the Nintendo Entertainment
System in the 1980’s (Boas, 2013). The VPL Company
together with Thomas Zimmerman in 1986 developed
wired gloves which enabled virtual objects to be grasped
and moved. In 1986, Frederick Brooks developed Grope-III
project which allowed a sense of touch within the VR using
motorised hand grips and magnets that controlled remote
robotic arms (Dixon, 2006). In 1989, a Binocular Omni-
Orientation Monitor (BOOM) was commercialised by Fake
Space Labs. BOOM is a small box containing two cathode-
ray tube (CRT) monitors that can be viewed through the eye
holes (Mazuryk & Gervautz, 1996).
In the second half of the 1980’s at the University of North
Carolina, an architectural walkthrough application was
developed, called the UNC Walkthrough project. Several
VR devices were constructed to improve the quality of this
system which includes: head mounted devices (HMDs),
optical trackers and the Pixel-Plane graphics engine
(Mazuryk & Gervautz, 1996). In the early 1990’s, Virtual Wind
Tunnel was developed at NASA, Ames, USA. This application
allows the observation and investigation of ow-elds with
the help of BOOM and DataGlove (Mazuryk & Gervautz,
1996). In 1991 Antonio Medina, an MIT graduate and NASA
scientist, designed Computer Simulated Teleoperation – a
Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.3 No.2 (2020) 3
VR system that allows the piloting of a Mars robot rover
from Earth taking into account the time delay (Kumar, 2014).
In 1992, Daniel Sandin and Thomas DiFanti developed CAVE
(cave automatic virtual environment) which is a scientic
visualisation system which uses immersive projection onto
three walls and the oor of a room, although stereoscopic
glasses are worn (Dixon, 2006). However, the users need
to put on stereoscopic glasses, use a wand mouse to
manipulate the environment and a head tracker to detect
the user’s changing spatial position in order to display a
realistically changing perspective (Mazuryk & Gervautz,
1996; Dixon, 2006).
The ImmersaDesk was developed in 1996. In July 1995,
Nintendo’s R&D1 group, spearheaded by famed Gumpei
Yokoi, launched the Nintendo Virtual Boy console which
played 3D monochrome video games. It was the rst and
only dedicated stereoscopic portable console to display 3D
graphics (Zachara & Zagal, 2009). In 1997, Georgia Tech and
Emory University collaborated to use VR for the treatment
of PTSD in war veterans (Rizzo et al., 2008) In 2007, Google
introduced Street-view which an alternative source of data
while it enhances online Maps service with street-level
360-degree pan images, video footage captured by cars
tted with custom camera equipment (Rundle et al., 2011).
Similarly, Google introduced a stereoscopic 3D mode for
street-view by Palmer Lucky in 2010 who presented the
rst prototype for Oculus Rift (Mykhailovska et al., 2019). In
2014, Sony announced Project Morpheus, a VR system which
leverages the PlayStation4’s (PS4) outstanding graphics
computing power (Markwalter, 2014). HTC released its HTC
VIVE SteamVR headset in 2016. The HTC Vive is designed
to turn a room into a 3D space which allows users to move
freely in a space (Egger et al., 2017) while in 2018, Facebook
F8 announced a new headset prototype called Half Dome
with a varifocal function (Mun et al., 2018).
Several advances have been made in the area of VR as
reported by Mazuryk and Gervautz, (1996); Potkonjak et
al. (2016). VR is now being used in a variety of ways, from
providing immersive gaming experiences, to helping treat
psychological disorders, to teaching new skills and even
taking terminally ill people on virtual journeys. VR has many
applications and with the rise in smartphone technology VR
will be even more accessible (Gervautz, 1996). VR is also a
technology, a communication interface and an environment
that provides interactive experience (Riva, 2003). The eld
of VR has grown enormously and the practical applications
of the VR technology has been reported in many elds
(Holden, 2005). This accounts for the rise in the use of VR
and its technology in various elds. Nowadays, research and
commercial VR systems are used for simulation and training,
industrial design, phobia therapy and other health-related
applications, surgical planning and assistance, artistic
applications, and in games (Welch, 2009).
