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A Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods

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Abstract

This chapter presents a systematic review of over thirty (30) types of online marketing methods. It describes different methods like email marketing, social network marketing, in-game marketing and augmented reality marketing, among other approaches. The researchers discuss that the rationale for using these online marketing strategies is to increase brand awareness, customer centric marketing and consumer loyalty. They shed light on various personalization methods including recommendation systems and user generated content in their taxonomy of online marketing terms. Hence, they explain how these online marketing methods are related to each other. The researchers contend that the boundaries between online marketing methods have not been clarified enough within the academic literature. Therefore, this chapter provides a better understanding of different online marketing methods. A review of the literature suggests that the 'oldest' online marketing methods including the email and the websites are still very relevant for today's corporate communication. In conclusion, the researchers put forward their recommendations for future research about contemporary online marketing methods.
Chapter 14
A Taxonomy of Online Marketing
Methods
Mohammad Hajarian, Mark Anthony Camilleri,
Paloma Díaz and Ignacio Aedo
Abstract
This chapter presents a systematic review of over 30 types of online marketing
methods. It describes different methods like email marketing, social network
marketing, in-game marketing and augmented reality marketing, among
other approaches. The researchers discuss that the rationale for using these
online marketing strategies is to increase brand awareness, customer-centric
marketing and consumer loyalty. They shed light on various personalization
methods including recommendation systems and user-generated content in
their taxonomy of online marketing terms. Hence, they explain how these
online marketing methods are related to each other. The researchers contend
that the boundaries between online marketing methods have not been clari-
ed enough within the academic literature. Therefore, this chapter provides a
better understanding of different online marketing methods. A review of the
literature suggests that the “oldest” online marketing methods including the
email and the websites are still very relevant for today’s corporate communi-
cation. In conclusion, the researchers put forward their recommendations for
future research about contemporary online marketing methods.
Keywords: Online marketing; digital media; websites; search engine
optimization; Web 2.0; social media; blogs; review sites
14.1 Introduction
The origins of online marketing can be traced back to 1978, when Gary Thuerk
forwarded the rst advertising emails to 320 people (Oetjen, 2019). Since then,
online marketing has changed signicantly with the advances in technology.
Strategic Corporate Communication in the Digital Age, 235–250
Copyright © 2021 by Emerald Publishing Limited
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved
doi:10.1108/978-1-80071-264-520211014
236 Mohammad Hajarian et al.
In 2019, $333.25 billion was spent on digital marketing, and this expenditure is
projected to increase to $517.51 billion by the end of 2023 (eMarketer, 2019).
Google alone has registered a $24.1 billion income from AdSense and AdWords
during the third quarter of 2018 (Rosenberg, 2019). Most of this income was
generated through contextual digital advertisements (ads) that was presented to
online users (Hassan & Privitera, 2016). These descriptive statistics suggest that
online marketing is increasingly being used as a tool for corporate communication.
Generally, the marketing mix consists of the four Ps: Product, Price, Place and
Promotion. In online marketing, the Place represents social networks, websites
or mobile applications, to name a few, while Promotion is related to advertising,
branding and public relations (Harvey & An, 2018). Yet, the researchers contend
that the characteristics and effects of online marketing methods are still unclear
in the academic literature. For example, the concept of inuencer marketing is
often associated with electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) marketing and/or mes-
senger marketing is related to social network marketing in nonacademic sources.
Therefore, this chapter identies the online marketing terms and differentiates
between online marketing methods and online marketing strategies. It describes
those terms that are used to calculate the effectiveness of digital advertisements.
Hence, this contribution provides a better understanding on the taxonomy of
online marketing terms and concepts. It addresses a gap in the literature as it
sheds light on the differences and similarities of each online marketing method.
To this end, the researchers have conducted a systematic literature review that
categorized different online marketing terms, explained their usage and specied
the boundaries and relationships between them. They describe online market-
ing strategies such as gamication, viral marketing, recommendation systems,
among others. Hence, this review will help corporations to identify the most suit-
able online marketing methods and strategies that can increase the effectiveness
of their online marketing approaches.
The rest of this chapter is structured as follows: in Section 2, the researchers
explain their research approach. In Sections 3–5, they categorize the online mar-
keting literature in three main sections: (i) online marketing methods; (ii) strat-
egies; and (iii) pricing models. In Section 6, they put forward their theoretical
implications of this contribution and clarify the relationship between the online
marketing terms. In Section 7, they put forward their recommendations for future
studies that are focused on online marketing methods. In conclusion, in section 8,
they have featured a summary of this chapter.
14.2 Research Approach
A Google search about “online marketing” has identied the existing online mar-
keting terms that are being used by marketing practitioners and in academia.
Moreover, a Google Scholar search revealed some of the most popular aca-
demic articles, chapters and books that were related to this topic. Google Scholar
allowed the researchers to identify those articles which included online marketing
within their title, abstract, keywords and in their main body. The researchers noted
that there were peer-reviewed journals that were focused on computer science
Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods 237
and digital advertising, that have published contributions on online marketing.
Hence, their review has considered the academic articles that better represented
online marketing methods, according to the publisher’s reputation and recency
(i.e., publishing year). Where the articles involved experiments in the realms of
computer science, the researchers have described those experiments to show the
role of computer science in online marketing. In some cases, the online marketing
terms were not available in the academic literature; however, they were presented
in nonacademic websites. Admittedly, this search about the related notions has
helped the researchers to recommend further research about online marketing
in academia. The researchers have categorized and classied different online
marketing methods into three categories: online marketing, online strategies and
pricing models. To this end, they followed Turban, Outland, King, Lee, Liang,
and Turbans (2018) methodological stance for their systemic review on online
marketing. Then, based on these categorizations, the researchers have indicated
the relationship between each online marketing term. Hence, the researchers illus-
trate the similarities and differences between different online marketing methods,
as they have visualized the boundaries between various methods.
