ArticlePDF Available

The Health Effects of the Fifth Generation (5G) of Cellular Mobile Communications

Authors:

Abstract

The fifth-generation (5G) of cellular mobile communications network will support revolutionary services ranging from autonomous transportation systems, smart grid, connected devices, smart manufacturing, autonomous vehicles, telesurgery, and many more. However, these advancements are limited by the public fear of the safety of 5G and a lot of controversies between the researchers, regulatory agencies, and governments. This work surveyed the ongoing debate about the safety of the network by evaluating the safety of 5G enabling technologies and their applications. We suggest that it is not a good idea to use higher frequencies to support the 5G network without enough evidence of their safety. Instead, technologies like cognitive radio and non-orthogonal multiple access can be used to increase the capacity and spectral efficiencies of the existing lower frequencies to support 5G. We also suggest the adoption of some health tips to lessen the effects of the lower doses of the daily exposures to non-ionizing radiation.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS)Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
107
The Health Effects of the Fifth Generation (5G) of Cellular
Mobile Communications
Buhari Shehu, Yusuf Mubarak, and Mohammed Mustapha
Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria
bshehu14@nubapoly.edu.ng
Abstract
The fifth-generation (5G) of cellular mobile communications network will support revolutionary services ranging from
autonomous transportation systems, smart grid, connected devices, smart manufacturing, autonomous vehicles, telesurgery,
and many more. However, these advancements are limited by the public fear of the safety of 5G and a lot of controversies
between the researchers, regulatory agencies, and governments. This work surveyed the ongoing debate about the safety of
the network by evaluating the safety of 5G enabling technologies and their applications. We suggest that it is not a good
idea to use higher frequencies to support the 5G network without enough evidence of their safety. Instead, technologies like
cognitive radio and non-orthogonal multiple access can be used to increase the capacity and spectral efficiencies of the
existing lower frequencies to support 5G. We also suggest the adoption of some health tips to lessen the effects of the lower
doses of the daily exposures to non-ionizing radiation.
Keywords: 5G, mmWave, Specific absorption rate (SAR), massive MIMO, Network densification, beamforming
1. Introduction
Wireless communications happen when a source creates a message which is modulated by a transmitter and radiated by an
antenna over a wireless medium: the transmitted message by the medium is received by a receiving antenna and
demodulated by a receiver to make out meaning from the transmitted signal. The signal radiated by the antenna is conveyed
by electromagnetic waves which can be characterized by wavelength and frequency.
Wireless communications technologies are classified based on their area of coverage. Thus, we have Wireless Personal
Local Area Network (WPAN), like Bluetooth, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) like Wi-Fi, Wireless Metropolitan
Area Network (WMAN) like cellular mobile communications, and Wireless Regional Local Area Network (WRAN) like
the satellite communications [1].
Cellular mobile networks have been undergoing revolutions and evolutions from the First Generation (1G) which only
supported analog voice communications to Fourth Generation (4G) Long Term Evolution LTE which supports digital
multimedia communications. The 5G mobile network revolution is enabled by technologies which include: small cells,
massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (massive MIMO), millimeter wave (mmWave), cognitive radio, heterogeneous
networks (HetNets), network slicing, network densification, and much more [2].
The Fifth Generation (5G) of cellular mobile communications network will bring forth diverse technological advancements.
This radical revolution will shift cellular mobile communications from supporting only man-machine communications to
include machine-machine communications [3]. These diverse services include autonomous transportation systems, smart
grid, connected devices, smart manufacturing, autonomous vehicles, telesurgery, and many more [4].
The rising public fears and concerns, which climaxed with the speculation that 5G is responsible for the outbreak of
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and the enormous controversies amongst the researchers, 5G vendors, and
governments concerning the safety of 5G network, calls for critical evaluations and further investigations about the public
safety of this revolutionary technology before its full deployment.
