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Zaintzeko-I: metodología de diseño centrado en las personas para el desarrollo de nuevos productos y servicios centrados en la experiencia de paciente

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Abstract

Investigaciones recientes resaltan la importancia de introducir la eXperiencia de Pacientes (PX) a la hora de proponer productos y servicios en entornos sanitarios y sociales 1–3. Tradicionalmente el desarrollo de estos está liderado por equipos con un perfil experto en la tecnología a desarrollar, sin embargo, carecen de información real sobre el contexto de uso 4. El diseño centrado en las personas o human-centred design (HCD) 5 es un enfoque que ayuda a integrar la PX en las organizaciones y guía en el abordaje de problemas habilitando a profesionales y pacientes a co-diseñar los servicios y/o productos en colaboración 6. En este contexto nace Zaintzeko, una metodología HCD específica para su uso en entornos socio-sanitarios con el objetivo de guiar a las empresas y organizaciones a proponer nuevos productos y servicios para mejorar la PX. La primera experimentación de la metodología (Zaintzeko-I, 2018-2019) tuvo lugar en el ámbito académico con el apoyo de la DFG y UGGASA. Zaintzeko-I fue realizada por 23 personas graduadas en ingeniería de diseño industrial con conocimientos en HCD. Los 5 equipos de trabajo fueron capaces de identificar y definir la problemática y necesidades reales de las personas que son parte del ecosistema de cuidados, y de traducir estas necesidades en nuevos productos y servicios. Los 5 prototipos digitales presentados estaban en un nivel de desarrollo semi-funcional, lo que ayudó a la comprensión de las propuestas por parte de las empresas interesadas en el sector. Los equipos ejecutaron la metodología Zaintzeko de forma satisfactoria, a pesar de ser necesarios más estudios empíricos sobre su uso, la metodología asiste a los equipos a comprender la PX para después, definir y detallar las necesidades de las diferentes personas que forman parte del equipo de cuidados y traducirlas en requisitos de los nuevos productos y servicios.
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