14.3 Online Marketing Methods
Several online marketing terms are methods that can be implemented to increase
online visibility and to enhance the sales of products or services. One of the well-
known online marketing methods is the use of email marketing. It is one of the
most popular digital tactics. Despite the current popularity of social media, many
individuals still prefer to receive the news about the brands via emails (Camilleri,
2018a). Email marketing is very effective in terms of return on investment (ROI).
However, there are many ways that can improve the email marketing performance
(Conceição & Gama, 2019). Sahni, Wheeler and Chintagunta (2018) found that
by personalizing email marketing (e.g., adding the name of the receiver to the
email subject), the probability that the receiver reads the email increases by 20%.
Conceição and Gama (2019) have developed a classication algorithm to predict
the effectiveness of email campaign. The authors suggested that the open rates
were based on the keywords that were featured inside the email. They maintained
that the utilization of personalized messages and the inclusion of question marks
in the subjects of the email can increase the chance of opening an email. Moreo-
ver, they hinted that there are specic times during the day where there are more
chances that the marketing emails will be noticed and read by their recipients.
These times can be identied by using data mining technologies.
Direct emails could be forwarded to specic users for different reasons. Evans
(2018) described advertising emails in three categories: (i) promotional emails that
raise awareness about attractive offers, including discounts and reduced prices of
products and services. This type of email is very helpful to increase sales and cus-
tomer loyalty. Some innovative marketers are using disruptive technologies, includ-
ing gamication to reward and incentivize online users to click their email links;
(ii) electronic newsletters that are aimed at building consumer engagement. Hence,
these emails ought to provide high-quality, interactive content to online users.
238 Mohammad Hajarian et al.
These emails are also known as relational emails that are intended to build a
rapport with online users; (iii) conrmation emails that are used to conrm to the
customers that their online transactions were carried out successfully. These types of
emails are very valuable in terms of branding and corporate image. In sum, the elec-
tronic newsletters are intended to redirect online users to the businesses’ websites.
Another major online marketing method is the social network marketing.
Brands and corporations can feature their page on social media networks (e.g.,
Facebook or Instagram) to communicate with their customers and/or promote
their products and services to their followers. This can result in an improved
brand awareness and a surge in sales. On the other hand, customers can write
their reviews about brands or even purchase products online (Smith, Hernández-
García, Agudo Peregrina, & Hair, 2016). Thus, social network marketing can
have a positive impact on electronic positive eWOM advertising in addition to
enhancing the customers’ loyalty (Smith et al., 2016).
There are other forms of social network marketing including inuencer market-
ing, video marketing and viral marketing, among others. The social networks are
providing various benets to various marketers as they can use them to publish
their content online. Their intention is to inuence online users and to entice them
to purchase their products or services. Liang, Wang, and Zhao (2019) have devel-
oped a novel algorithm that can identify the effects of inuencer marketing content.
Notwithstanding, various social networks such as Facebook and Instagram are
increasingly placing the businesses’ video ads for their subscribers. In both cases,
the advertisers may use Facebook marketing (Instagram is owned by Facebook) to
identify the most appropriate subscribers to serve their ads (Camilleri, 2019). The
social networks are a very suitable place for targeted advertising because they have
access to a wide range of user information such as their demographical details and
other relevant information (Hajarian, Bastanfard, Mohammadzadeh, & Khalilian,
2019a). However, online users may not always be interested in the marketers’ social
media messages. As a result, they may decide to block or lter ads (Camilleri, 2020).
One of the most protable and interesting online marketing methods is the
eWOM (see Hajarian, Bastanfard, Mohammadzadeh, & Khalilian, 2017). The
internet users are increasingly engaging in eWOM. More individuals are shar-
ing their positive or negative statements about products or services (Ismagilova,
Dwivedi, Slade, & Williams, 2017). Hence, the individual users’ reviews in online
fora, blogs and social media can be considered as eWOM. Ismagilova et al. (2017)
stated that the businesses would benet through positive eWOM as this would
improve their positioning in their consumers’ minds. Moreover, eWOM is also
useful to prospective consumers as they rely on the consumers’ independent com-
ments about their experience with the businesses’ products or services. The con-
sumers’ reviews and ratings can reduce the risk and search time of prospective
consumers. In addition, individuals can use the review platforms to ask questions
and/or interact with other users (Hajarian, 2015b). These are some of the motiva-
tions that lure online users to engage in eWOM.
Inuencer marketing is another type of online marketing that is conspicuous
with the social media. The inuencers may include those online users who are
promoting products or brands to their audiences. Hence, inuencer marketing
Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods 239
is closely related to eWOM advertising. However, in this case, the inuencer may
be a popular individual including a celebrity, gurehead or an athlete who will
usually have a high number of followers on social media. The inuencers may
be considered as the celebrities of online social networks. They are procient in
personal branding (Jin & Muqaddam, 2019). Hence, the social media inuencers
will promote their image like a brand. Thus, the inuencer marketing involves the
cooperation of two brands, the social media inuencer and the brand that s/he is
promoting (Jin & Muqaddam, 2019). Social media inuencers can charge up to
$250,000 for each post (Lieber, 2018), although this depends on the number of
their audience and the platform that they are active on. The inuencers work on
different topics such as lifestyle, fashion, comedy, politics and gaming (Stoldt,
2019). It is projected that inuencer marketing will become a $5–$10 billion mar-
ket by 2020 (Mediakix, 2019). It is worth to mention that the gaming inuencers
are also becoming very successful in online marketing.
Viral marketing is another method of online marketing that can be performed
by regular social media users (not necessarily inuencers). The social media sub-
scribers can disseminate online content, including websites, images and videos
among friends, colleagues and acquaintances (Daif & Elsayed, 2019). Their social
media posts may become viral (like a virus) if they are appreciated by their audi-
ences. In this case, the posts will be shared and reshared by third parties. The
most appealing or creative content can turn viral in different social media. For
example, breaking news or emotional content, including humoristic videos have
the potential to become viral content as they are usually appreciated and shared
by social media users.
