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Effects of poultry litter and the residues of maggot's production on chemical fertility of a lixisol and maize (Zea mays L.) yield in western of Burkina Faso

Authors:
  • Université Nazi Boni
  • Université Nazi Boni/institut du développement Rural
  • Universite Nazi BONI
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... The recycling of waste and the production of protein are two of many benefits in using insects for waste treatment. The use of insects also generates a residue that is rich in minerals, which can be valorized as a quality bio-fertilizer to improve soil quality, enhance crop yield, and reduce the use of chemical fertilizers [21][22][23][24][25]. Furthermore, this residue can be used to produce secondary industrial compounds (e.g., biofuel, lubricants, pharmaceuticals, dyes) [26]. ...
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Simple Summary: The amount of waste produced by the population creates general health problems in terms of public health and hygiene. In recent years the common housefly (Musca domestica L. 1758) has been widely used in the treatment of organic wastes. This study aims to assess the effect of egg loading of the common housefly on maggot development and waste reduction. To do this, several housefly egg loads were incubated on three different substrates. This study indicated that larval biomass, larval number, the survival rate from egg hatching until the last larval instar and substrate rate reduction of Musca domestica are affected by the egg load, substrate type and their interaction. It was found that under the same nutritional conditions, the yield of housefly larvae, the number of larvae and the reduction of substrates increased with increasing egg load. Abstract: The amount of waste produced by the population creates general health problems in terms of public health and hygiene. In recent years the common housefly (Musca domestica L. 1758; Dip-teran: Muscidae) has been widely used in the treatment of organic wastes. This study aims to assess the effect of egg loading of the common housefly on maggot development and waste reduction. Housefly larvae were reared at four egg loads (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mg) under three different diets (wheat bran, millet bran, cow dung). Two-factor ANOVA (α = 0.05) was used to test the effect of two fixed factors (egg load and substrate) on larval biomass, the survival rate from egg hatching until the last larval instar, number of larvae and substrate reduction rate. The comparison of means based on Duncan's test was performed to compare the means of the different variables measured. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the relationship between the measured variables (larval biomass, the survival rate from egg hatching until the last larval instar, number of larvae, and substrate reduction rate) on the discrimination of the egg load factor. The results showed that under the same nutritional conditions, the yield of housefly larvae, the number of larvae and the reduction of substrates increased with increasing egg load. Indeed, at each of three substrates, the rearing egg load of 10 mg resulted in the maximum larval yield, maximum number of larvae, and maximum substrate reduction rate. At this optimum load, wheat bran generated greater biomass, greater number of larvae and greater reduction of substrate compared to millet bran and cow dung. The egg load as a whole had no effect on the survival rate from egg hatching until the last larval instar, unlike substrate type. The high egg load for the survival rate (from egg hatching until the last larval instar) for millet bran was 1.25 while there was no difference for the other two substrates. These results can help to make the waste treatment process efficient with the subsequent production of a large larval biomass that can serve as added value in animal feed. The egg load of 10 mg and the wheat bran were superior respectively to the other egg load and substrates type for all parameters tested excepted for the survival rate (from egg hatching until the last larval instar). Ours study indicated that larval biomass, larval number, egg viability and substrate rate reduction of Musca domestica are affected by the egg load, substrate type and their interaction. Citation: Hamidou Leyo, I.; Moussa Ousmane, Z.; Noël, G.; Francis, F.; Caparros Megido, R. Breeding Enhancement of Musca domestica L.
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Poultry farming, because of its many potentialities (i.e. short duration of reproduction and production cycle, rapid return on investment), occupies a place of choice in development strategies and the fight against poverty in most African countries. In Niger, West Africa, poultry are fed specific protein-providing feed ingredients (such as fishmeal); however, these ingredients are very expensive and unsustainable. Larvae represent a potential alternative source of protein for poultry. Here, we investigated different substrates to optimise housefly (Musca domestica L. 1758) maggot production and nutritional composition. Eight dry substrates were tested. The highest larval biomass (larval biomass produced by 10 mg of house fly egg placed on 50 g dry substrate) and mean weight (individual house fly larvae 5 days after the incorporation of eggs on the substrate) were observed on millet and wheat bran (3,446.67±134.16 mg and 24.00±1.01 mg, respectively). However, larvae produced on Brewer’s spent grains had the highest protein and lipid content (53.79±1.04% and 24.13±5.20%, respectively). Ash content was highest for larvae produced on cow dung and a mixture of 50% wheat bran and 50% cow dung (15.01±0.32% and 15.41±0.09%, respectively). Maggots produced on rumen contents had the highest water content (80.89±0.22%). The profile of produced larvae included palmitic acid (30.99±0.48% on grain), palmitoleic acid (30.26±2.84% on cow dung), oleic acid (27.93±0.31% on rice hulls), and linoleic acid (26.41±0.18% on millet bran + rumen contents). For all substrates, Maggots contained more unsaturated fatty acids (57.59-66.52%) than saturated fatty acids (26.54-46.34%). This study, offers to farmers a wide variety of substrates that could be used to produce maggots, providing a sustainable source of protein that has not been previously available in Niger. We recommend the farmers to use the cow dung to produce maggots without cost.