The development of a VR system involves the collection
of technological hardware, including computers, head-
mounted displays, headphones, and motion-sensing
gloves (Steuer, 1992). VR provides a unique medium suited
to the achievement of several requirements for eective
rehabilitation intervention in medical treatment (Sveistrup,
2004). Virtual laboratories address the lack of laboratory
infrastructure in most high schools and community colleges,
especially in areas with low socio-economic status (Desai
et al., 2017). The application of VR as an aided learning
technology ranged from aviation training, military, industrial
machine operations and in medicine where surgeons can
be trained in surgical techniques through the VR systems
(Holden, 2005). Brown and Standen (2006) also reported
the potential of VR as an educational tool for those with
intellectual disabilities. It is thought that students are better
able to master, keep in mind, and generalise new knowledge
when actively involved in the creation of knowledge. This
idea is termed constructivism according to the philosophy
of pedagogy (Youngblut, 1998). Science is obviously
connected to technology cognitively and practically
(Babateen, 2011). In order to make simple, reduce risks,
minimise time of completion and cost of some experiments
in the educational sector and other sectors, professionals
have studied the integration of both information and
communication technology for a better learning experience
(Babateen, 2011).
Hence, VR is considered to be a new model of computer-
based learning that provides the individual learner with a
broader range of scientic vision (Chow & Andrews, 2007;
Babateen, 2011). Virtual environment displays interactive
head-referenced computer displays that give users the
illusion of displacement to another location. Virtual
environments potentially provide a new communication
medium for human-machine interaction (Ellis, 1994). The
VR environments allow users to interact with objects and
environments that ordinarily will not be possible. Virtual
environments are considered to be a perfect environment for
testing phenomena that may be too costly or too dangerous
in physical reality (Shudayfat & Moldoveanu, 2012).
In the physical environment, students can learn and
congure personal scientic knowledge in the laboratories.
Laboratory activities which are integral components of
science lessons enable students to build up their own
experience using real materials (Tatli & Ayas, 2010). An
alternative learning environment to physical laboratory
learning is the virtual laboratory system, which contributes
to the occurrence of meaningful learning (Bortnik et al.,
2017). The virtual laboratories open up a wide range of
experiments to audiences that would otherwise not be
made possible (Schmid, 2017). Virtual laboratories are used
in varied science programmes, especially to achieve a hands-
on practical experience (Lambropoulos, 2007). Multimedia
virtual laboratories are used to aid understanding of resource
material that could provide solutions as well as overcome
the restrictions associated with instrumentation devices in
a real lab (Zurweni et al., 2017). In this paper, we discuss
the benets of VR as an aided learning tool, for training,
and an alternative medium for human experience, its
applications, the technological advancement and potential
future applications.
Advantages and Disadvantages of VR Technology
in Learning Environments
With the rapid growth of VR and its application in various
elds, it is important to specify the advantages of VR
Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.3 No.2 (2020) 4
over the physical facilities while pointing out its potential
VR systems provide a cost-ecient way of passing
knowledge across in learning environments such as high
schools, universities and science laboratories and in a
variety of disciplines (Potkonjak et al., 2016), thus creating
avenues for cost-savings. VR aords the opportunity
for exibility in learning environments. The conduct of
laboratory experiments often requires hazardous reagents
and apparatuses that might not be easily accessible and
aordable, hence a virtual environment can easily be created
to overcome these challenges (Potkonjak et al., 2016). Multi-
modal Collaborative Virtual laboratories (MMCVL) are virtual
chemistry labs designed to address the problem of lack of
resources and safe use of expensive laboratory equipment
(Desai et al., 2017).
The amazing benet of VR systems is with exibility
attributes. Dierent virtual laboratory experiments involving
dierent components (virtual apparatus) can be easily
created (Potkonjak et al., 2016). VR labs can be used for
experiments that would normally require equipment that is
too expensive, complicated, unavailable and unsafe to use in
an experiment. The virtual environment can recreate a safe
teaching mode that bridges the gaps between traditional
laboratories and modern approaches to learning (Chen et
al., 2010; Bortnik et al., 2017). ChemCollective and Virtual
ChemLab are two examples of virtual laboratories used
by chemistry students, funded by the National Science
Foundation under the leadership of Dr David Yaron at
Carnegie Mellon University (Lerberg, 2008). VR labs also
present students’ the opportunity to repeat an experiment
multiple times, manipulate parameters and settings that
could inuence the outcome of an experiment (Chen et al.,
2010). Similarly, the VR systems enable students to receive
immediate feedback to correct a defective understanding
of concepts (Tatli & Ayas 2010; Chen et al., 2010; Bortnik et
al., 2017).
Virtual laboratories improve interaction between students
and instructors and support discussions between
participants in virtual environments. Scheucher et al. (2009)
designed a 3D Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment
(3D CVLE) for physics education in which students and
educators are able to work together in a collaborative way.