The social networks as well as the messengers like Facebook messenger, Whats-
App, etc. are ideal vehicles of viral marketing as online users and their contacts
are active on them. Similarly, other marketing methods such as email marketing
can also be used as a tool for viral marketing. In viral marketing, the inuencers
can play a very important role as they can spread the message among their follow-
ers. Hence, the most inuential people could propagate online content that can
turn viral. Nguyen, Thai, and Dinh (2016) have developed algorithms that iden-
tify the most effective social media inuencers that have more clout among their
followers. In a similar way, businesses can identify and recruit inuential social
media users to disseminate their promotional content (Pfeiffer & Zheleva, 2018).
Their viral marketing strategies may involve mass-marketing sharing incentives,
where users receive rewards for promoting ads among their friends (Pfeiffer &
Zheleva, 2018). There are business websites that are incentivizing online users, by
offering nancial rewards if they invite their friends to use their services.
Videos are one of the best methods for marketing. Abouyounes (2019) esti-
mated that over 80% of internet trafc was related to videos in 2019. He pro-
jected that US businesses will spend $28 billion on video marketing in 2020. The
relevant literature suggests that individuals may be intrigued to share emotional
videos. Such videos may even go viral (Nikolinakou & King, 2018). The ele-
ments of surprise, happiness as well as other factors such as the length of the
video can affect whether a video turns viral or not. Abouyounes’ (2019) reported
that the individuals would share a video with their friends if they found it to be
240 Mohammad Hajarian et al.
interesting. Alternatively, they may decide to disseminate such videos on social
media to share cognitive (informational) and/or emotional messages among their
contacts. Hence, the term “social video marketing” refers to those videos that
can increase the social media users’ engagement with video content. Over 77% of
the business that have used social video marketing have reported a positive direct
impact on their online metrics.
With the rise of social media, many online users have started to rene the
content of their online messages to appeal to the different digital audiences. The
online users’ content marketing involves the creation of relevant messages that are
shared via videos, blogs and social media content. These messages are intended
to stimulate the recipients’ interest. The content marketers’ aim is to engage with
existing and potential customers (Järvinen & Taiminen, 2016). Therefore, their
marketing messages ought to be relevant for their target audiences. The online
users may not perceive that the marketed content is valuable and informative for
them. Thus, the content should be carefully adapted to the targeted audience.
The content marketers may use various interactive systems to engage with online
users in order to gain their trust (Baltes, 2015; Díaz, Aedo, & Zarraonandia,
2019a; Díaz & Ioannou, 2019b; Díaz, Zarraonandía, Sánchez-Francisco, Aedo,
& Onorati, 2019c; Montero, Zarraonandia, Diaz, & Aedo, 2019). To this end, the
advertisers should analyze the interests of their target audience to better under-
stand their preferred content. Successful content marketing relies on the creation
of convincing and timely messages that appeal to online users. Zarrella’s (2013)
study suggested that some Facebook and Twitter content is more effective during
particular times of the day and in some days of the week.
Native advertising present promotional content including articles, infograph-
ics, videos, etc. that are integrated within the platforms where they are featured
(e.g., in search engines or social media). In 2014, various business invested more
than $3.2 billion in this type of digital advertising (Wojdynski & Evans, 2016).
Native ads may include banners or short articles that are presented in webpages.
However, online users would be redirected to other webpages if they click on
them. Parsana, Poola, Wang and Wang (2018) have explored the click-through
rates (CTRs) of native advertisements as they examined the historic data of
online users. Other studies investigated how native ads were consistent in differ-
ent situations and pages (Lin, 2018).
The advertorials are similar to native ads as they are featured as reports or
as recommendations within websites. They are presented in such a way that the
reader thinks that they are part of the news (Charlesworth, 2014). This type of
advertising can be featured as video or infographic content that will redirect the
online users to the advertisers’ websites. Besides, these ads may indicate a small
“sponsored by” note that is usually ignored by the online users. In some regards,
this is similar to the editorial content marketing, where editors write promotional
content about a company or a website. However, in the case of editorial market-
ing, the main purpose is to educate or to inform the readers about a specic sub-
ject. Therefore, such a news item is usually presented free of charge as it appears
at the discretion of the editor. Nevertheless, both advertorial and editorial
marketing can have a positive impact on brand awareness and brand equity.
Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods 241
Both online and mobile users are coming across online marketing messages
on their screens. The mobile devices have become very popular as people are
spending more time using them. They are always connected to the internet, even
when they are out and about. Hence, they can access a wide array of informa-
tion online. At the same time, they are sharing their personal information with
the technology giants, including Google, Facebook and Microsoft, among others,
about their online activity as well as their location. These features make mobile
marketing a very promising online marketing method (Berman, 2016). The short
message service (SMS) marketing and the multimedia messaging service (MMS)
were recently the most popular methods of mobile marketing (Ferreira, 2017).
However, with the emergence of smartphones, other online marketing methods
such as social network marketing, app-based marketing and email marketing
were also made available through mobile marketing. The app-based marketing is
a type of mobile marketing as businesses’ ads are featured in mobile applications
(Gosling, Crawford, Bagnall, & Light, 2016). Mhaidli, Zou, and Schaub (2019)
reported that many app developers rely on app-based marketing to make money
as they are not earning enough from in-app purchases. The app-based marketing
is different from other types of mobile marketing like SMS and MMS, because
they are based on mobile applications. Companies such as Google Admob,
MoPub, Amazon and InMobi are using app-based marketing as they cooperate
with advertisers and developers (publishers). For example, Google features ads
in their YouTube app. Gao, Zeng, Sarro, Lyu, and King (2018) have analyzed
the mobiles’ infrastructures in terms of their features and capabilities to identify
how to improve the quality of mobile ads. These authors discovered that Google
Admob is the most suitable ad company in terms of resource usage. Besides they
reported that the full-size banners are very effective for app-based marketing.
