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New taxa of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from tropical Africa

Authors:
  • African Butterfly Research Institute

Abstract and Figures

Three new species, Apallaga klaudiae sp. n., Gorgyra ziama sp. n., Andronymus teresae sp. n. and a new subspecies, Eagris tetrastigma lomana ssp. n., of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from the tropical forest zone of Africa are described in comparison with their presumed closest relatives.
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Volume 31: 56–71
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ISSN 2307
5031 (ONLINE)
METAMORPHOSIS
LEPIDOPTERISTS’ SOCIETY OF AFRICA
New taxa of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from tropical Africa
Published online: 7 September 2020
urn: lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C3B1E04C-3D2F-463B-9082-1A8D59A6FA60
Szabolcs Sáfián1,2, Claudio Belcastro3, Patrick Boireau4 & Steve C. Collins5
1Institute of Silviculture and Forest Protection, University of Sopron, Bajcsy-Zsilinszky út 4. H9400 Sopron, Hungary.
2African Natural History Research Trust, Street Court, Kingsland, Leominster, Herefordshire, HR6 9QA, UK. E-mail: szsafian@gmail.com
3Museo della Biodiversità, Parco Nationale della Sila, Loc Cupone, I-87058 Spezzano della Sila, Italy. E-mail:
belcastroclaudio@yahoo.com
4Afrique Nature, Abidjan, 01 BP 4264 Abidjan 01 Côte d’Ivoire. E-mail: pboireau@hotmail.com
5African Butterfly Research Institute, P.O. Box 14308, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: collinsabri@gmail.com
Copyright © Lepidopterists’ Society of Africa
Abstract: Three new species, Apallaga klaudiae sp. n., Gorgyra ziama sp. n., Andronymus teresae sp. n. and a new subspecies,
Eagris tetrastigma lomana ssp. n., of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from the tropical forest zone of
Africa are described in comparison with their presumed closest relatives.
Key words: Afrotropical Region, skipper butterflies, new species, new subspecies, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, Democratic
Republic of Congo.
Citation: Sáfián, Sz., Belcastro, C., Boireau, P. & Collins, S.C. 2020. New taxa of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)
from tropical Africa. Metamorphosis 31: 56‒71.
INTRODUCTION
Claudio Belcastro and the late Torben B. Larsen were
working on the description of various West African
skippers. Unfortunately, with the sudden death of Larsen
in 2015, their work was also terminated until Szabolcs
Sáfián and Belcastro decided to continue studying various
skipper groups, initially publishing the description of two
species (Sáfián et al., 2019). Sáfián also visited the
African Butterfly Research Institute (ABRI), where a
major collection of African Hesperiidae is hosted,
including further undescribed species. This paper is the
latest result of the studies on African skipper butterflies,
completing the description of two taxa originally
identified by Belcastro and Larsen: Gorgyra ziama sp. n.
and Eagris tetrastigma lomana ssp. n., collected in Sierra
Leone and Guinea. The authors also describe a newly-
found high altitude species, Apallaga klaudiae sp. n., from
the Nimba Mountains, Guinea and one from the lowland
forests of the Congo Basin, Andronymus teresae sp. n.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Abbreviations
ABRI: African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi,
Kenya
ANHRT: African Natural History Research Trust,
Leominster, UK
CAR: Central African Republic
CB: Claudio Belcastro’s scientific reference collection,
Rome, Italy
CEP-MZUJ: Nature Education Centre, Jagiellonian
University, Kraków, Poland
DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo
MCLB: McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and
Biodiversity, Gainsville, Florida, USA
NHM: Natural History Museum, London, UK
PB: Patrick Boireau’s scientific reference collection
Abidjan, Ivory Coast and La Gaude, France
SMFG: Société des Mines de Fer de Guinée, Guinea
Material examined
For practical reasons, the authors list all comparative
material below with further illustrations of male genitalia
and other supplementary material of some species
available online using the direct link below the listing of
specimens.
Apallaga galenus (Fabricius, 1793): 1♂ LIBERIA,
Yekepa residential area, Nimba Mountains, 06.vii.2020,
leg. Sáfián, Sz.; 1♂ GHANA, Volta Region, Asato, 300
400 m, 04.iv.2008, leg. Sáfián, Sz (Gen. prep.:
2728/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk), deposited in CEP-MZUJ;
64 specimens (both sexes) SIERRA LEONE, Bumbuna,
Wara Wara Mts, Kabala Yaterya, Kalafuga (E Bumbuna),
Loma Mountains: Sinikoro-Bandakarafaia, Yalamba,
Bendugu, Dodo Hills (above Panguma); GHANA,
Aquapem Ridge: Mamfe, Tutu, Aburi, Obosomasi; Atewa
Range: Kibi, Sagyimase, Apapam, Potroase. All deposited
in CB; 1♂ BENIN, Forêt de Niaouli, 31.x.2014, 1♀
BENIN, Pénéssoulou, Forêt de Pénélan, 02.xii.2014, leg.
Coache, A., deposited in MCLB.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/apallaga_galenus
Received: 23 May 2020
Published: 7 September 2020
Copyright: This work is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To
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Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 57
Apallaga ghanaensis Libert, 2014: 1♂ GHANA, Atewa
Range (Gen. prep.: 2749/06.07.2020/K. Florczyk); 50
specimens (both sexes) (not confirmed by genitalia or
molecular data) GHANA, Apapam, Mamfe, Obosomasi,
Kibi, Wli Falls, Mampong, Aburi; specimen (not sexed)
IVORY COAST, Danané; SIERRA LEONE. All
deposited in CB; 2♂♂, 1♀ BENIN, Forêt de Niaouli, 25
30.vi.2013, leg. Coache, A, deposited in MCLB.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/apallaga_ghanaensis
Apallaga belcastroi Libert, 2014: 1♂ SIERRA LEONE,
Freetown, Guma Valley, Western Peninsular Mountains,
leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂, 2♀♀ SIERRA LEONE, Lalehun,
Gola North, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♀ (Kabala) Wara Wara
Mountains, Kataweya Bridge, 800 m, leg. Belcastro, C.
All deposited in CB.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/apallaga_belcastroi
Apallaga galkasa Libert, 2014: 1♂, 1♀ (in copula)
SIERRA LEONE, Gola Forest South, 14.xii.2009, leg.
Belcastro, C.; 1♀ SIERRA LEONE, Gola South, 14.xii.