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The exploitation of insects such as saprophagous fly larvae for poultry nutrition is getting prominence in many African countries. In the framework of a participatory research, a survey was carried out in Burkina Faso to assess the present use of fly larvae and other feed inputs in traditional poultry farming, to identify traditional methods associated with fly larvae production and to gather information on the organic wastes that could be used locally by farmers to produce fly larvae. A questionaire was randomly administered to 360 poultry farmers in 12 villages and 2 regions (Boucle du Mouhoun and Hauts-Bassins) in Burkina Faso. Nearly 15% of the respondents mentioned that they also use fly larvae at least occasionally. Fly larvae are either produced by exposing substrates to naturally occurring flies, in which case larvae are obtained after three to 14 days, depending on the species, or directly collected in organic wastes. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) was the most commonly used fly species but black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.)) was also cited by some farmers. Over 30 organic wastes of animal or plant origin were cited by farmers as substrates that can attract adult flies and allow the development of their larvae. Farmers who have already produced fly larvae cited 25 potential substrates that can be used either alone or mixed with attractants. Information was gathered on the production techniques and their constraints, among which the lack of availability of suitable substrates. The study highlighted the potential of maggots as protein feed in traditional poultry farming but also the need to develop sustainable, efficient and safe production methods. The survey revealed the need to determine the most productive substrates for maggot rearing and safe substrates for poultry health. There are also indigenous practices that can be improved to increase maggot production.
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Kalifa et al, J. Appl. Biosci. 2018 Pratiques avicoles et gestion de la fertilité des sols dans les exploitations agricoles de l'Ouest du Burkina Faso. Published online at www.m.elewa.org on 31 st July 2018 https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v127i1.2 RÉSUMÉ Objectif : l'article montre la place de la volaille dans la production de fumure organique (FO) et la fertilisation des champs des exploitations agricoles (EA). Méthodologie et résultats : Une enquête d'exploitation agricole a été réalisée avec une approche globale des caractéristiques structurelles et des activités d'élevage de l'exploitation, et la collecte de données déclarées par le chef d'exploitation. L'enquête a été réalisée en 2016 sur un échantillon de 300 EA dans les régions des Cascades et des Hauts-Bassins du Burkina Faso. Les résultats mettent en évidence 5 types d'EA : 2 types d'agriculteurs (type 1 : 8,92 ha, 129 volailles, 4 bovins et 6 petits ruminants ; type 2 : 5,48 ha, 31 volailles, 3 bovins et 7 petits ruminants) et 3 types d'agro-éleveurs (type 3 : 10,57 ha, 42 volailles, 11 bovins et 16 petits ruminants ; type 4 : 6,58 ha, 68 bovins et 26 petits ruminants ; type 5 : 36,40 ha, 117 volailles, 44 bovins, 47 petits ruminants). L'élevage extensif de volaille qui est le système dominant (plus de 70 % des EA enquêtées) apporte près de 26 % du revenu des EA du type 1. Ce système extensif permet de produire dans l'année 4,67 kg de fiente par volaille contre 19,21 et 5,08 kg/volaille/an respectivement pour la claustration et le système semi-intensif. La fiente de volaille représente entre 26,46 et 35,72 % de la production de fumure organique et contribue à fertiliser près de 4,50 % des superficies totales cultivées des EA. Conclusions et application des résultats : Cette contribution de la volaille dans la production de la FO et la fertilisation des champs peut être améliorée en réduisant les pertes durant le processus de production et de collecte des déjections. Le système d'élevage semi-intensif et la claustration se présentent comme des perspectives intéressantes à explorer. ABSTRACT Use of insects in poultry practices and soil fertility management in farms