This work aimed at surveying the ongoing discussion about the safety of the network, evaluating the evidence about the
safety of the 5G enabling technologies, and suggesting future research directions.
2. Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiations
Based on the frequency of the radiation, electromagnetic waves can be divided into ionizing and non-ionizing radiations
(World Health Organization, 2020). Ionizing radiations (like gamma rays and x-rays) are high-frequency radiations with
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS)Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
108
high energy that can ionize atoms they come in contact with. If this radiation interacts with human cells, it can harm human
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and can cause denaturation of proteins [6]. On the other hand, non-ionizing radiations (like
radio frequency and microwave) are the lower frequency and low energy radiations that do not ionize atoms but rather
transmit energy to them which can manifest in the form of thermal agitations of the atoms thereby, raising their
temperatures [6]. The non-ionizing radiation is the part of electromagnetic spectrum that is used for wireless
communications.
There are a lot of debates concerning the safety of non-ionizing radiations used for wireless communications. On one hand,
governments and regulatory agencies like the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), United States
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), etc. are of the opinion that wireless communications are safe [7]. Similarly,
other researchers affiliated or sponsored by telecommunication vendors concluded that these radiations are safe. For
instance, [8] concluded that there was no correlation between Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and acoustic neuroma. The
studies of [9] also hinted that exposure to mobile phone radiations doesn’t lead to genotoxicity and chromosomal
instability. Also [7] claimed that higher frequencies are safer due to skin shielding effects. However, it might be interesting
to note here that ionizing radiations are all higher frequency waves and they are very dangerous to the skin and human
tissue [10] as such electromagnetic penetration shouldn’t be the sole parameter in evaluating the safety of radiations.
On the other hand, International Agency for Research on Cancer, (2011) [11] indicated the possibility of radio frequency
electromagnetic waves being carcinogenic. A. Karimi et.al. (2020) [12] extensively reviewed a good number of recent
literature concluded that depending on intensity and length of exposure, there is a correlation between ELF-EMF and
childhood cancer incidence, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and miscarriage. Although, there are not enough proofs to establish
the same with adult cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Hao, Zhao, & Peng, (2015) [13] also pointed out that the health
effects of microwave radiations do not only depend on energy but also on the duration and frequency of the wave.
Similarly, Kivrak et al., (2017) hinted about the damaging effects of heating effects of non-ionizing radiation one of which
is the carcinogenic effects on the brain and immune system impairments, oxidative stress due to free radicals formation, and
oxidative tissue damage. According to them, these effects are accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, and
hypertension and they concluded that electromagnetic fields (EMF) have harmful effects on the hippocampus and
cerebellum.
Kostoff, et. al., (2020) [15] cautioned that the safety of 4G and 5G was not established in realistic environments before
deployment. They pointed out that the detrimental effects of non-ionizing radiations might be underreported since
parameters such as message signals and other toxic stimulus that might be present in humans are not considered in the
majority of the laboratory studies. From their extensive literature reviews, they portrayed the correlation between these
radiations and carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, neurodegenerative diseases, neurobehavioral problems, and
many more adverse health effects. They finally called for more realistic epidemiological studies that will consider all the
important parameters usually omitted in the laboratory studies.
From the foregoing discussions, we can say that majority of vendors, governments, and regulatory agencies are of the
opinion that non-ionizing radiations are safe in a small dose. Whereas, most of the independent researchers are of the
opinion that the duration of radiation exposure is also a factor to reckon with when discussing the safety of the radiation. It
could also be inferred that the danger of electromagnetic radiation increases with frequency. This points out that 5G may
have more adverse health effects than the previous generations since it will use higher mmWave frequencies. There is also
a need for more epidemiological researches to identify the actual safety of these radiations.
3. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
In recognition of the harmfulness of non-ionizing radiations at a higher intensity, regulatory bodies, like FCC and
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), use specific absorption rate (SAR) of radio
frequency (RF) radiations to prescribe safer thresholds of radiations. SAR refers to the rate of radio frequency (RF) energy
absorption per unit mass of human body tissue and its unit is watt/kilogram (W/kg) [16].