2013, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♀ GUINEA, Seredou, Forêt de
Ziama, 600800 m, xi.2010, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂
IVORY COAST, Forêt de Taї, 11.xii.1994, leg. Belcastro,
C.; IVORY COAST, Mount Nimba, Yealé, 1000 m,
iii.2000, leg. Belcastro, C.; 2♂ GHANA, Akwapem
Ridge, 500 m, Mamfe, 24.vii.1998, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♀
Akwapem Ridge, 500 m, Mamfe, 7.v.1988, leg. Belcastro,
C.; 1♂ GHANA, Atewa Ridge, Potroase (Kibi),
18.vii.1987, leg. Belcastro, C.; 2♂♂ GHANA, Begoro W-
Falls, 500 m, 25.vi.1978 & 3.xi.1979, leg. Belcastro, C.
All deposited in CB. 1♂ GUINEA, Forêt Classée de
Ziama, Massadou campsite, lowland forest,
8°2036.25N, 9°2614.70W, 541 m, light trapping
(250W blended bulb + 8W UV bucket traps), 08
13.iii.2019, leg. Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G., Florczyk, K
(Gen. prep.: 2729/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk).
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/apallaga_galkasa
Apallaga intermixtus (Aurivillius, 1896): 1
CAMEROON, PlanteCam Camp, Crater Lake, Elephant
Camp, 11001850 m, Mount Cameroon (Gen. prep.: 4
22.08.18-Przystalkowska); 35♂♂, 20♀♀ CAMEROON,
PlanteCam Camp, Crater Lake, Elephant Camp, 1100
1850 m, Mount Cameroon, leg. Sáfián, Sz., Maicher, V.,
Janeček, Š., Tropek, R., various dates between xi.2014
and ii.2017. All deposited in CEP-MZUJ; 2♀♀
CAMEROON, Mount Cameroon, 1500 m, iv.2012, leg.
Belcastro, C., deposited in CB.
Apallaga kakamegae Libert, 2014: KENYA, Yala
River, Kakamega Forest, Western Province, 12ʹN,
34°52ʹE, 15501600 m, 129.ii.2012, leg. T. Pyrcz (Gen.
prep.: 3-12.14.17-Przystalkowska); 6♂♂ KENYA, Yala
River, Kakamega Forest, Western Province, 0°12ʹN,
34°52ʹE, 15501600 m, 129.ii.2012, leg. T. Pyrcz; 1♀
KENYA, Yala River, Kakamega Forest, Western
Province, 0°12ʹN, 34°52ʹE, 15501600 m, 129.ii.2012,
leg. T. Pyrcz. All deposited in CEP-MZUJ.
Apallaga opalinus (Butler, 1901): 1♀ KENYA, Yala
River, Kakamega Forest, Western Province, 0°12ʹN,
34°52ʹE, 15501600 m, 27.ii.2012, leg. T. Pyrcz,
deposited in CEP-MZUJ.
Eagris tetrastigma tetrastigma (Mabille, 1891): 2♂♂
CAMEROON, Forêt d’Ebogo, vii.2012, local collector, in
coll. Belcastro, C.; 1♂ CAMEROON, Lolodorf, iii.2013,
local collector, in coll. Belcastro, C.; 1♀ CAMEROON,
Forêt d’Ebogo, vii.2015, local collector, in coll. all
deposited in CB; 1♂ CAMEROON, Eastern Region, 2 km
north of Dimako, 28.iv.2013, leg. Sáfián, Sz. & Espeland,
M. ANHRT unique number: ANHRTUK00043262,
deposited in ANHRT; 22♂♂, 23♀♀ CAMEROON
Ebogo, Dja, Maan, Yaoundé, Pinda, Campo, various dates
from 19862012; 45 ♂♂, 23 ♀♀ CAR, Yakoli, Yombo,
Botambi, Bangui, Corniche, Maka, Bimon, 19941998; 5
♂♂, 4 ♀♀ DRC, North Kivu, Biakato, Mapimbi, Pateka,
Makele, 20112013; 1♂ UGANDA, Semliki,
Bundibugyo, 4.xii.2005. All deposited in ABRI.
Eagris tetrastigma subolivescens (Holland, 1892): 3♂♂
IVORY COAST, Yapo, 29.vii.2001, leg. Belcastro, C.;
1 IVORY COAST, Forêt du Banco, ix.1998, leg. H.
Sodre; 1♂ IVORY COAST, Lakota, 1530.i.1997, leg. N.
Tahou; 2♀♀ IVORY COAST, Banco Forest,
iv&vii.1998, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♀ IVORY COAST,
Yapo, 8.xi.1992; 2♂♂ GHANA, Boti Falls, 12.iv.1980,
leg. Belcastro, C.; 3♂ GHANA, Begoro, 20.x.1979,
25.vi.1978, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂ GHANA, Sagyimaase,
17.x.1977, leg. Belcastro, C; 1♂ GHANA, Wli Falls,
18.xi.1979, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂ GHANA, Bia, Western
Region, 26.iv.1984, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂ GHANA,
Akuapem, Mamfe, 19.vii.1987, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂
GHANA, Tutu, 28.x.1979, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1
GHANA, Begoro, 3.xi.1979, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♀
GHANA, Kibi, 31.vii.1977, leg. Belcastro, C. All
deposited in CB; 43♂♂, 10 ♀♀ GHANA, Bia, Tano Ofin,
Bibiani, Suhin, Pampusu, Kibi, Ketepe, Lolobi, various
dates from 19902008, all deposited in ABRI. 1♂
GHANA, Ashanti Region, Bobiri Butterfly Sanctuary at
Kubeasi, 2024.ix.2016, leg. Sáfián, Sz., Aduse-Poku, K.;
1♂ GHANA, Eastern Region, Asuom Amanfrom,
Amanfrom Forest, Kade District, 2024.iii.2015, leg.
Sáfián, Sz., Csontos, G., Kormos, B., deposited in
ANHRT.
Gorgyra kalinzu Evans, 1949: 1♂ CAMEROON, Ebogo,
ix.2011, leg. Jo. Ozela, in. coll. Belcastro, C, deposited in
CB; 4 ♂♂ KENYA, Kakamega, iiiiv.1997, leg. Collins,
S.; 1♂ UGANDA, Kalinzu, v.1995, deposited in ABRI
coll.