in Western Burkina Faso Objective : This article shows the place of poultry in the production of organic manure (OM), and the fertilization of farm fields. Methods and Results : a farm survey was conducted with a holistic approach to the farm's structural characteristics and farming activities, and the collection of data reported by the farm manager. The survey was conducted in 2016 on a sample of 300 agricultural exploitations (AE) in the Cascades and Hauts-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. The results highlight 5 types of AE: 2 types of farmers (type 1: 8.92 ha, 129 poultry, 4 Kalifa et al, J. Appl. Biosci. 2018 Pratiques avicoles et gestion de la fertilité des sols dans les exploitations agricoles de l'Ouest du Burkina Faso 12771 cattle and 6 small ruminants, type 2: 5.48 ha, 31 poultry, 3 cattle and 7 small ruminants) and 3 types of agro-pastoralists (type 3: 10.57 ha, 42 poultry, 11 cattle and 16 small ruminants, type 4: 6.58 ha, 68 cattle and 26 small ruminants, type 5: 36, 40 ha, 117 poultry, 44 cattle, 47 small ruminants). Extensive poultry farming, which is the dominant system (more than 70% of the AE surveyed), contributes nearly 26% of the income of type 1. This extensive system produces 4.67 kg of droppings per year per poultry against 19.21 and 5.08 kg per poultry per year respectively for the intensive and the semi-intensive system. Poultry droppings represent 26.46 to 35.72% of organic manure production and also contribute to fertilize nearly 4.50% of the total area cultivated by AE. Conclusions and application of results : This contribution of poultry in OM production and field fertilization can be improved by reducing losses during the manure production and collection process. The semi-intensive farming system and the cloister are interesting prospects to explore.
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2)4: 617-622] © 2016 IJSRSET | Volume 2 | Issue 4 | Print ABSTRACT This study has the aim to do a chemical characterization of the organic fertilizers used in the urban agriculture in Bobo-Dioulasso. For this reason, seven (07) fertilizers of animal's origin were taken away and analyzed in the laboratory. The comparison of the nitrogen averages shows that the poultry droppings and the pig's manure have the respective highest contents of 2.5% and of 2.6% of the studied sample. The poultry droppings (total P=2.7%) were the most affluent in phosphorus followed by the pig's manure (1.4%), while donkeys manure had the lowest content (0.7%). The monogastric animals (poultry, pigs, and rabbits) had the highest contents in total N, total P and the C:N ratio. The lower content in total K was the rabbits and the pig's manure. These results give the possibility to optimize the recovering as fertilizers of the cultures or to make the soils more affluent.
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un essai a été conduit à la station du Centre National de recherche Agronomique(CNRA) de Man pour étudier les effets d’apports combinés d’engrais et de fumier sur la fertilité du sol, la nutrition et le rendement du maïs (Zea mays L.). Trois doses d’engrais et cinq quantités de fumier ont été testées. La combinaison des niveaux des facteurs correspond à quinze traitements. Les résultats montrent que le fumier est le moteur de l’amélioration de la fertilité du sol, de la nutrition et des rendements. L’ensemble des caractéristiques chimiques du sol a été amélioré, notamment, le phosphore, le calcium et la somme des cations basiques échangeables. Des répercussions de cette amélioration de la fertilité du sol sur la nutrition et le rendement ont été établies. Un accroissement significatif de l’assimilation du phosphore et du rendement, imputable au fumier, est observé. La nutrition phosphorée et le rendement du maïs sont liés à la dose de chacun des éléments nutritifs décisifs du sol par une fonction de production quadratique. L’ignorance des facteurs limitant la nutrition et la production entretient la persistance de faibles rendements. La correction des carences par une formule de fumure, ajustée au sol et à la culture, rétablit la productivité. L’entretien organique du sol constitue une solution appropriée aux problèmes du paysan.