The threshold for the whole body SAR is based on 4 watts per kilogram (4 W/kg). According to FCC, SAR threshold is 1.6
watts per kilogram (W/kg), per one gram of tissue [17]. Whereas, ICNIRP SAR limit is 2 watts per kilogram (W/kg) per 10
grams of tissue. These two thresholds are the major thresholds adopted by other regulating bodies worldwide.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS)Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
109
FCC’s SAR is based on radiation between 300 kHz and 100 GH. It was noted by FCC that most of the body absorption
occurred at the frequency range of 30-300 MHz [18] as such they provide the SAR of this range of frequencies. It was also
noted that for devices operating at frequencies higher than 6 GHz, SAR is an ineffective parameter in determining the
safety of the radiations. A better parameter called power density, measured in milliwatts per centimeter square (mW/cmP
2
P),
is therefore used. It is imperative to note that 5G will use mmWaves which range up to 300 GHz thus, these regulations are
insufficient to ascertain the safety of 5G using mmWaves technology.
4. 5G Technologies
5G will support three use cases, namely: ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC), enhanced mobile broadband
(eMBB), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC) [19]. These use cases have more stringent requirements like
extreme low latency, very high reliability, energy efficiency, high data rates, etc [20]. These requirements are more than
what is obtainable with the current 4G network. To meet these requirements technologies like mmWave, hetnets, small
cells, MIMO, beamforming, etc. are employed [21]. In this section, we briefly introduce these technologies and evaluate
their health effects.
4.1 MmWave
This is electromagnetic radiation within the range of 30-300GHz [22]. MmWave will be used to cater for higher bandwidth
need of 5G which is proportional to data rate. This is because the RF wave is nominally occupied. However, the use of
mmWave can be detrimental to health since considering the fact that ionizing radiations are very high-frequency waves, we
can say that the danger of radiation increases with frequencies. Moreover, SAR is ineffective in determining the safety of
mmWave and power density was only specified for frequencies up to 100 GHz by FCC which is less than the range of
frequencies of mmWave. One solution to this problem is cognitive radio. This based on the fact that most of the purported
scarce frequencies are actually scarce due to the static allocation of bandwidths by regulatory bodies. Similarly, non-
orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) can be deployed since it provides better spectral efficiency than orthogonal multiple
access (OMA) at the expense of tolerating a percentage of interference. It is better we maximize spectral utilization at lower
frequencies than to exploit the higher ones since they are more detrimental to our health.
4.2 Network densification
Network densification is the introduction of smaller cells, namely: picocells, femtocells, microcells within the radius of a
macrocell to improve spectral efficiency, throughput, and connectivity by increasing frequency reuse [22]. The forgoing
overlap of networks is called a heterogeneous network (HetNet). Massive MIMO involves the use of many antennas per
transceiver system, especially the base station. The antenna array focuses energy using a technology known as
beamforming and can be used along with network densification to achieve spectrum efficiency and enhanced data rates
[23]. Although beamforming will not permeate the space with omni-directional radiations, the concentration of radiation
energy on the transceiver of the intended user means more energy is exposed to the user and can be more detrimental to his
health.
However, these improvements in desirable quality of service promised by mmWave, network densification and massive
MIMO come at the expense of increased power consumption by the 5G base stations [24]. A 5G macro base station can
consume three or more times the power consumption of a base station supporting a combination of 1G-4G networks [25].
This is not to mention the energy consumption of the low powered small cell base stations in the HetNet.
It might be interesting to note that 5G applications like autonomous driving, intelligent transport system, home automation,
teleconferencing, etc. could reduce energy consumption by improving the energy efficiency of systems and reducing the
need for transportation. These applications might also trigger some sort of increase in energy consumption since they are
more convenient than consuming fossil fuels.