Andronymus caesar caesar (Fabricius, 1793): 1♀
SIERRA LEONE, Guma Valley, xi.2001, leg. Collins, S.;
2♂♂ 1♀ IVORY COAST, Mount Peko, Forêt Classée de
Kokondékro, 2001, 2014; 21 specimens (both sexes)
GUINEA, Dubreka, Latoma, Labé; 1♂, LIBERIA,
Gambo Trail, Sapo National Park, Grand Gedeh County,
1520.xi.2012, leg. Sáfián, Sz. & Tropek, R., unique
number: ABRI-2019-3039 (Gen. prep.: SAFI00345); 1♀
LIBERIA, Mount Ghi Ridge, Putu Range, Grand Gedeh
County, 0512.xii.2012, leg. Sáfián, Sz. & Tropek, R.,
unique number: ABRI-2019-3040 (Gen. prep.:
SAFI00346); 6♂♂, 3 ♀♀ LIBERIA, Nimba Mountains,
Putu Range, 20102014, leg. Sáfián, Sz.; 37 specimens
(both sexes) GHANA, Wli Falls, Kintampo, Lolobi,
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 58
Hohoé, Likpe Maté, Bia NP, 19912013; 1♂, 1♀ TOGO,
Danyi, Badou, 2009 & 1996; 28 specimens (both sexes)
CAMEROON, Maan, Ebogo, Mt. Kala, Dja, Wack, 1993
2006; 43 specimens (both sexes) CAR, Yakoli, Bangui,
Botambi, Maka, 19951998. All deposited in ABRI.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/andronymus_caesar_caesar
Andronymus caesar philander (Hopffer, 1855): 1♂ DRC,
Mamove, N.Kivu, E.DRC, vi.2012, leg. ABRI, unique
number: ABRI-2019-3041; 1 ♀ DRC, Mamove, N.Kivu,
E.DRC, vi.2012, leg. ABRI, unique number: ABRI-2019-
3042; 1 ♀ DRC, Lukolela, Equateur, x.2013ii.2014, leg.
ABRI, unique number: ABRI-2019-3043; 110 specimens
(both sexes) Kivu, Equateur, Beni, Katanga, dates from
19822014. All deposited in ABRI.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/Andronymus_caesar_philander
Relevant literature was also consulted, including original
descriptions and illustration of types in Libert’s (2014)
comprehensive revision of African Celaenorrhinus and in
the original summary of African Hesperiidae by Evans
(1937). The authors also studied the late Larsen’s (2015)
unpublished manuscript with permission from Nancy Fee.
Genitalia dissection and wing venation
Genitalia of most specimens were dissected at CEP-MZUJ
using the following method: tip of abdomen containing
genitalia was removed and soaked and boiled in 10%
KOH solution for 510 minutes. Subsequently, abdomens
were preliminarily cleaned of soft tissue in water in order
to expose the genitalia. Dissected genitalia were cleaned
using 9095% ethanol solution. A Nikon digital camera
DS-Fi1 and an Olympus SZX9 stereomicroscope were
used for imaging the dissections, processed in Combine
ZP and Corel PHOTO-PAINT X3 programmes to enhance
focus and improve quality. Genitalia were retained in
glycerol-filled vials pinned under the corresponding
specimens (see reference numbers below). Genitalia
dissected by Belcastro and Larsen were extracted and
cleaned using the same method, although one valva was
removed during dissection and the genitalia were mounted
on standard microscope slides, which were later scanned
under a magnifying slide scanner. The digital images,
colour plates and locality maps were edited in Adobe
Photoshop photo editor and Adobe InDesign layout and
page design software. References for venation and spaces
between veins follow the simplified English or numerical
system (Miller, 1970), which is also used in other modern
works on African butterflies (Larsen, 1991, 2005).
DESCRIPTION OF NEW TAXA
Genus Apallaga Strand, 1911.
In: Strand, 1911. Entomologische Rundschau 28: 143
(143144). Type-species: Apallaga separata Strand,
1911, by monotypy.
Apallaga klaudiae Sáfián, Boireau & Belcastro sp. n.
(Figs 1A, D; 2A,D; 3A,D; 4A; 5)
urn: lsid:zoobank.org:act:2B42D6C9-D4E6-4482-BCBD-2295F66AAF67
Holotype GUINEA, Nimba Mountains, SMFG
concession area, R600 Forest, Mont Pierré Richaud,
7°3949.9N, 8°2222.1W, 1500 m, 1529.viii.2017, leg.
Sáfián, Sz. & Simonics, G. (Gen. prep.:
1146/15.02.2018/K. Florczyk), deposited in CEP-MZUJ.
Paratypes 1♂ GUINEA, Nimba Mountains, Zié
Pompage forest, SMFG concession area, 26.ii.2008, leg.
Patrick Boireau, deposited in PB; 2♀♀ GUINEA, Nimba
Mountains, SMFG concession area, R600 Forest, Mont
Pierré Richaud, 7°3949.87N, 8°2222.14W, 1500 m,
27.v06.vi.2017, leg. Sáfián, Sz.; 1♀ GUINEA, Nimba
Mountains, SMFG concession area, R600 Forest, Mont
Pierré Richaud, 7°3949.87N, 8°2222.14W, 1500 m,
1529.viii.2017, leg. Sáfián, Sz. & Simonics, G.,
deposited in CEP-MZUJ, ANHRT, ABRI; 1♀ GUINEA,
forest behind Zougué Pompage, 1100 m, Nimba
Mountains, deposited in ANHRT.
Other material examined 1 GUINEA, Nimba
Mountains, Réserve naturelle intégrale des monts Nimba,
Gouan/Zié pompage, 02.iii.2008, leg. Boireau, P.,
deposited in PB.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/apallaga_klaudiae
Descriptions
Male holotype (Figs 1A,D) Forewing length: 16.5 mm.
Wingspan: 32 mm. Ground colour dark brown, densely
overlaid with orange scales on upper side of both wings,
also with hairs mainly on hindwing. General Apallaga
pattern present; forewing orange median band very
narrow, terminates at vein 2, with single narrow
rectangular spot attached in space 1b. Single small orange
spot towards inner margin and base also present in space
1b, as well as one more prominent rectangular spot in
space 3 and three small orange sub-apical spots with
inconspicuous spot between the two, closer to outer
margin. Hindwing with larger orange, rectangular patch
along margin restricted to spaces 3 and 4, with adjoining
smaller spot in space 5, also two separate small oval spots
in space 2. Two pairs of even smaller oval twin-spots in
space 1b present, as well as single orange round spot in
discal cell. Fringes on hindwing orange between tornus
and apex, interrupted by dark brown towards end of veins.