Various technology companies including Google and Facebook among others
are tracking their users’ movements when they are out and about. Hence, these
technology giants are providing location-based marketing opportunities to many
businesses. However, this innovative marketing approach relies on the individu-
als’ willingness to share their location data with their chosen mobile applications
(apps). For example, foursquare, among other apps, can send messages to its
mobile users (if they enable location sharing). It can convey messages about the
users favorite spots, including businesses, facilities, etc., when they are located in
close proximity to them (Guzzo, D’Andrea, Ferri, & Grifoni, 2012).
Currently, the messengers are growing at a very fast pace. It may appear that
they are becoming more popular than the social networks. Messengers such as
WhatsApp, Viber, Telegram, Facebook Messenger, WeChat and QQ, among oth-
ers, have over 4.6 billion active users in a month (Mehner, 2019). This makes them
a very attractive channel for online marketing. Since messengers can provide a
private, secure connection between the business and their customers, they are very
useful tools for marketing purposes. Moreover, the messengers can be used in con-
junction with other advertisement methods like display (or banner) marketing,
viral marketing, click-to-message ads, etc. Online or mobile users can use the mes-
sengers to communicate with a company representative (or bot) on different issues.
They may even raise their complaints through such systems. Some messengers like
242 Mohammad Hajarian et al.
Apple Business Chat and WeChat, among others, have also integrated in-app
payments. Hence, the messengers have lots of possible features and can be used
to improve the business-to-consumer (B2C) relationships. In addition, other mes-
sengers like Skype, Google Meet, Zoom, Microsoft Teams, Webex, etc. can provide
video conferencing platforms for corporations and small businesses. These systems
have become very popular communication tools during COVID-19.
Other online marketing approaches can assist corporations in building their
brand equity among customers. Various businesses are organizing virtual events and
webinars to engage with their target audience. They may raise awareness about their
events by sending invitations (via email) to their subscribers (Harvey & An, 2018).
The organization of the virtual meetings are remarkably cheaper than face-to-face
meetings (Lande, 2011). They can be recorded and/or broadcast to wider audiences
through live streaming technologies via social media (Veissi, 2017). Today, online
users can also use Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn live streaming facilities to
broadcast their videos in real time and share them among their followers.
The display (or banner) marketing may usually comprise promotional vid-
eos, images and/or textual content. They are usually presented in webpages and
applications. Thus, online banners may advertise products or services on internet
websites to increase brand awareness (Turban et al., 2018). The display ads may
be created by the website owners themselves. Alternatively, they may have been
placed by Google Adsense on behalf of their customers (advertisers).
The display advertisements may also be featured in digital and mobile games.
Such online advertisements are also known as in-game marketing. The digital ads
can be included within the games’ apps and/or may also be accessed through pop-
ular social networks. The in-game marketing may either be static (as the ads can-
not be modied after the game was released) or dynamic (where new ads will be
displayed via internet connections) (Terlutter & Capella, 2013). Lewis and Porter
(2010) suggested that in-game advertising should be harmonious with the games’
environments. There are different forms of advertisements that can be featured in
games. For instance, advergames are serious games that have been developed in
close collaboration with a corporate entity for advertising purposes (Terlutter &
Capella, 2013), for example, Pepsi man game for PlayStation.
The latest online marketing technologies are increasingly using interactive sys-
tems like augmented reality. These innovations are being utilized to enhance the
businesses’ engagement with their consumers (Díaz et al., 2019c). The augmented
reality software can help the businesses to promote their products (Turban et al.,
2018). For example, IKEA (the furnishing company) has introduced an aug-
mented reality application to help their customers to visualize how their products
would appear in their homes. Similarly, online fashion stores can benet from
augmented reality applications as their customers can customize their personal
avatars with their appearance, in terms of size, length and body type, to check out
products well before they commit to purchase them (Montero et al., 2019).
The banner advertising was one of the earliest forms of digital marketing.
However, there were other unsophisticated online marketing tactics that were
used in the past. Some of these methods are still being used by some market-
ers. For instance, online users can list themselves and/or their organization in an
Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods 243
online directory. This marketing channel is similar to the traditional yellow pages
(Guzzo et al., 2012). The online directory has preceded the search engine mar-
keting (SEM). This form of online advertising involves paid advertisements that
appear on search engine results pages (like native ads). Currently, SEM is valued
at $70 billion market by 2020 (Aswani, Kar, Ilavarasan, & Dwivedi, 2018). The
advertisements may be related to specic keywords that are used in search queries.
SEM can be presented in a variety of formats, including small, text-based ads or
visual, product listing ads. The advertisers bid on the keywords that are used in
the search engines. Therefore, they will pay the search engines like Google and
Bing to feature their ads alongside the search results.
The search engine optimization (SEO) is different from SEM. The individu-
als or organizations do not have to pay the search engine for trafc and clicks.
SEO involves a set of practices that are intended to improve the websites’ visibil-
ity within the search results of search engines. The search engine algorithms can
optimize the search results of certain websites, (i) if they have published relevant
content, (ii) if they regularly update their content and (iii) if they include link-
worthy sites. Although, SEO is a free tool, Google AdWords and Bing ads are
two popular SEM platforms that can promote websites in their search engines
(through their SEM packages). Various researchers have relied on different sci-
entic approaches to optimize the search engine results of their queries. For
example, Wong, Collins and Venkataraman (2018) have used machine learning
methods to identify which ad placements and biddings were yielding the best
return of investment from Google Adwords.
14.4 Online Marketing Strategies
Some of the online marketing terms may also be considered as strategies as they
can be implemented to increase the marketing effectiveness of a business. One
of the most important strategies in online marketing is personalized marketing.
Various marketers are increasingly using recommendation systems as they share
their consumers’ online reviews about their products and services. The cocreation
of content is benetting both the consumers and the corporations. Recommenda-
tion systems can help customers to get informed about new products that they
like while corporations can enhance their user engagement by providing a person-
alized shopping experience for the users (Lee & Hosanagar, 2019). Some popular
review sites are also using contextual marketing as they target and retarget online
users with relevant ads when they leave their webpages (Wu & Bolivar, 2008).
They use cookies to track the online (and mobile) users’ through the internet.