According to [26] about 65% percent of world electricity generated in 2017 was powered by fossil fuels. This implies that
5G will either increase air pollution and global warming if its power consumption is more than the power savings from its
applications or decrease air pollution and global warming if its power consumption is less than the power savings from its
applications. Thus 5G can either be detrimental to our health or enhancer of our health depending on its net energy
consumption. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to ascertain the actual energy savings or otherwise that 5G will
bring to our society.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS)Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
110
5. 5G Applications
Some of the services which 5G will support like home automation, telecommuting, virtual and augmented realities, drone
deliveries, etc. will encourage a sedentary lifestyle which can cause overweight and obesity. And according to [27]
overweight and obesity can cause diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and some types of cancer. A sedentary
lifestyle is also associated with vitamin D deficiency [28]. Vitamin D reduces the risk of osteoporosis, autoimmune disease,
cancer, and hypertension [29].
Other applications like the Internet of Things (IoT) which is a network of low powered devices (mostly battery-powered)
can increase environmental pollution especially when their dead batteries are not properly disposed of.
6. Conclusions and Recommendations
5G will transform our way of living but at the expense of potential health risks such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases,
Alzheimer’s disease, hypertension, etc. We can conclude that the higher frequencies that 5G will use are most likely to be
more detrimental to our health compared to lower frequencies as such we recommend the use of lower frequencies to
support 5G. Cognitive radio can be exploited to detect and use white spaces for data transmissions of unused allocated
frequencies by the regulatory bodies. The regulatory bodies can consider changing from the current static to dynamic
spectrum allocation. NOMA can also be used to enhance the spectral efficiency of the lower frequencies. There is a need
for further epidemiological research and standardization to ascertain the safety of mmWaves before using it to support
communications. For instance, we need a comparison between the energy consumption of 5G and the energy savings by 5G
applications.
Since RF radiations can be harmful, the following measures should be adopted in minimizing RF exposure: avoiding long
calls or make hands-free calls, turning on flight mode when the networks of the devices are not in use, regulatory bodies
should regularly check for adherence to the maximum SAR by the network equipment vendors and network providers.
Other health tips to lessen the effects of our daily exposure to small doses of radiations include regular exercise, eating food
rich in vitamin C which can boost immunity and vitamin D which can prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension etc. and taking
dietary antioxidants like foods rich in vitamin E and C to relief oxidative stress.
References
[1] B. Cory and W. Stallings, Wireless Communication Networks and Sytems. Pearson, 2015.
[2] P. Jyrki T. J., 5G Explained Security and Deployment of Advanced Mobile Communications. John Wiley & Sons
Ltd, 2019.
[3] Y. Wu, X. Gao, and S. Zhou, “Massive Access for Future Wireless Communication Systems,” IEEE Wirel.
Commun., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 148156, 2020.
[4] R. Barbosa, I. Klaus, and P. Elgaard, “Power Control Optimization for Uplink Grant-Free,” IEEE Wirel. Commun.
Netw. Conf., 2018.
[5] World Health Organization, “What is Ionizing Radiation.” [Online]. Available:
https://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/about/what_is_ir/en/. [Accessed: 22-Aug-2020].
[6] P. Sowa, K. Rutkowski, and R. Rutkowski, “Ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in modern
medicine,” Polish An. Med., no. August, 2012.
[7] L. David, “Debunking 5G health concerns Telecoms,” Telecoms.com, 2020. [Online]. Available:
https://telecoms.com/opinion/debunking-5g-health-concerns/. [Accessed: 30-Aug-2020].
[8] M. Carlberg, T. Koppel, M. Ahonen, and L. Hardell, “Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely
low-frequency electromagnetic fields and the association with acoustic neuroma,” Environ. Res., vol. 187, p.
109621, 2020.
[9] H. Hintzsche and H. Stopper, “Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.,” Toxicol.