Underside brighter orange, more extensively overlaid by
lighter orange scaling and hairs. Body dark brown
dorsally, haired with orange ventrally. Palpi, legs also
covered by orange hairs. Eyes bald, black.
Female (Figs 2A,D) Forewing length: 17 mm. Wingspan:
32.5 mm. In general appearance, female very similar to
male, forewing apex slightly less pointy and dark
chocolate brown ground colour only sparsely overlaid
with lighter orange hairs and scales. Apallaga pattern
lighter yellowish rather than orange. On hindwing,
rectangular spot smaller, restricted to space 4 with two
adjoined spots in space 3 and one in space 5.
Variation The size of forewing spots in the median band
varies between the two males available for examination.
They are reduced on the male paratype specimen
previously illustrated in Libert (2014) as Apallaga sp. (re-
illustrated:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/apallaga_klaudiae).
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 59
Figure 1Apallaga males: Apallaga klaudiae (holotype) rectoA, versoD; A. galkasa (Guinea, Ziama Forest) recto B, versoE
(Gen prep.: 2729/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk); A. belcastroi (Sierra Leone) rectoC, versoF (Gen. prep.: 2751/06.07.2020/K. Florczyk);
A. galenus (Ghana, Volta Region) rectoG, verso J (Gen. prep.: 2728/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk); A. kakamegae (Kenya, Kakamega
Forest) rectoH, versoK; A. intermixtus (Cameroon, Mount Cameroon) rectoI, versoL (Gen. prep.: 4-22.08.18-Przystalkowska).
One of the female paratypes appears to have a small sub-
basal spot in space 1b on the forewing. It matches the other
known females in all other features.
Genitalia (Figs 3A,D; 4A) Tegumen rounded, uncus
short, with down curved claw-like tip, and with single,
small hairtuft on dorsal edge, tip bi-lobed in dorsoventral
view. Gnathos upper arm broad, angled to narrow claw-
like, upcurving lower arm. Length of lower arm as of
uncus. Vinculum S-bent, saccus weakly sclerotized,
slightly upcurving, triangular with strongly concave
edges, dorsoventrally. Fultura inferior weakly sclerotized,
deltoid in posterior view, with V shaped groove, which
holds the straight, cylindrical aedeagus which has more
sclerotized slightly dentated tip and narrow tongue on
ventral side of base. Valva trapezoid with straight dorsal
edge, except small hump on top and with down-curving,
slightly oblong, rounded tip. Edges gently hairy.
Genitalia Not dissected.
Diagnosis
In the Apallaga galenus clade (sensu Libert, 2014) in
West Africa west of the Dahomey Gap, four Apallaga
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 60
Figure 2 Apallaga females: A. klaudiae (paratype, Guinea, Nimba Mountains) recto A, verso D; A. galkasa (Sierra Leone, Gola
Forest) rectoB, versoE; A. belcatroi (Sierra Leone, Guma Valley) rectoC, versoF; A. galenus (Benin, Forêt de Pénélan) recto
G, verso J; A. kakamegae (Kenya, Kakamega Forest) recto H, verso K (Gen. prep.: 3-12.14.17-Przystalkowska); A. intermixtus
(Cameroon, Mount Cameroon) rectoI, versoL.
species occur: A. galenus, A. ghanaensis, A. galkasa and
A. belcastroi (Fig. 4). Three of these were positively
recorded from the general Nimba area, but the presence of
A. ghanaensis was not confirmed by molecular data or
examination of male genitalia, although many specimens
with matching morphology are available in Belcastro’s
collection (Libert, 2014). From their general appearance,
A. galenus and A. ghanaensis could be immediately
excluded from more detailed comparisons as the orange
median band on their forewings in both sexes are
significantly broader, with the lower spot much more
elongated towards the margin. This is supplemented by a
prominent orange sub-basal spot in space 1b, which is
characteristic to these species and is missing or
completely overlaid by brown scales in all specimens of
the type series in A. klaudiae. With its darker upper side
ground colour (due to sparser orange scaling), narrower
orange forewing median band and narrow and rectangular
hindwing spot in spaces 3 and 4, the two partially detached
orange spots in space 2 and two pairs of rather prominent
twin-spots in space 1b, A. belcastroi is rather similar to
A. klaudiae. However, the above emphasised sub-basal
orange spot, which is missing or obsolete in A. klaudiae is
always present and is rather prominent in A. belcastroi.
A. galkasa has the sub-basal spot occasionally reduced in
specimens of both sexes but the large hindwing orange
spot is always broader, more prominent. Also the two
pairs of twin-spots are usually ill-defined, often partially
or completely missing in A. galkasa, as appears also on
the female holotype and the male allotype illustrated in
Libert (2014).
Within the West African species in the A. galenus clade,
only A. galkasa, A. belcastroi and A. galenus males have
similar genitalia, with a more down-curving tip of the
valva, but in A. belcastroi it is blunter, similarly to that of
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 61
Figure 3 Male genitalia with separated aedeagi: Apallaga klaudiae (holotype) A, D (Gen. prep.: 1146/15.02.2018/K. Florczyk);
A. galkasa (Guinea, Ziama Forest) B, E (Gen prep.: 2729/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk); A. belcastroi (Sierra Leone) C, F (Gen. prep.:
2751/06.07.2020/K. Florczyk); A. galenus (Ghana, Volta Region) G, J (Gen. prep.: 2728/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk); A. kakamegae (Kenya,
Kakamega Forest) H, K (Gen. prep.: 3-12.14.17-Przystalkowska); A. intermixtus (Cameroon, Mount Cameroon,) I, L (Gen. prep.: 4-
22.08.18-Przystalkowska).
Figure 4Male genitalia dorsal view: Apallaga klaudiae (holotype) A (Gen. prep.: 1146/15.02.2018/K. Florczyk); A. galkasa (Guinea,
Ziama Forest) B (Gen prep.: 2729/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk); A. belcastroi (Sierra Leone) C (Gen. prep.: 2751/06.07.2020/K. Florczyk);
A. galenus (Ghana, Volta Region) D (Gen. prep.: 2728/16.06.2020/K. Florczyk); A. kakamegae (Kenya, Kakamega Forest) E (Gen.
prep.: 3-12.14.17-Przystalkowska); A. intermixtus (Cameroon, Mount Cameroon,) F (Gen. prep.: 4-22.08.18-Przystalkowska).