Virtual laboratories provide instruments for education that
are independent from place and time. It is able to carry
instruction from closed walls of a classroom to anywhere
with a computer and enables applications to become more
dynamic with simulations (Tatli & Ayas, 2010). Furthermore,
the VR simulators allow the embedding of performance
metrics in the learning software, thus enabling continuous
performance feedback (Thomsen et al., 2016). Cheng et al.
(2010) designed a collaborative virtual learning environment
for children within the autistic spectrum. The 3D empathy
system was developed by employing empathy rating
scale (ERS) to determine the understanding of empathic
behaviours of participants after intervention.
Despite the advantages of VR systems in learning
environments, they do have their setbacks. Some setbacks
of a virtual laboratory system include the requirement to
process the expected knowledge into a computer system
prior to use (Pearson & Kudzai, 2015). The VR can create
a specic student’s attitude such as lack of seriousness,
responsibility and carefulness (Potkonjak et al., 2016). At
the nal stage of training, there is the need to apply real
equipment, to be able to acquaint the learners with hands-
on practical experience (Potkonjak et al., 2016).
Application of VR in learning experience
The extended functionalities that a virtual environment
provides in research interest for distance learning has led
to the construction of a wide range of applications that
implement VR technology in order to sustain the learning
process in Educational Virtual Environments (Alexiou et al.,
2004). The VR technology is employed in various elds of
science, art and education. Due to the rapid development of
science and technology, VR technology has been diversied
according to the level of interaction and immersion (Ran &
Liu, 2013). The desktop VR system which is an interactive
non-immersive system is a low-cost VR system that uses
only the personal computers. It uses the computer screen
as a window for participant interaction, thereby serving as
the virtual environment (Ran & Liu, 2013). The distributed
VR system is another technology that could be maximally
applied in the educational eld. The distributed VR system is
a web-based VR environment which makes use of multiple
physical locations in multiple users through network
connections (Ran & Liu, 2013). In this system, the users
can share information, work as a team, thereby creating a
collaborative workstation and providing the opportunity
and necessary technical support for distance learning (Ran
& Liu, 2013). An example of a distributed VR environment for
learning is C-VISions. C-VISions is a research project, which
focuses on the application of a multi-user 3D environment for
educational purposes (Alexiou et al., 2004). Also, Agbonifo
et al. (2020) developed a desktop- VR-enabled chemistry
laboratory platform for students’ adaptive learning – to
enable students to learn the titration experiment in a virtual
laboratory environment before proceeding to the chemistry
wet lab.
Application of VR technology in diverse elds
The advancement in interactive and immersive technologies
had a noticeable impact on various styles of teaching and
learning (Abulrub et al., 2011). Likewise, diverse professions
have adapted and exploited the VR systems in the
advancement of their various elds (Reznek et al., 2002). One
area of VR application is in the architectural walkthrough
system through the VR visualisation tool (Mazuryk &
Gervautz, 1996). Though it might be impossible to exactly
foretell what the future of VR holds, a generalised opinion
can be reached on the future of VR systems by examining
some ongoing VR research (Guttentag, 2010). In the bit
to help students achieve their academic goals, dierent
Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.3 No.2 (2020) 5
models have been built to achieve learning. Way (2006)
presented a model termed Applied Computing Technology
Laboratory (ACT Lab) which was built on successful research
programs. The ACT Lab is structured for exibility, eciency
and a dynamic research program that expands the idea
of undergraduate students’ research activities. The virtual
laboratory is a web based platform where students can
get access to equipment, guidance or information and
that allows collaboration between faculty members and
helps create a learning interaction between the teacher and
students. Similarly, Belloum et al. (2003) developed a Grid-
based Virtual Laboratory Amsterdam (VLAM-G) for learning
purposes in applied sciences. The VLAM-G is a grid-based
virtual laboratory for remote experimental control and
collaborative Grid-based distributed analysis. The need for
virtual laboratories arise due to lack of training facilities.
Abulrub et al. (2011) demonstrated the use of a 3D interactive
VR visualisation system in preparing engineering graduates
for practical experience of real industrial environments.
The VR technology has been benecial in the training of
medical students (Abulrub et al., 2011). Rosenthal et al.