Lett., vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 124130, Mar. 2010.
[10] M. A R and M. S M J, “5G Technology: Why Should We Expect a shift from RF-Induced Brain Cancers to Skin
Cancers?,” Journal of biomedical physics & engineering, vol. 9, no. 5. pp. 505506, Oct-2019.
[11] IARC, “IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans,” World Heal.
Organ., vol. 2008, no. May, pp. 16, 2011.
[12] A. Karimi, F. Ghadiri Moghaddam, and M. Valipour, “Insights in the biology of extremely low-frequency magnetic
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS)Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
111
fields exposure on human health,” Mol. Biol. Rep., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 56215633, 2020.
[13] Y.-H. Hao, L. Zhao, and R.-Y. Peng, “Effects of microwave radiation on brain energy metabolism and related
mechanisms,” Mil. Med. Res., vol. 2, no. 1, p. 4, 2015.
[14] E. G. Kivrak, B. Z. Altunkaynak, I. Alkan, K. K. Yurt, A. Kocaman, and M. E. Onger, “Effects of 900-MHz
radiation on the hippocampus and cerebellum of adult rats and attenuation of such effects by folic acid and
Boswellia sacra,” J. Microsc. Ultrastruct., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 216224, 2017.
[15] R. N. Kostoff, P. Heroux, M. Aschner, and A. Tsatsakis, “Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking
technology under real-life conditions,” Toxicol. Lett., vol. 323, pp. 35–40, 2020.
[16] L.Vallozzi, C.Hertleer, and H.Rogier, “Front Matter,” in Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles, V. B. T.-S. T. and
their A. Koncar, Ed. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing, 2016, p. iv.
[17] Federal Communications Commission, “Wireless Devices and Health Concerns,” 2019. [Online]. Available:
https://www.fcc.gov/consumers/guides/wireless-devices-and-health-concerns.
[18] C. J. Robert F., D. M. Sylvar, and J. L. Ulcek, “Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human exposure to
radiofrequency electromagnetic fields,” FCC OET Bull. 65, Ed. 97-01, no. August, pp. 179, 1997.
[19] P. Popovski, K. F. Trillingsgaard, O. Simeone, and D. Giuseppe, “5G Wireless Network Slicing for eMBB ,
URLLC , and mMTC : A Communication-Theoretic View,” IEEE, 2018.
[20] H. Tullberg et al., “The METIS 5G System Concept: Meeting the 5G Requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.
54, no. 12, pp. 132139, 2016.
[21] T. E. Bogale and L. B. Le, “Massive MIMO and mmWave for 5G Wireless HetNet: Potential Benefits and
Challenges,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 6475, 2016.
[22] D. Muirhead, M. A. Imran, and K. Arshad, “A Survey of the Challenges, Opportunities and Use of Multiple
Antennas in Current and Future 5G Small Cell Base Stations,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 29522964, 2016.
[23] A. Mchangama, P. G. Jim´enez, and C. Angelo, “MmWave massive MIMO small cells for 5G and beyond mobile
networks : An overview,” 12th IEEE/IET Int. Symp. Commun. Syst. Networks Digit. Signal Process., vol. 2020, no.
July, pp. 2022, 2020.
[24] C.-L. I, S. Han, and S. Bian, “Energy-efficient 5G for a greener future,Nat. Electron., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 182184,
2020.
[25] L. Hardesty, “5G base stations use a lot more energy than 4G base stations,” Fierce Wireless, 2020. [Online].
Available: https://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/5g-base-stations-use-a-lot-more-energy-than-4g-base-stations-says-
mtn.
[26] World Nuclear Association, “Where does our electricity come from?,” 2020. [Online]. Available:
https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/where-does-our-electricity-come-from.aspx. [Accessed: 02-Sep-
2020].