Google AdSense is one of the most successful advertising company that is imple-
menting contextual marketing as it presents promotional content that may appeal
to online users (Mei, Li, Tian, Tao, & Ngo, 2016). Such contextual marketing
approaches can also be used in various apps including digital gaming technolo-
gies as they can feature advertisements in them (Yoo & Eastin, 2017).
The content-based and collaborative recommendation systems are two major
types of recommendation systems (Cheung, Kwok, Law, & Tsui, 2003). The
collaborative recommendation systems can identify the users’ preferences and
244 Mohammad Hajarian et al.
personalize advertisements for them. For example, Hajarian (2015a) has used the
Apriori algorithm to identify relevant advertisements according to the individual
users’ demographic information. He reported that the online users’ data are a key
factor for personalized marketing. Similarly, Hajarian et al. (2017) has used fuzzy
logic to better understand the online users’ interest levels in products. Hence, he
identied the most relevant advertisements for them. Other researchers suggested
that articial intelligence, big data and text mining can be used to identify the
most effective ads that can have an effect on individuals (Amado, Cortez, Rita,
& Moro, 2018). The interaction design is also an important factor for customer-
centric marketing. For instance, Mei et al. (2016) suggested that PageSense is
effective in captivating the online users’ attention as it places the advertisements
in prominent areas. Previously, Atterer and Lorenzi (2008) have developed a
method that clearly indicated what content is being sought by online users. The
researchers have explored which parts of the screen was capturing the online
users’ attention. Such ndings are useful to marketers as they will enable them to
better understand online users. Hence, they may be in a position to improve the
effectiveness of their display advertisements inside webpages.
The cross-platform marketing is one of the emerging strategies in online mar-
keting. Online users, including businesses can align different digital media chan-
nels in a cohesive manner, as their followers may switch between environments
and devices (Neijens & Voorveld, 2015). The cross-platform advertising allows
them to communicate with different consumer segments across several channels.
It is worth mentioning that cross-platform and mobile advertising markets will be
worth over $80 billion by 2020 (Marketsandmarkets.com, 2019). Notwithstand-
ing, many online marketers are increasingly using gamication to engage with
online users (Hajarian, Bastanfard, Mohammadzadeh, & Khalilian, 2019b). Very
often, the online games are being used in conjunction with other digital media
including social media networks (Tondello, Orji, & Nacke, 2017). The social
media subscribers may be intrigued to receive rewards and incentives for watch-
ing an advertisement and/or to click on display ads.
14.5 Online Marketing Pricing Models and Their ROI
Marketers incur charges by the digital platforms including websites, social media,
etc., to promote their products and services. However, they can measure the effec-
tiveness of their digital marketing methods. They can evaluate their ROIs as there
are various metrics that can measure their online marketing performance. For
example, the pay per click (PPC) and the cost per click (CPC) are such popular
metrics, among others. Advertisers pay search engines like Google or Bing each
time their ad is clicked through by online users. Hence, the CPC refers to the
actual price that is paid for each click.
Successful PPC campaigns are dependent on high CTRs because they repre-
sent the ratio of users who click on a specic link to the number of total users
who view a page, email, or advertisement (Hajarian et al., 2017). CTR is com-
monly used as a metric to evaluate the effectiveness of particular websites or
email campaigns (Camilleri, 2018b). CTR is calculated by dividing the number
Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods 245
of clicks (on ads) by the number of impressions (Hajarian, 2015a). The higher
the CTR (i.e., close to 1) indicates that the ads were clicked through and that the
display advertising is yielding results. Many publishers use the “cost per thou-
sand” (CPT) metric. This is also known as the “cost per mille” (CPM) metric as
advertisers are charged for every 1,000 views or clicks. This performance measure
calculates the relative cost of a digital marketing campaign, by dividing the cost
of the ad by the number of impressions (expressed in thousands) that it generates.
Other metrics include the “cost per second” (CPS), pay per view (PPV), etc. CPS
is a time-based advertising metric. In this case, the publishers charge the advertis-
ers according to the time that is spent on the advertised link. The PPV (i.e., also
known as cost per view – CPV) is a pricing model relating to video marketing and
inuencer marketing.
The engagement rate measures the users’ interactions within social networks.
It is calculated by dividing the sum of social media interactions (including likes,
shares, comments) by the number of followers of the corresponding social net-
work account (Hopperhq.com, 2018). This metric helps brands and companies
to identify the best social media networks for their digital marketing. Similarly,
other metrics, including pay per post (PPP) and the cost per follower (CFP), are
used to measure the effectiveness of inuencer marketing in social media plat-
forms such as Instagram. Hence, the inuencers may charge the advertisers on
the number of followers that they attract for their respective sponsors. The pay
per lead (PPL), cost per lead (CPL) and cost per action (CPA) are other online
marketing metrics that are used to quantify the conversion rates (and lead gen-
eration). Similar terms include cost per acquisition (CPA) or pay per acquisition
(PPA) and/or cost per engagement (CPE) (Berkowitz, 2009). In addition, the cost
per install (CPI) and cost per download (CPD) metrics are industry terms that are
used by app developers.
14.6 Research Implications
This chapter sheds light on the relationships and boundaries between various
online marketing methods. First, the researchers have identied the online mar-
keting strategies (e.g., brand awareness, personalized marketing, etc.). Second,
they featured the online marketing approaches (e.g., social network marketing,
messenger marketing, etc.). Third, they described the metrics that may be used to
measure the effectiveness of online advertisements.
The latest online marketing methods are increasingly relying on social media
and messenger marketing. For example, inuencer marketing is being carried out
through various social networks. For instance, today’s corporations can use inu-
encer marketing to promote brands, products and services. The inuencers may
use social media such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and weblogs to
inuence their followers’ purchase intentions. Another important platform for
inuencer marketing is YouTube as every month it has over 1.8 billion active users
(Statista, 2020). Factors including the inuencers’ trust-ability, social inuence,
quality of arguments and information can determine the effectiveness of their
marketed content on YouTube (Xiao, Wang, & Chan-Olmsted, 2018). Various
246 Mohammad Hajarian et al.
studies indicated that more corporations are using more women, rather than men,
for their inuencer marketing (Sammis, Lincoln, & Pomponi, 2015). They are
increasingly building relationships with individual social media inuencers as
well as with agencies to enhance their online marketing strategies. Several market-
ing agencies are also providing inuencer marketing services to their customers.