(2008) reported a high acceptance level of VR while training
medical students. The virtual laboratory has helped improve
students’ skills on laparoscopy and their performance in
the operating room. The various tasks performed with the
virtual laboratory include: the angled scope task, grasp-and-
clip task, intracorporeal knotting task and three-dimensional
environment task (Rosenthal et al., 2008). The simulation-
based training of surgical skills was meant to improve
operation performance using VR technology (Thomsen et
al., 2016). Prociency levels have been proven to be among
the most eective ways to train in technical skills. One of the
numerous benets of VR application can be found in the
health sector or training of students in surgical operations
such as training in phlebotomy and treatment of patients
for disorders (Wandell, 2010; Carl et al., 2018). An obvious
advantage of learning medical procedures by simulated
practice is that there is no risk to the lives of patients in the
event of a mistake (Wandell, 2010). The EyeSi simulator is
a VR simulator used in ophthalmic and cataract surgery. It
has an established measure of performance and evidence-
based prociency level (Thomsen et al., 2016). Wandell,
(2010) also looked at the eectiveness of VR simulators
in phlebotomy. The virtual IV system which is the VR
simulation device designed to train students in intravenous
uid line insertion, contains a virtual phlebotomy training.
Furthermore, McLay et al. (2010) investigated the benecial
eect of VR technology-aided training for the treatment of
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients.
VR technology oers a unique opportunity to disseminate
exposure therapy (ET) which is a modality for treatment (Carl
et al., 2018). McLay et al. (2010) reported the survey of using
VR Exposure Therapy (VRET) and the traditional Exposure
Therapy (ET), the report showed that all the patients in
both groups improved considerably well with an average
of 67% and 50% respectively. Carl et al. (2018) investigated
the acceptability of the VRET and traditional ET technology
in medicine, and showed that 76% of respondents opt for
VRET over traditional ET for treatment, while 81 – 89% of
college students preferred VRET over traditional ET. Carl
et al. (2018) also reported the success of VRET in treating
specic phobias, such as: fear of ying (aerophobia), fear of
heights (acrophobia) and fear of animals (zoophobia).
The VR machinery and software consist of J&J Engineering
biofeedback systems which have the ability to substitute
the portable biofeedback units (StressErasers). The VRET
function in such a way that the client computer provided
3D images through a head-mounted display (HMD) and a
joystick controller to allow the client to move and interact
with the stimulated world (McLay et al., 2010). Guttentag
(2010), investigated the application of VR technology to
tourism and its implication. The VR technology was applied
in the aviation industry for eective transfer of safety
knowledge to passengers on board an airline. This has been
successfully disseminated through mobile VR on personal
electronic devices (PEDs) such as smartphones and tablets
of most passengers on-board (Chittaro et al., 2018). The
interactive content of the VR technology was sent alongside
with electronic tickets or boarding passes to passengers
through their smartphones. Chittaro et al. (2018) explored the
possible eectiveness of VR approach in making interactive
safety briengs. The mobile VR application referred to as
app was developed using Unity 4.5 game engine and C#
programming language which shows a full 3D aircraft cabin
environment (Chittaro et al., 2018).
Virtual manufacturing is dened as a computer system
which is capable of generating information about the
structure, status, and behaviour of a manufacturing system
as can be observed in a real manufacturing environment
(Mujber et al., 2004). VR in manufacturing is applied in
design, prototyping, machining, assembly, inspection,
planning, training and simulation (Mujber et al., 2004).
The VR provides designers with a virtual environment at
the concept design stage in the design of a product. The
virtual prototyping is used in designing before the physical
prototype is used to prove the design, alternatives, to do
engineering analysis, manufacturing planning, support
management decisions, and to get feedback on a new
product from prospective customers (Mujber et al., 2004).
Hadi et al., (2011) demonstrate the use of a 3D interactive
VR visualisation system in preparing engineering graduates
for practical experience of real industrial environments.
Balogun et al. (2010) explored virtual tourism by designing
a 3D Geo-spatial VR system for tourist centres and historical
heritage to help manage and promote tourism thereby
increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country.
Dixon (2006) surveys the history of various VR technologies
used in the eld of theatrical and performance arts. Some
of the VR technologies are Placeholder, Osmose, Virtual
Bodies, VR scenography in real time, ieVR’s Mechanical
and Blast Theory’s Desert Rain. Placeholder premiered in
1993 is the much-celebrated project by Brenda Laurel and
Rachel Strickland that opened up potential for virtual ight.
Osmose (1994-1995), created by Char Davies, reported the
VR system as a revolutionary fully embodied immersion
technology which uses sophisticated data-suits to sense
living immersive experience. Virtual Bodies: Dancing with
the aid of Virtual Dervish (1994) was developed by Yacov
Sharir and Diane Gromala, it is a visual body programmed
in a continuous motion and undulates as if breathing like
a living body. The Institute for the Exploration of VR used
Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching Vol.3 No.2 (2020) 6
VR tools to recreate and remediate theatre history. Also,
VR technology is used as a prime scenographic medium
to achieve a sense of immersion. Machinal (1999) used
the staging conguration of ieVR’s rst production to
pre-record moving 3D imagery of landscapes, objects and
hyper-realistic machinery. Finally, Blast Theory’s Desert
Rain (1999) is the closest to VR performance event due to
its aesthetic form which render it the most innovative and
futuristic utilisation of performance VR.