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 62
Figure 5 Approximate distribution of A. galenus,
A. ghanaensis, A. belcastroi and A. galkasa and the type locality
of A. klaudiae.
A. galenus. The tip of the valva in A. ghanaensis is
squatter with small humps or serration on its dorsal edge.
The dorsal edge of the valva is straight and its width
narrows down evenly to the base in A. klaudiae, while in
all other species in the A. galenus clade the dorsal edge is
slightly angled at the basal third of valva. The tegumen is
shorter with a more pronounced hump on the dorsal edge
in A. belcastroi and A. galenus, while it is longer and
flatter in A. klaudiae and A. galkasa. Apallaga belcastroi
has two prominent hairtufts on the tegumen and the uncus,
while A. galenus has a single hairtuft on the uncus.
Apallaga. klaudiae and A. galkasa have only one rather
small hairtuft at the base of the uncus. The fultura is
deltoid-shaped in posterior view, with a deep V-shaped
groove in A. klaudiae, the fultura is trapezoid in
A. galkasa, also in A. belcastroi, but not as deeply
grooved as in A. klaudiae, also clearly visible on dorsal
view (Fig. 3). These genitalic features position A. klaudiae
near A. galkasa, however the narrower hindwing orange
patch, the obsolete or missing sub-basal spot in 1b along
with the evenly narrowing valva are sufficient diagnostic
features for the safe separation of A. klaudiae from
specimens of A. galkasa.
Beyond members of the A. galenus clade, no other
Apallaga species are present in West Africa without the
sub-basal spot in space 1b on the forewing. In submontane
areas of the Gulf of Guinea Highlands A. intermixtus is
similar in general appearance, however the male genitalia
have bi-furcate valvae. The East African A. kakamegae
also inhabits submontane forests. It has similar but blunter
valvae and has a sub-basal orange spot in space 1b in both
sexes (could be occasionally missing).
Etymology
The species is named in honour of Klaudia Joanna
Florczyk, a young biologist working at the Nature
Education Centre, Jagiellonian University, Kraków,
Poland. Klaudia recently got involved in taxonomic
studies of African butterflies, particularly on the genus
Iolaus and related genera. She also helps the authors
research, particularly with genitalia dissection and
photography on other projects. Klaudia also assisted
Sáfián’s field work in Ziama Forest, Guinea in 2019.
Discussion
The species was first captured by Patrick Boireau in 2009,
and he kindly provided pictures of his specimen to Libert
(2014) for his revision of the African Celaenorrhinus. In
the revision, the specimen is erroneously illustrated as
collected in the Nimba Mountains in Ivory Coast,
although it was found in the Guinean, northern area of
Nimba. The rest of the type series were collected during a
baseline biodiversity survey in the concession area of
SMFG in 2017. All specimens were found above
1 100 m.a.s.l. in submontane forest in two localities in the
Guinean Nimba Mountains (Fig. 5). Subsequent research
failed to find the species in other high altitude forests in
the Guinean Nimba, neither was it found during the
extensive butterfly studies in the Liberian Nimba
Mountains in 2008 and 2009 and from 20122014
(Boireau, 2009; Sáfián, 2014). Similar sub-montane forest
localities where A. klaudiae could still occur are scarce in
the Guinea Highlands. In Guinea, the only other two
mountainous areas are the Ziama Massif (1 385 m.a.s.l.)
and the southern, more forested range of the Simandou
Mountains (cc 1 650 m.a.s.l.). In Liberia, the butterfly
could occur near Mount Wutuwe, the highest peak of the
Wologizi Mountains (cc 1 400 m.a.s.l.). In Sierra Leone,
the high plateaus of the Tingi (1 709 m.a.s.l.) and Loma
Mountains (1 945 m.a.s.l.) might have suitable forest
habitats, but the butterfly fauna of these plateaus are very
poorly known. Based on current knowledge, the species is
considered endemic to the Nimba Mountains.
Genus Eagris Guenée, 1862
In: Maillard, L., Notes sur l’île de la Réunion 2: 6, 19 (1
72) Paris. [2nd edition]. Type-species: Thymele sabadius
Gray, 1832, by monotypy.
Eagris tetrastigma lomana Belcastro & Sáfián ssp. n.
(Figs 6AF; 7A,D; 8A,D; 9)
urn: lsid:zoobank.org:act:77278C9A-D58B-4840-AD51-0E474B38D476
Holotype SIERRA LEONE, Kondembaia, Loma
Mountains, 30.xi.1983, leg. Belcastro, C. To be deposited
in NHM, temporarily stored in CB.
Paratypes 1♂ SIERRA LEONE, Gola Forest, South
Sileti, 3.ii.2012, leg. C. Belcastro. (Gen. prep.:
SAFI00336); 3♂♂ SIERRA LEONE, Gola Forest, Gola
South, Sileti Road from Sileti camp to old Mahoi bridge
3.ii.2012; 1♂ SIERRA LEONE, Kondembaia (Loma
Mountains), 30.xi.1983, leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂ SIERRA
LEONE, Sinikoro, Loma Mountains, 27.xi.1983, leg.
Belcastro, C.; 1♂ SIERRA LEONE, Gola Forest, Gola
South, Mahoi River trail, 08.v.2014, leg. Belcastro, C.;
12♂♂ GUINEA, Forêt de Ziama, various dates from
20072011, local collector, all deposited in CB; 1♀
GUINEA, Forêt de Ziama, xii2007, local collector,
deposited in CB; 1♂ GUINEA, Forêt Classée de Ziama,
Sérédou campsite area, upland forest 8°2114.53N,
9°1931.93W, 8001100 m, 24.ii06.iii.2019, leg.
Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G. & Florczyk, K. (Gen. prep.:
2651/27.04.2020/K. Florczyk); 1♂ GUINEA, Forêt
Classée de Ziama, Sérédou campsite area, upland forest
8°2114.53N, 9°1931.93W, 8001100 m, 24.ii
06.iii.2019, leg. Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G. & Florczyk, K.