However, the inuencer marketing content may or may not become viral among
online users (Daif & Elsayed, 2019).
There are different benets of using social media platforms like YouTube, Face-
book and Instagram, among others. These networks can help the businesses to
improve their engagement with online users. At the same time, they allow them to
monitor and analyze their trafc. Notwithstanding, there is scope for the business
to utilize the messenger channels, including Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp.
These messengers convey personalized, interactive messages in real time, and they
can support various multimedia technologies. Hence, the messengers are a good
vehicle for content marketing (Mehner, 2019). However, there are other digital
marketing approaches that still remain very popular among online users, includ-
ing display ads in webpages, native ads, user-generated content, reviews, etc..
Many businesses are using SEM to improve their visibility in search engines. Very
often that are retargeting or remarketing online content to build brand awareness.
They use Google AdWords to present promotional content to online users. Alter-
natively, they may publish their consumer reviews, endorsements and ratings. It
is in the brands’ interest to connect with online users to prevent negative eWOM
(Ismagilova et al., 2017). The negative publicity can have a dreadful effect on the
business (Bhandari & Rodgers, 2018). Therefore, the businesses’ marketers ought
to monitor online conversations. They may use crawlers to track eWOM publicity
in different websites including social media (Puri & Kumar, 2017).
Recently, many businesses are also integrating gamication technologies to
engage with online users. They are providing interactive opportunities to engage
with prospective customers. This research indicated that in-game marketing is a
new online marketing method. Marketers may benet from cloud gaming (Hsu,
2019) and google stadia. They can advertise through cloud gaming platforms in
real time. This can present new challenging opportunities for software engineers.
They may avail themselves of new media technologies and online marketing
methods including personal fabrications (Baudisch, 2016) and object market-
ing among other options. The latest advances in technology have provided them
with additional interactive channels, pricing options and monitoring metrics for
online marketers.
14.7 Summary
This chapter has presented a systematic literature review that has categorized dif-
ferent online marketing terms. It also highlighted the relationships between them
and discussed how they can be combined to increase the businesses’ online mar-
keting performance. Hence, the researchers explained how online marketers can
measure the effectiveness and the success rates of their online marketing tactics.
They raised awareness about the boundaries between online marketing methods
Taxonomy of Online Marketing Methods 247
as they delineated the intersections between different online marketing terms.
Finally, the researchers have pointed out their implications to practitioners and
have identied future research areas.
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Purpose: The outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and its preventative social distancing measures have led to a dramatic increase in subscriptions to paid streaming services. Online users are increasingly accessing live broadcasts as well as recorded video content and digital music services through Internet and mobile devices. In this context, this study explores the individuals’ uses and gratifications from online streaming technologies during COVID-19. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research has adapted key measures from the ‘Technology Acceptance Model’ (TAM) and from the ‘Uses and Gratifications Theory’ (UGT) to better understand the individuals’ intentions to use online streaming technologies. A structural equations partial least squares’ (SEM-PLS 3) confirmatory composite approach was used to analyze the gathered data. Findings: The individuals’ perceived usefulness and ease of use of online streaming services were significant antecedents of their intentions to use the mentioned technologies. Moreover, this study suggests that the research participants sought emotional gratifications from online streaming technologies, as they allowed them to distract themselves into a better mood, and to relax in their leisure time. Evidently, they were using them to satisfy their needs for information and entertainment. Research implications: This study contributes to the academic literature by generating new knowledge about the individuals´ perceptions, motivations, and intentions to use online streaming technologies to watch recorded movies, series, and live broadcasts. Practical implications: The findings imply that there is scope for the providers of online streaming services to improve their customer-centric marketing by refining the quality and content of their recorded programs, and through regular interactions with subscribers and personalized recommender systems. Originality/Value: This study integrates the TAM and UGT frameworks to better understand the effects of the users’ perceptions, ritualized and instrumental motivations on their intentions to continue watching movies, series and broadcasts through online streaming technologies, during COVID-19.
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Academics, practitioners and standard setters have highlighted the importance of focusing on the relevance of nonfinancial reporting disclosures, calling for a debate on how best to develop corporative communicative skills with different stakeholders to conduct proper materiality analysis. To this end, the need for an inclusive process is widely acknowledged, where engagement and close relationships between an organization and its various stakeholders are crucial to identifying the main issues that the company should consider in a materiality analysis. In this chapter, an analysis of integrated reporting will be performed as an innovative corporate communication instrument that offers a complete picture of corporate performance and the important role of the concept of materiality. Then, the concept of the materiality process will be explored in a set of Spanish early adopters of integrated reporting (IR), which will help us understand IR technology within the organizational realm and will shed some light on the materiality determination process as a communicative tool. The study revealed five main themes connected to the materiality determination process: materiality conceptualization, sources of evidence on materiality, prioritization of stakeholder engagement, the perceived advantages of the process, and its problems. The final section will set out the future challenges of IR engagement and the research opportunities that are associated with this innovative form of communicative reporting.