[27] World Health Organization, “Obesity and Overweight,” World Health Organization, 2020. [Online]. Available:
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
[28] B. Thuesen et al., “Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults,” Bone, vol. 50, no. 3,
pp. 605610, 2012.
[29] H. A. Kim et al., “Vitamin D Deficiency and the Risk of Cerebrovascular Disease,” Antioxidants, vol. 9, no. 4,
2020.
Buhari Shehu: Buhari Shehu studied Electrical Engineering at Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria where he obtained
a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electrical Engineering in the year 2012 and he is currently studying for a Master’s
degree in Telecommunications Engineering with a specialization in wireless communications from the same Ahmadu Bello
Univerity Zaria, Nigeria. He currently lectures at the Department of Computer Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic
Zaria since 2014. He presented four conference articles and has published two articles. He has also attended several
technical workshops and training. His research interests are wireless mobile communications and channel coding.
Yusuf Mubarak: Yusuf Mubarak graduated with B.Eng. Electrical and Computer Engineering from the Federal University
of Technology Minna, Nigeria in the year 2010. He currently pursues his Master’s degree in Electronic and Communication
Engineering from Nigeria Defence Academy Kaduna Nigeria. He has presented four conference articles and has published
one journal article. He has been lecturing in the Department of Computer Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria
since 2014.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS)Volume-6, Issue-9, September 2020
ISSN: 2395-3470
www.ijseas.com
112
Mohammed Mustapha: Mohammed Mustapha graduated with B.Tech. in Computer Engineering from Ladoke Akintola
University of Technology Obgbomosho, Nigeria in 2009. He currently studies for his Master’s degree in Electronics
Engineering from Bayero University Kano. He has published journal articles and attended several conferences.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin D deficiency has been clearly linked to major chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and aging, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In particular, the cardiovascular system appears to be highly sensitive to vitamin D deficiency, as this may result in endothelial dysfunction and vascular defects via multiple mechanisms. Accordingly, recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting either vitamin D deficiency or its key downstream effects, including defective autophagy and abnormal pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory responses, may be able to limit the onset and severity of major cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke and cerebrovascular malformations. Here we review the available evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in preventing or limiting the development of these cerebrovascular diseases, which are leading causes of disability and death all over the world.
Article
Full-text available
The grand objective of 5G wireless technology is to support services with vastly heterogeneous requirements. Network slicing, in which each service operates within an exclusive slice of allocated resources, is seen as a way to cope with this heterogeneity. However, the shared nature of the wireless channel allows non-orthogonal slicing, where services us overlapping slices of resources at the cost of interference. This paper investigates the performance of orthogonal and non-orthogonal slicing of radio resources for the provisioning of the three generic services of 5G: enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine-type communications (mMTC), and ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC). We consider uplink communications from a set of eMBB, mMTC and URLLC devices to a common base station. A communication-theoretic model is proposed that accounts for the heterogeneous requirements and characteristics of the three services. For non-orthogonal slicing, different decoding architectures are considered, such as puncturing and successive interference cancellation. The concept of reliability diversity is introduced here as a design principle that takes advantage of the vastly different reliability requirements across the services. This study reveals that non-orthogonal slicing can lead, in some regimes, to significant gains in terms of performance trade-offs among the three generic services compared to orthogonal slicing.
Article
Full-text available
Objective Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. The INTEROCC ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF-EMF exposure (μT) with meningioma. Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated. Results No increased risk for meningioma was found in any category. For cumulative exposure in the highest exposure category 8.52+ μT years odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7–1.2, and p linear trend = 0.45 were calculated. No statistically significant risks were found in different time windows. Conclusion In conclusion occupational ELF-EMF was not associated with an increased risk for meningioma.