(Gen. prep.: 2651/27.04.2020/K.Florczyk); 3♂♂
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 63
GUINEA, Forêt Classée de Ziama, Sérédou campsite
area, upland forest 8°2114.53N, 9°1931.93W, 800
1100 m, 24.ii06.iii.2019, leg. Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G.
& Florczyk, K., deposited in CEP-MZUJ; 1♂, 1♀
LIBERIA, Putu, 1031.xii.2010, 0821.iv.2011, in coll.:
ABRI; 1♀ Coldwater, 2031.xii.2013, deposited in
ABRI; 1♂ LIBERIA, Foya Proposed Protected Area, Lofa
County, 1019.xi.2017, leg. Aristophanous, M., Sáfián,
Sz., Simonics, G., Smith, L. ANHRT unique number:
ANHRT00037693); 2♂♂ LIBERIA, Wologizi
Mountains, Base Camp forest Lofa County, 20.xi
01.xii.2017, leg. Aristophanous, M., Sáfián, Sz.,
Simonics, G., Smith, L. ANHRT unique numbers:
ANHRT00037714, ANHRT00037715; 1♂ LIBERIA,
Wologizi Mountains, Base Camp forest, Lofa County, 08
09.xii.2018, leg. Simonics, G. & Sáfián, Sz. ANHRT
unique number: ANHRTUK00058078. All deposited in
ANHRT.
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/eagris_tetrastigma_lomana
Descriptions
Male holotype (Figs 6A,D) Forewing length: 16 mm.
Wingspan: 28 mm. Forewing axe-shaped, hindwing
trapezoid with gently curving edge between apex and
tornus, slightly lobed along basal half of costa. Ground
colour of upper side black without pattern, except three
tiny white subapical dots. Hindwing costal lobe with oval
black androconial spot, surrounded by slightly paler
marginal area. Forewing underside black with paler
silvery area around sub-basal, oval, black androconial
spot. Base ochreous yellow between discal cell and costa.
Majority of hindwing ochreous yellow, slightly darker on
costal lobe, except narrow contrasting black marginal line.
Five black round spots follow the arc of the margin
between veins 5 and 9, of which the outer spot in space 8
is distinctly larger. Body black from above, yellow below,
including palpi. Legs yellow, antennae brown, eyes bald,
black.
Female (Figs 7A,D) Forewing length: 19 mm. Wingspan:
32 mm. Wing shape similar to male but wings longer and
broader. Ground colour dark chocolate brown, with
slightly warmer brown, rather inconspicuous sub-
marginal band that follows outer margin across the wing.
Forewing with six small sub-aprical white/hyaline spots,
also row of three discal spots. Hindwing basal half dark
brown with broad yellow margin between tornus and vein
5. Yellow margin tapers down to fine line between vein 5
and 7. Four dark brown, almost black spots in spaces 58
follow arc of margin. Apex blackish-brown. Forewing
underside lighter brown than upper surface, with yellow
scaling at base, white spots more prominent. Yellow
covers most of hindwing, apex brown, costal margin with
brown diffusion. Dark brown spots of upper side present,
costal spots more prominent. Fifth spot in space 8
inconspicuous. Body dark brown from top, yellow below,
including palpi. Legs yellow, antennae brown, eyes bald,
black.
Variation Among the known male specimens of
E. tetrastigma lomana examined, there is variation in the
number of subapical white dots. Some of the four white
dots can be obsolete or one or more can be missing.
Eagris tetrastigma lomana specimens with a slightly
darker underside are known from the Nimba Mountains,
showing a transitional form towards E. tetrastigma
subolivescens (Figs 6B,E), but with the typical black
marginal line of the hindwing. Variation in the width of
the hindwing yellow marginal band was also observed in
females.
Genitalia (Figs 8A,D) Tegumen rounded and blunt,
uncus with rectangular protrusion on dorsal edge, its tip
short, tubular with moderately thick hair-tuft dorsally.
Base of gnathos broad, rectangular, its narrower arm
protrudes at a right angle. Saccus spoon-like, short, back-
curving. Valva trapezoid in lateral view, broadest in the
middle, narrows down towards tip, before curving
upwards with a hook-like tip, another curved, spiny
process and few smaller teeth on dorsal edge. Length of
aedeagus like valva, slightly curved, broadest in the
middle. Basal end upcurved, terminal tip spoon-like, with
slight serration dorsally near middle.
Genitalia The female was not dissected.
Diagnosis
Males of E. tetrastigma lomana resemble mostly the
nominate subspecies with an ochreous yellow hindwing
underside and a narrow but firm black margin.
Eagris tetrastigma subolivescens has a diffuse margin,
often appearing as blackish indistinct triangles in spaces
between veins in the submarginal area, and the hindwing
is olive coloured rather than yellow. In the male genitalia
E. tetrastigma lomana resembles more the nominate
subspecies, with the broader base of the gnathos, and the
more humped top of the tegumen. Also the base of the
aedeagus is bent more upwards in the lateral view
compared to that of E. tetrastigma subolivescens.
Etymology
The name lomana refers to the location of the original
capture of the subspecies, the Loma Mountains in Sierra
Leone, which are the highest mountains of the Guinea
Highlands and the highest in West Africa west of the
Dahomey Gap with Mount Bintumani (1 945 m.a.s.l.).
The Loma Mountains are among the westernmost
representatives of true Upper Guinean rainforest with
various elements of the Liberian subregion butterfly
fauna, including Euriphene lomaensis Belcastro, 1986
(Belcastro, 1986a) and the Guinea Highlands endemic
Hypolimnas aubergeri Hecq, 1987 (Sáfián & Takano,
2019). The butterfly fauna of the Loma (and the
neighbouring Tingi) Mountains are probably hiding
several new taxa, and further studies on the butterfly fauna
would be desirable to help protect the mountain slopes and
gallery forests, and the high-altitude grasslands on the
plateau and around the summits. Loma also hosts
biogeographically important populations of butterflies
with montane affinities, e.g. Bicyclus campus (Karsch,
1893), Brakefieldia elisi (Karsch, 1893) and Precis
coelestina Dewitz, 1879 (C. Belcastro, pers. obs.).