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This authoritative book features a broad spectrum of theoretical and empirical contributions on topics relating to corporate communications in the digital age. It is a premier reference source and a valuable teaching resource for course instructors of advanced, undergraduate and post graduate courses in marketing and communications. It comprises fourteen engaging and timely chapters that appeal to today’s academic researchers including doctoral candidates, postdoctoral researchers, early career academics, as well as seasoned researchers. All chapters include an abstract, an introduction, the main body with headings and subheadings, conclusions and research implications. They were written in a critical and discursive manner to entice the curiosity of their readers. Chapter 1 provides a descriptive overview of different online technologies and presents the findings from a systematic review on corporate communication and digital media. Camilleri (2020a) implies that institutions and organizations ought to be credible and trustworthy in their interactive, dialogic communications during day-to-day operations as well as in crisis situations, if they want to reinforce their legitimacy in society. Chapter 2 clarifies the importance of trust and belonging in individual and organizational relationships. Allen, Sven, Marwan and Arslan (2020) suggest that trust nurtures social interactions that can ultimately lead to significant improvements in corporate communication and other benefits for organizations. Chapter 3 identifies key dimensions for dialogic communication through social media. Capriotti, Zeler and Camilleri (2020) put forward a conceptual framework that clarifies how organizations can enhance their dialogic communications through interactive technologies. Chapter 4 explores the marketing communications managers’ interactive engagement with the digital media. Camilleri and Isaias (2020) suggest that the pace of technological innovation, perceived usefulness, ease of use of online technologies as well as social influences are significant antecedents for the businesses’ engagement with the digital media. Chapter 5 explains that the Balanced Scorecard’s (BSC) performance management tools can be used to support corporate communications practitioners in their stakeholder engagement. Oliveira, Martins, Camilleri and Jayantilal (2020) imply that practitioners can use BSC’s metrics to align their communication technologies, including big data analytics, with organizational strategy and performance management, in the digital era. Chapter 6 focuses on UK universities’ corporate communications through Twitter. Mogaji, Watat, Olaleye and Ukpabi (2020) find that British universities are increasingly using this medium to attract new students, to retain academic employees and to promote their activities and events. Chapter 7 investigates the use of mobile learning (m-learning) technologies for corporate training. Butler, Camilleri, Creed and Zutshi (2020) shed light on key contextual factors that can have an effect on the successful delivery of continuous professional development of employees through mobile technologies. Chapter 8 evaluates the effects of influencer marketing on consumer-brand engagement on Instagram. Rios Marques, Casais and Camilleri (2020) identify two types of social media influencers. Chapter 9 explores in-store communications of large-scale retailers. Riboldazzi and Capriello (2020) use an omni-channel approach as they integrate traditional and digital media in their theoretical model for informative, in-store communications. Chapter 10 indicates that various corporations are utilizing different social media channels for different purposes. Troise and Camilleri (2020) contend that they are using them to promote their products or services and/or to convey commercial information to their stakeholders. Chapter 11 appraises the materiality of the corporations’ integrated disclosures of financial and non-financial performance. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez (2020) identifies the key determinants for the materiality of integrated reports. Chapter 12 describes various electronic marketing (emarketing) practices of micro, small and medium sized enterprises in India. Singh, Kumar and Kalia (2020) conclude that Indian owner-managers are not always engaging with their social media followers in a professional manner. Chapter 13 suggests that there is scope for small enterprises to use Web 2.0 technologies and associated social media applications for branding, advertising and corporate communication. Oni (2020) maintains that social media may be used as a marketing communications tool to attract customers and for internal communications with employees. Chapter 14 shed light on the online marketing tactics that are being used for corporate communication purposes. Hajarian, Camilleri, Diaz and Aedo (2020) outline different online channels including one-way and two-way communication technologies. Endorsements "Digital communications are increasingly central to the process of building trust, reputation and support. It's as true for companies selling products as it is for politicians canvasing for votes. This book provides a framework for understanding and using online media and will be required reading for serious students of communication". Dr. Charles J. Fombrun, Former Professor at New York University, NYU-Stern School, Founder & Chairman Emeritus, Reputation Institute/The RepTrak Company. “This book has addressed a current and relevant topic relating to an important aspect of digital transformation. Various chapters of this book provide valuable insights about a variety of issues relating to "Strategic Corporate Communication in the Digital Age". The book will be a useful resource for both academics and practitioners engaged in marketing- and communications-related activities. I am delighted to endorse this valuable resource”. Dr. Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Professor at the School of Management at Swansea University, UK and Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Information Management. “This title covers a range of relevant issues and trends related to strategic corporate communication in an increasingly digital era. For example, not only does it address communication from a social media, balanced scorecard, and stakeholder engagement perspective, but it also integrates relevant contemporary insights related to SMEs and COVID-19. This is a must-read for any corporate communications professional or researcher”. Dr. Linda Hollebeek, Associate Professor at Montpellier Business School, France and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia. "Corporate communication is changing rapidly, and digital media represent a tremendous opportunity for companies of all sizes to better achieve their communication goals. This book provides important insights into relevant trends and charts critical ways in which digital media can be used to their full potential" Dr. Ulrike Gretzel, Director of Research at Netnografica and Senior Fellow at the Center for Public Relations, University of Southern California, USA. "This new book by Professor Mark Camilleri promises again valuable insights in corporate communication in the digital era with a special focus on Corporate Social Responsibility. The book sets a new standard in our thinking of responsibilities in our digital connected world". Professor Wim Elving, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands.
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The latest technologies are shifting how businesses capture, analyse and distribute data from the individual users’ online activity. Therefore, this contribution critically reviews the latest developments on big data analytics and programmatic advertising. Moreover, it sheds light on the use of blockchain; as this distributed ledger technology provides secure, verified transactions among marketplace stakeholders. The findings suggest that the service providers are increasingly utilising data-driven technologies including programmatic advertising tools to target and re-target individuals online or on their mobile. However, individuals and organisations are becoming increasingly aware on data protection issues, as they often block marketers from tracking them and serving them ads. In conclusion, this contribution puts forward a theoretical framework that explains how, why, where and when practitioners are capturing, analysing and distributing data. In sum, it implies that the data-driven technologies are facilitating the businesses’ customer-centric marketing.
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In this paper, with respect to reviewing and comparing existing social networks’ datasets, we introduce SNEFL dataset: the first social network dataset that includes the level of users’ likes (fuzzy like) data in addition to the likes between users. With users’ privacy in mind, the data has been collected from a social network. It includes several additional features including age, gender, marital status, height, weight, educational level and religiosity of the users. We have described its structure, analysed its features and evaluated its advantages in comparison with other social network datasets. On top of that, using unique feature of SNEFL dataset (fuzzy like) for the first time a rule-based algorithm has been developed to detect involuntary celibates (Incels) in social networks. Despite Incels activities in online social networks, until now no study on computer science has been performed to identify them. This study is the first step to address this challenge that society is facing today. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm in identifying Incels among all social network users is 23.21% and among users who have fuzzy like data is 68.75%. In addition to the Incel detection, SNEFL dataset can be used by researchers in different fields to produce more accurate results. Some study areas that SNEFL dataset can be used in are network analysis, frequent pattern mining, classification and clustering.