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Objectifs: Les asticots sont une source importante de protéines animales faiblement valorisés dans l'alimentation des poulets locaux. L'étude vise à analyser les perceptions des aviculteurs traditionnels et les facteurs déterminant l'utilisation des asticots dans l'alimentation des poulets locaux (Gallus gallus) au Bénin.Méthodologie et Résultats: 960 aviculteurs traditionnels ont été enquêtés de façon aléatoire dans 48 villages. Les principales données collectées sont les caractéristiques sociolinguistiques du cheptel et le choix d'utilisation des asticots. Les facteurs déterminant l’utilisation d’asticots ont été analysés au moyen d’une analyse canonique discriminante. Un modèle linéaire généralisé à effets mixtes a été utilisé pour analyser les facteurs déterminant le souhait d’adoption des asticots. Trois groupes d’aviculteurs traditionnels ont été distingués et leurs caractéristiques ont été étudiées. La localisation géographique et le sexe de l'aviculteur sont les facteurs qui déterminent l’utilisation des asticots.Conclusion et Application des Résultats: Les aviculteurs souhaitant utiliser les asticots constituent le Groupe 2 avec 81,68 % des enquêtés, ceux utilisant déjà les asticots forment le Groupe 1 avec 5,73 % des enquêtés et le Groupe 3 est constitué des aviculteurs réfractaires à l'utilisation des asticots avec 12,59 % des enquêtés. Les aviculteurs du Groupe 1 se différencient de ceux des Groupes 2 et 3 par la taille du cheptel et le revenu annuel, ceux du Groupe 2 se différencient de ceux du Groupe 3 par le sexe, le groupe socioculturel et l’ancienneté dans l'élevage. Ainsi, les aviculteurs traditionnels au Bénin ont une bonne connaissance des asticots et consentent majoritairement à l'utiliser dans l’alimentation des poulets locaux. Cette acceptation doit être accompagnée par l’organisation de séances de sensibilisation à grande échelle et des actions d'accompagnement à la production des asticots afin de faciliter l'adoption des asticots dans les pratiques alimentaires d’aviculture au Bénin.Mots clés: Mouche, alimentation, perception, aviculteurs traditionnels, BéninEnglish Title: Local perceptions and factors affecting fly larvae adoption for traditional poultry (Gallus gallus) feeding in BeninEnglish AbstractObjectives: The maggots are an important but underused source of animal protein in the diet of local chickens. This study aims to analyze the perceptions of traditional poultry farmers and the factors determining the use of maggots in the diet of local chickens (Gallus gallus) in Benin.Methodology and Results: 960 traditional poultry farmers were randomly surveyed in 48 villages. The main data collected were sociolinguistic characteristics, information on livestock and the choice of using maggots. Factors determining the use of maggots were analyzed by canonical discriminant analysis. A generalized linear mixedeffects model was used to analyze factors determining the desire of adopting maggots. Three groups of traditional poultry farmers were distinguished and their characteristics were studied. The geographical location and the sex of the poultry farmer are the factors that determine the desire of using of maggots.Conclusion and Application of Results: Group 2 are the poultry farmers wishing to use maggots (Group 2) with 81.68% of the respondents, those of Group 1 are already using maggots with 5.73% of respondents, and finally the Group 3 consists of traditional poultry farmers who are against the use of maggots, with 12.59% of respondents. Poultry farmers in Group 1 differ from those of Groups 2 and 3 by their herd size and annual income, those in Group 2 differ from those of Group 3 by gender, socio-cultural group and seniority in the breeding. The traditional poultry farmers have a perfect knowledge of maggots and the majority agrees to the use them in the diet of local poultry. This acceptance must be accompanied by the organization of large-scale awareness sessions and accompanying actions for the production of maggots to facilitate the adoption of maggots in the food practices of poultry farming in Benin.
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Organic wastes are rich in nutrients that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop yield. A study was conducted at the experimental field of Department of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during July-December 2014 to examine the effect of different organic wastes on soil quality and rice yield. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) taking five treatments with three replications. The treatments were: T1 (recommended chemical fertilizers), T2 (50% farm waste + 50% poultry manure), T3 (50% poultry manure + 50% municipal solid waste), T4(50% cowdung + 50% farm waste) and T5 (50% farm waste+25% poultry manure +25% cow dung). All wastes were applied at one time after final land preparation and before 15 days of rice (BRRI dhan 49) transplanting. Minimum and maximum soil moisture content was 26.16% and 30.83% recorded at T1 and T2 treatments and that of pH values were 5.26 and 5.93 at T3and T4 treatments, respectively. Incase of soil nutrient content, organic matter, N and S content was highest in T2 treatment and P and K contents were highest in T4 treatment whereas lowest values were observed in T1 treatment. Pb and Cd contents were highest at T5 treatment and lowest at T1 treatment. However, the values of Pb and Cd were below the permissible limit for agricultural soil. The highest grain yield (4.72 t ha-1) was recorded in T4 treatment and the lowest grain yield (3.87 t ha-1) was observed in T1 treatment. Considering crop yield and soil properties, treatment T4 was better compared to other treatments. The present study clearly indicated that the quality of soil and yield increased due to the application of organic waste compared to chemical fertilizer.Progressive Agriculture 26 (2): 122-128, 2015
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The prevailing low food production in sub-Saharan Africa is an issue of great concern especially since Africa south of the Sahara is the only remaining region of the world where per capita food production has remained stagnant. This chapter reviews long-term experiments in Africa in the context of shifting paradigms related to tropical soil fertility management from first external input paradigm right through to the current Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) approach, which is a culmination of the participatory methods developed along the paradigm shift. Long term experiments (LTE) are an important source of evidence for soil fertility decline and provide crucial datasets for the development of sustainable management practices for tropical land-use systems and the amelioration of global climatic and environmental change impacts. A survey was undertaken to identify some ongoing long-term trials distributed across east, south and western Africa and in different agro-ecological zones. A long-term Experiment was defined as that extending over a period of over 5 years and more. Results from these trials are discussed in detail. Inference has been drawn from these findings and includes the following key findings: a) All long term trials showed yield decline, often with a relatively rapid fall to a low level equilibrium; b) At all sites, there were positive yield responses to one or more nutrients added as mineral fertilizers, which were consistent for the duration of the experiments highlighting the effectiveness of mine-ral fertilizers in increasing yield in arable farming systems in Africa; c) Soil organic matter (SOM) also declines significantly when land is cultivated; d) Prolonged treatments using only inputs of organic matter also showed yield declines, although the positive impact were sustained longer than for inorganic fertilizers alone in most cases; e) Rotational treatments, including sequences with legume crops and fallow periods had lower yield declines than monocultures; f) The best results invariably were those treatments that combined inorganic and organic inputs. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.