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 64
Figure 6Eagris tetrastigma males. E. tetrastigma lomana (holotype) rectoA, versoD; E. tetrastigma lomana (paratype, Ivory Coast,
Yealé, Nimba Mountains) recto – B, versoE; E. tetrastigma lomana (paratype, Liberia, Wologizi Mountains) rectoC, underside F;
E. tetrastigma subolivescens (Ghana, Bobiri Butterfly Sanctuary) upper side G, underside J; E. tetrastigma subolivescens (Ghana,
Asuom Amanfrom) upper side H, underside K; E. tetrastigma tetrastigma (Cameroon, Ebogo) upper side I, underside L.
Discussion
Previously, E. tetrastigma had two subspecies, the
nominate one distributed from western Uganda across the
Congo Basin to Nigeria and ssp. subolivescens, which is
found from western Nigeria to central Ivory Coast
(Larsen, 2005) with a distribution gap in the savannah
habitats of the Dahomey Gap. The new taxon was first
illustrated by Belcastro (1986b), and Larsen (2005, 2015)
mentions it also as “ssp. claudio”. Belcastro originally
collected ssp. lomana in the Loma Mountains, Sierra
Leone and he also recognized the differences, described
above. The taxon was subsequently also found in lowland
forest areas in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia. A few
specimens collected in the Nimba Mountains have a more
olive-green coloured underside, similar to those of
E. tetrastigma subolivescens but they show a continuous
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 65
Figure 7 Eagris tetrastigma females: E. tetrastigma lomana (paratype, Guinea, Ziama Forest) rectoA, verso D; E. tetrastigma
subolivescens (Ghana, Kibi) recto – B, versoE; E. tetrastigma tetrastigma (Cameroon, Ebogo) rectoC, versoF.
Figure 8Eagris tetrastigma male genitalia: E. tetrastigma lomana lateral view and aedeagus (paratype, Guinea, Ziama Forest) A, D;
E. tetrastigma subolivescens lateral view and aedeagus (Ghana, Atewa Range Larsen, 2015) B, E; E. tetrastigma tetrastigma lateral
view with aedeagus (DRC Larsen, 2015) – C. Only A and D are illustrated in ratio with the scale bar, all other images were adjusted to
fit on the figure, as the original illustrations appeared without scale bar.
black margin on the hindwing underside. Subspecies
lomana seems to be genuinely restricted to the Liberian
subregion of West Africa as a westernmost subspecies of
E. tetrastigma (Fig. 9). Although Larsen (2005) did not
rule out the possibility of the “Loma population” of
E. tetrastigma representing a distinct species, from the
slight differences in male genitalia among the specimens
examined between Cameroon and Sierra Leone, the
Liberian sub-regional populations are best recognised as a
subspecies of E. tetrastigma.
Genus Gorgyra Holland, 1896
In: Holland 1896. Proceedings of the Zoological Society
of London 31 (2‒107). Type-species: Apaustus aburae
Plötz, by original designation.
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 66
Figure 9 Approximate distribution of E. tetrastigma
tetrastigma, E. tetrastigma subolivescens and known localities
of E. tetrastigma lomana.
Gorgyra ziama Belcastro & Sáfián sp. n. (Figs
10A,B,D,E; 11A-F; 12)
urn: lsid:zoobank.org:act:CE8EC4F8-A67C-4DE1-B615-A9CBF2B88B57
Holotype GUINEA, Ziama Forest, 24.xii.2007, leg.
Claudio Belcastro. To be deposited in NHM, presently
stored in CB.
Paratypes 1 GUINEA, Forêt de Ziama, 24.xii.2007,
leg. Belcastro, C.; 1♂, 1♀ SIERRA LEONE, Gola South,
Nemahugoima, 03.ii.2012 and 13.iii.2020, leg. Belcastro,
C.; 1♂ SIERRA LEONE, Gola Forest, Gola North,
Lalehun, 04.ii.2012, leg. Belcastro, C. Deposited in CB;
1♂ GUINEA, Forêt Classée de Ziama, Sérédou campsite
area, upland forest, 8°2114.53N, 9°1931.93W, 800
1100 m, 24.ii06.iii.2019, leg. Sáfián, Sz., Simonics, G.,
Florczyk, K. (Gen. prep.: 2632/17.04.2020/K. Florczyk).
Deposited in CEP-MZUJ.
Other material examined 1♂ LIBERIA, Putu Range,
xii.2010, leg. Sáfián, Sz. (the specimen was originally
deposited in ABRI from where Larsen took it on loan and
made the dissection illustrated on Figs 7C,F in London.
Unfortunately, many specimens have not yet been
recovered from Larsen’s bequest, including this male).
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/gorgyra_ziama
Descriptions
Male holotype (Figs 10B,E) Forewing length: 13.5 mm.
Wingspan: 23 mm. General appearance as other Gorgyra.
Ground colour black with white hyaline spotting on upper
side. One larger rectangular spot present below forewing
discal cell, two smaller rather irregular spots in cell. Three
small sub-apical spots present and one quadrangulate spot
in space 3, its outer edge toothed inward. Hindwing has
two median oval spots and a basal triangular one.
Underside colour dark grey, with very pale yellowish
overlay and whitish shade along inner margin of forewing.
Centre of forewing darker, blackish. All hyaline spots
visible. Body black from above, yellowish-dark grey from
underneath, including palpi.
Genitalia (Figs 11A–F) Uncus, tegumen and vinculum
slender. Uncus with hair-tuft dorsally very long tapering
into a blunt, very slightly down-curving tip. Saccus
tongue-like, short (one-fourth the length of valva). Valva
trapezoid in lateral view, with triangular, acute tip. Dorsal
edge with prominent strongly-toothed protrusion.
Aedeagus simple, with rounded base and acute terminal
tip. Valva and aedeagus equally long.
Diagnosis
The size and general appearance of G. ziama and
G. kalinzu are almost identical. However their genitalia
differ in the dorsal edge of valva: G. ziama has a
prominently serrated ridge, protruding out at the base of
the triangular tip, while it is flatter with only moderate
serration on a small ‘kick’ at the base of the triangular tip
in G. kalinzu.
Etymology
The species is named to recognise the Ziama Forest (Forêt
Classée de Ziama) for its unique and rich butterfly fauna
and its role in biodiversity conservation, being the largest
intact rainforest area in Guinea and the north-westernmost
one in the Upper Guinean forest zone.