Prospect of VR
The VR technology is invariably advancing with an
increasing development of more systems to help improve
human experiences. Studies are ongoing by researchers on
six degrees of freedom (6DoF) positions and orientation-
aware computer interfaces to support access to embedded
information attached to the physical world all around us
(Welch, 2009). The benet will be employed in laboratories,
the hallway, parks, city sidewalks and individuals will in the
future see, hear, and interact with information that exists as
an essential part of their immediate physical environment
(Welch, 2009). With this advancement, the medical eld will
also be a benefactor of its numerous benets, as doctors
could be able to remotely treat patients through an image
like a surrogate (medical avatar). The VR technology holds an
advantage to therapists to be able to provide a wide range
of controlled stimuli and monitor responses to treatment
by patients. Workers and technicians can be directed on
assembling and maintenance through VR technology. The
blind can be given gaze-directed aural sight, and deaf
people visual hearing through VR technology (Riva, 2003;
Welch, 2009). Information and associated databases will be
structured by physical location and time, enabling users to
both store and retrieve past, present, and future information
in the framework of physical locality and direction of gaze
(Welch, 2009). In the education sector, visual education
can include synchronous face-to-face interaction, group
interaction, voice communication, examination of 3D
models, projection of visual information in a PowerPoint
window (Messinger et al., 2009). Also according to Dixon
(2006), the potential of VR technology can be used for
dance engagement in theatre and arts. In the teaching of
history in school VR tools can help provide avenues for
reconceptualisation of the past with some energy and
excitement in the eld (Allison, 2008).
VR technology will continue to have a benecial role in
various elds of study and training. In general, the review
of current applications shows that VR can be considered a
useful tool for diagnosis, therapy, education and training
however, several barriers still remain. The PC-based systems,
while being inexpensive and easy-to-use, still suer from a
lack of exibility (Riva, 2003). It is obvious that VR can be
used as an alternative in learning activities and proering
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aid the eective dissemination of information to passengers
on-board in air transit. It also gives condence to students
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Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.
Trials of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety-related disorders have proliferated in number and diversity since our previous meta-analysis that examined 13 total trials, most of which were for specific phobias (Powers & Emmelkamp, 2008). Since then, new trials have compared VRET to more diverse anxiety and related disorders including social anxiety disorder (SAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. With the availability of this data, it is imperative to re-examine the efficacy of VRET for anxiety. A literature search for randomized controlled trials of VRET versus control or in vivo exposure yielded 30 studies with 1057 participants. Fourteen studies tested VRET for specific phobias, 8 for SAD or performance anxiety, 5 for PTSD, and 3 for PD. A random effects analysis estimated a large effect size for VRET versus waitlist (g = 0.90) and a medium to large effect size for VRET versus psychological placebo conditions (g = 0.78). A comparison of VRET and in vivo conditions did not show significantly different effect sizes (g = -0.07). These findings were relatively consistent across disorders. A meta-regression analysis revealed that larger sample sizes were associated with lower effect sizes in VRET versus control comparisons (β = -0.007, p < 0.05). These results indicate that VRET is an effective and equal medium for exposure therapy.
Purpose To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. Design Multicenter masked clinical trial. Participants Eighteen cataract surgeons with different levels of experience. Methods Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. Main Outcome Measures Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. Results Novices (non–independently operating surgeons) and surgeons having performed fewer than 75 independent cataract surgeries showed significant improvements in the OR—32% and 38%, respectively—after virtual reality training (P = 0.008 and P = 0.018). More experienced cataract surgeons did not benefit from simulator training. The reliability of the assessments was high with a generalizability coefficient of 0.92 and 0.86 before and after the virtual reality training, respectively. Conclusions Clinically relevant cataract surgical skills can be improved by proficiency-based training on a virtual reality simulator. Novices as well as surgeons with an intermediate level of experience showed improvement in OR performance score.
Étienne-gaspard robert, robertson, as he was known in Paris, perfected the "phantasmagoria" ghostly show in 1798 with an early form of the slide projector called a magic lantern, rear projection, and, literally, smoke and mirrors. We have never ended our quest to create entertainment illusions that mimic reality. Within the next three years, technology advancements will come together that will result in entertainment experiences so vivid and immersive that movies and games will completely engulf our senses. Here's what's in store.