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Reward-based gamification which increases user engagement in social networks is known as an extrinsic motivation to the users for a short term. Having said that, in every social network, there are different types of users with different interests and based on several researches, different users are interested in different game elements. In this paper, we aim to personalize reward-based gamification based on the users’ interests. In this way, by utilizing intrinsic motivation of users, their engagement with social networks will increase in the long run. To this end, SNPG method which implements fuzzy like concept on game elements has been proposed. On top of that, a two-round experiment on user engagement with a social network using the proposed method has been conducted. Results have shown that personalizing gamification using the proposed method in the long run increases the spending time of the users in a social network by 63.34% and their page views by 141.9% in comparison with the regular gamification. Furthermore, gender differences in using game elements have been studied, and results have shown that men are 5% more interested in personalized gamification than women and leaderboard is the most popular game element among men and women.
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The ongoing advances in technology have brought significant improvements in the processing speed and storage of large volumes of data. Tech-savvy organisations have already started using big data with a goal to improve their decision making, agility and customer-centric approaches. Today, many tourism marketers are hyper-targeting consumers with real-time mobile ad campaigns to drive conversions. They use analytics to identify how exogenous variables, including the broader economy, competitive offerings and even the weather can affect their organisational performance. Similarly, the smaller enterprises are economically gathering and storing data from each and every customer transaction. They use analytics to customise their offerings and improve their customer engagement. Therefore, this chapter builds on the previous theoretical underpinnings on smart tourism. It clarifies how smart, disruptive technologies have led to endless opportunities for tourism and hospitality marketers to gain a competitive advantage. It explains how they are leveraging themselves by utilising contemporary marketing strategies and tactics that are customer-focused. The researcher examines the use of big data, analytics, programmatic advertising and blockchain technologies in the realms of tourism and hospitality.
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When Google's executives floated a vision for the Stadia cloud-gaming service, which could make graphically intensive gaming available on any device, they knew the company wouldn't have to build all the necessary technology from scratch. Instead, the tech giant planned to leverage its expertise in shaping Internet standards and installing infrastructure to support its YouTube video service for more than a billion people worldwide.
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More than 40 years ago, on 3 May 1978, a computer vendor in the US sent the first spam email in history. It was sent by marketing manager Gary Thuerk to a list of 320 people who were active at that time on Arpanet, a predecessor of today's Internet, and was to invite them to the launch of a new computer in Los Angeles and San Mateo.
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Recently, more and more people have the preference for obtaining the latest news and posting their views relying on social media. In this way, some opinion leaders would ultimately get a large number of followers. Because of the significant influence imposed by their social accounts, some of them start to post native advertisements in their articles, and articles fall within the scope of such category are generally known as content marketing articles. However, content marketing articles have the tendency of going viral for the lack of supervision. For instance, some of them include misleading information, which as a result would do great harm to the benefits of ordinary consumers. In this paper, we take the initiative to deal with this problem and propose a fundamental approach for the purpose of detecting content marketing articles based on the semantic features. In accordance with the characteristics shown by content marketing articles, a novel approach is proposed to enhance the detection based on sentence and word graph analysis.We extract both graph-related and community-related features from graphs of the two types, respectively. After that, a supervised classifier is trained based on a manually labeled dataset and the evaluation is also conducted for its effectiveness by employing extensive experiments. The results finally show that the combination of features of different kinds can improve detection accuracy and recall significantly. Apart from that, an algorithm is also developed to extract the advertising content in a detected content marketing article for the aim of helping remove illegal advertisements from social platforms. Finally, relevant analysis is carried out for the writing patterns of content marketing articles on WeChat Subscription and some interesting findings are discovered.
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The growth of online transactions coupled with the worldwide expansion of Internet-based information exchange has triggered fear, distrust and risk among online consumers. Despite the well-proven benefits to retailers when they include assurance services (online trust signals) such as seals of approval, rating systems or assurance statements in their websites, there is no consensus as the most trustworthy type. To fill this research gap, the current study reverts to neuroscience (fMRI) to compare the underlying brain mechanisms linked to each type. Twenty-nine subjects participated in an experiment simulating a low-involvement online purchase. The functional neuroimaging analysis reveals that seals of approval are the most trustworthy as they elicit activation of brain areas linked to reward and expected values. Although assurance statements reveal lower scores of trust than seals of approval, they do not arouse negative brain areas. By contrast, products accompanied by rating systems elicit brain areas linked to ambiguity, negativity and risk. Interestingly, more positive trust and purchase intentions toward seals of approval were predicted by the activation of value-computation areas, whereas higher scores of risk associated with rating systems were predicted by negative-related activations. These results offer invaluable insight into the psychological origin of trust conveyed to different types of online trust signals.
Chapter
In recent years, several scholars have called for more inquiry on the role of interactive media in learning in the digital and hyperconnected world. While the interplay of technology and learning may be difficult to fully unfold, current evidence suggests that technological innovations have an important effect on learning, engagement, and achievement in all educational settings—formal, non-formal, and informal. This book compiles contemporary and multidisciplinary research in this area, with the goal of arousing other investigators to contribute to the growing empirical literature on interactive media for learning. The chapters in this book explore research questions on technologically mediated learning from a variety of theoretical and methodological frameworks in several different types of educational contexts, and from different participant perspectives (students and teachers). In doing so, the book is expected to shed light and raise academic discussions on the interplay of interactive media and learning in formal, non-formal, and informal educational settings—how learning gains emerge and are documented, and how the use of interactive media relates to important behavioral, motivational, and achievement outcomes.