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Abstract The study was carried out to develop a sustainable soil management package for enhanced soil productivity and cocoyam yield on an Alfisol of southwest Nigeria. Three field experiments were carried out at two locations during 2007, 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons in Owo area in the forest-savanna transition zone of southwest Nigeria to evaluate soil physical and chemical properties and cormel yield of cocoyam. The treatments were five tillage methods (manual clearing (MC), manual ridging (MR), manual mounding (MM), ploughing plus harrowing (P+H) and ploughing plus harrowing twice (P+2H)) and five levels of poultry manure (PM) (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 t ha-1). The treatments were factorially combined and arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The MR, MM and P+H reduced soil bulk density, increased porosity and daytime soil temperature, reduced moisture content and increased cormel yield relative to MC in the first two years. In the third year, soil bulk density was higher with mechanized tillage methods especially P+2H and tillage reduced cormel yield relative to MC. Overall mean soil bulk density values for the three years were 1.56, 1.46, 1.46, 1.45, and 1.64 Mg m-3 respectively for MC, MR, MM, P+H and P+2H, and cormel yields were 9.5, 10.3, 10.1, 11.2 and 8.3 t ha-1. In the second and third year MC had highest values of soil organic matter, N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Mechanized tillage had least values. Soil bulk density and temperature reduced, total porosity and moisture content increased with application of manure. The manure increased cormel yield with 7.5 t ha-1 PM given highest percentage increase of 30% in cormel yield compared with control. The P+H+7.5 t ha-1 PM, MR+7.5 t ha-1 PM, MM+7.5 t ha-1 PM and MC+7.5 t ha-1 PM increased cormel yield by 44, 37, 35 and 22% relative to 0 t ha-1 PM. Cocoyam requires tillage and poultry manure at 7.5 t ha-1 .
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Tillage and use of organic manure are important agronomic practices that sustain high crop and soil productivity. Hence, a three-year (2007 to 2009) study was conducted to evaluate the effect of site, tillage and poultry manure (PM) treatments on soil and plant nutrients composition, growth and yield of cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium ). The study was a 2 × 5 × 5 factorial experiment with two sites (Owo – site 1 and Obasooto – site 2), five tillage methods; manual clearing (MC), manual ridging (MR), manual mounding (MM), ploughing plus harrowing (P+H) and ploughing plus harrowing twice (P+2H) and five levels of PM (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 t ha −1 ). Treatments were replicated thrice. Soil OM, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and leaf nutrients reduced with increase in tillage intensity, thus MC conserved soil nutrients the most, and increased nutrient uptake. Soil and plant nutrient concentration was lowest under the P+2H treatment. The MC, MR and MM treatments led to faster growth and higher tuber yield. As PM increased from 0 to 10.0 t ha −1 soil pH, OM, soil and plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg increased. The 7.5 t ha −1 PM gave the highest leaf K, Ca and Mg values. Owo site had significantly higher yield and growth parameters of cocoyam compared with Obasooto site. Yield and growth parameters of cocoyam increased with increase in PM level up to 7.5 t ha −1 . Out of all tillage cum manure treatments, MC+7.5 t ha −1 PM gave the highest values of yield and growth parameters.