Article
Full-text available
The radiation emitted from mobile phones has various deleterious effects on human health. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exposure to the 900-MHz radiation electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones on Ammon’s horn and the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus and cerebellum of male Wistar albino rats. We also investigated the neuroprotective effects of the antioxidants Boswellia sacra (BS) and folic acid (FA) against exposure to EMF. Twenty-four adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each, an EMF group, an EMF+FA exposure group (EFA), an EMF+BS exposure group (EBS) and a control group (Cont). The EMF, EFA and EBS groups were exposed to 900-MHz EMF radiation inside a tube once daily over 21days (60min/day). The Cont group was not exposed to 900-MHz EMF. The results showed that EMF caused a significant decrease in total pyramidal and granular cell numbers in the hippocampus, and DG and in Purkinje cell numbers in the cerebellum in the EMF group compared to the other groups (p<0.05). BS and FA attenuated the neurodegenerative effects of EMF in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Significant differences were also determined between the numbers of neurons in the EFA and EMF groups, and between the EBS and EMF groups (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences among Cont, EFA and EBS (p>0.05). Our results may contribute to ongoing research into the effects of 900-MHz EMF exposure.
Article
Full-text available
Small cell base stations (SBSs) and multiple antennas are seen as fundamental technologies in the emergence of the next generation [i.e., 5th generation (5G)] of cellular wireless technology. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of literature relating to the applications and challenges associated with using multiple antennas in SBSs. The use of multiple antenna techniques in conventional wireless base stations has undergone much study and is widespread. With heterogeneity in current networks and a furthering of this theme together with greater densification expected in 5G systems, their use in SBSs is at an evolutionary stage. In this paper, unique design challenges associated with size, cost, and performance in SBSs are presented. We present a clear understanding of this increasingly important research area, identifying a clear classification of use and design guidelines. We present a state-of-the-art review of the literature to show how researchers are using and considering the use of multiple antennas in small cells. Attention is given to current generation networks, and with SBSs being a dominant technology necessary for 5G, we also provide insights into the design challenges in such possible future networks.
Article
The power consumption and carbon emissions of wireless communication networks are expected to substantially increase in the 5G era. The communications industry must therefore develop strategies to optimize the energy efficiency of 5G networks, without compromising spectrum efficiency.
Article
Multiple access technology played an important role in wireless communication in the last decades: it increases the capacity of the channel and allows different users to access the system simultaneously. However, the conventional multiple access technology, as originally designed for current human-centric wireless networks, is not scalable for future machine-centric wireless networks. Massive access (studied in the literature under such names as "massive-device multiple access," "unsourced massive random access," "massive connectivity," "massive machine-type communication," and "many-access channels") exhibits a clean break with current networks by potentially supporting millions of devices in each cellular network. The tremendous growth in the number of connected devices requires a fundamental rethinking of the conventional multiple access technologies in favor of new schemes suited for massive random access. Among the many new challenges arising in this setting, the most relevant are: the fundamental limits of communication from a massive number of bursty devices transmitting simultaneously with short packets, the design of low complexity and energy-efficient massive access coding and communication schemes, efficient methods for the detection of a relatively small number of active users among a large number of potential user devices with sporadic transmission pattern, and the integration of massive access with massive MIMO and other important wireless communication technologies. This article presents an overview of the concept of massive access wireless communication and of the contemporary research on this important topic.
Article
This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5 G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.
Article
The development of every new generation of wireless communication systems starts with bold, high-level requirements and predictions of its capabilities. The 5G system will not only have to surpass previous generations with respect to rate and capacity, but also address new usage scenarios with very diverse requirements, including various kinds of machine-type communication. Following this, the METIS project has developed a 5G system concept consisting of three generic 5G services: extreme mobile broadband, massive machine-type communication, and ultra-reliable MTC, supported by four main enablers: a lean system control plane, a dynamic radio access network, localized contents and traffic flows, and a spectrum toolbox. This article describes the most important system-level 5G features, enabled by the concept, necessary to meet the very diverse 5G requirements. System-level evaluation results of the METIS 5G system concept are presented, and we conclude that the 5G requirements can be met with the proposed system concept.