Discussion
Gorgyra ziama was only found very recently by Belcastro
in Guinea (2007) and by Sáfián in Liberia (2010), while
Larsen (2005) mentions only a single specimen of
G. kalinzu from West Africa (Okwango, Eastern Nigeria).
The unexpected catch of an almost identical species in
West Africa, west of the Dahomey Gap led Larsen and
Belcastro to further investigate the matter but Larsen’s
untimely death prevented description of the taxon. In
Larsen’s (2015) unpublished manuscript there is a
mention of “Gorgyra [kalinzu] zema ssp. nov.” indicating
that the taxon was going to be recognised by him as a West
African subspecies of G. kalinzu. However, the wide
disjunction of distribution between the two taxa, and the
recognized difference in the male genitalia, give
justification for the specific status of G. ziama, supported
also by other examples of similar division of distribution,
including Parasiomera paradoxa (Schultze, 1917) and
P. alfa Sáfián, 2015 (Sáfián & Collins, 2015), and
Andronymus fenestrella Bethune-Baker, 1908 and
A. fenestra Belcastro & Sáfián, 2019 (Sáfián et al., 2019).
Further male specimens were collected in other localities
in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, which indicates that
G. ziama is restricted to, but widely distributed, in the
Liberian sub-region (Fig. 12). Although two female
specimens were preliminarily identified as G. ziama in the
CB and ABRI collections, due to the fact that Gorgyra
females are often difficult to assign to the males, the
authors avoided presenting them until further material
becomes available.
Genus Andronymus Holland, 1896
In: Holland, 1896. Proceedings of the Zoological Society
of London 80 (2‒107). Type-species: Pamphila philander
Hopffer, by original designation.
Andronymus teresae Collins & Sáfián sp. n. (Figs 13A,D;
14A,D; 15A,D; 16)
urn: lsid:zoobank.org:act:0192F02D-BA1C -4CC3-B28A-BE837B69168C
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 67
Figure 10Gorgyra males: G. ziama (paratype, Guinea, Ziama Forest) rectoA, versoD; G. ziama (holotype) recto – B, verso E;
G. kalinzu (Cameroon, Ebogo) rectoC, versoF.
Holotype ♂ DRC, Lukolela, Equateur, 650 m amsl,
x.2013–ii.2014, leg. ABRI (Luafa), deposited in ABRI.
Unique number: ABRI-2019-3037 (Gen. prep.:
SAFI00343).
Paratypes 1♂ DRC, Lukolela, Equateur; 1♀ DRC,
Equateur, Kuluboku 50 km north of Mbandaka, vi.1998,
leg. Luafa, deposited in ABRI. Unique number: ABRI-
2019-3038 (Gen. prep.: SAFI00344).
Online supplementary material:
https://abdb-africa.org/species/andronymus_teresae
Descriptions
Male holotype (Figs 13A,D) Forewing length: 18.5 mm.
Wingspan: 34.5 mm. General appearance like other
Andronymus, with very elongate forewing, creamy yellow
pattern on dark brown ground colour on both surfaces and
hyaline central patch on hindwing. Forewing sub-apex
with three small quadrangular spots; upper cell-spot oval
above very long streak (lower cell-spot), lower cell-spot
much longer than rectangular spot in the fork of veins 2
and 3. Ochreous trapezoid spot present in space 1b, as well
as rather small rather quadrangular one in space 3.
Hindwing with irregular creamy yellow spot that
surrounds inconspicuous hyaline centre-spot. Outer
margin of spot has two small rectangular indentations.
Hindwing fringes creamy around tornus. Forewing
underside similar to upper side with spot in 1b more
irregular. Inner half of hindwing creamy yellow with
brown costal edge, also broad brown marginal band
between apex and inner margin interrupted by narrow sub-
tornal creamy streak. Margin and fringes creamy yellow
around tornus. Body brown on upper side, underside of
head (including palpi) and thorax covered with creamy-
white. Abdomen brown, with creamy spot on last
segment. Legs brown and white, eyes bald, black.
Antennae long, black, clubs long with white spot dorsally.
Female (Figs 14A,D) Forewing length: 18.4 mm.
Wingspan: 35 mm. In appearance the only known female
does not differ from the males.
Genitalia (Figs 15A,D) Tegumen squat, broad, uncus
narrows down to long, down-curving tentacle with
rounded tip. Dorsal base of uncus covered with short hairs.
Vinculum slender, bent, saccus large, broad, upcurving.
Small, tentacle-like process above saccus is part of fultura.
Valva trapezoid in lateral view, with slightly down-
curving acute tip. Dorsal edge of tip strongly serrated.
Aedeagus short, broad, tubular with spoon-like tip.
Fultura inferior with straight, long and very slim anterior
process holds the aedeagus inseparably tight. This is a
unique feature in the genus Andronymus, first illustrated
and explained in Sáfián et al. (2019).
Genitalia The only-known female specimen was not
dissected.
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 68
Figure 11Gorgyra male genitalia: G. ziama (paratype, Guinea, Ziama Forest) lateral view A, aedeagus D; G. ziama (holotype) lateral
view B, aedeagus E; G. ziama (paratype, Liberia, Putu Range) valva lateral view, uncus ventral view C, aedeagus F; G. kalinzu
(Uganda, re-drawn from Larsen (2005)) lateral view G, aedeagus J; G. kalinzu (Cameroon, Ebogo illustrated from Larsen, 2015)
lateral view H, aedeagus K; G. kalinzu (DRC, MRAC illustrated from Larsen, 2015) lateral view with aedeagus – I. Only A and D
are illustrated in ratio with the scale bar, all other images were adjusted to fit on the figure, as the original illustrations appeared without
scale bar.
Figure 12Known localities of G. ziama and the western limit
of the distribution of G. kalinzu.
Diagnosis
The species is most similar to A. caesar, particularly to its
nominal subspecies, from which it differs in the length of
the upper cell-streak on the forewing, which extends
remarkably beyond the outer edge of the rectangular lower
cell-spot in Andronymus teresae, while it stops at the outer
edge of the lower cell-spot in A. caesar. No other
Andronymus appear to have such a long upper cell-streak.
The male genitalia are also remarkably different from all
known Andronymus with the down-curving acute tip with
strongly serrated dorsal edge of the valva. In A. caesar
caesar and A. caesar philander, the ventral edge of the
valva is up-curving, with an almost straight, evenly
serrated dorsal edge. The aedeagus and the attached
fultura inferior of both subspecies of A. caesar are much
longer and slightly bent, while this joint structure in
A. teresae is straight in lateral view with shorter and
narrower anterior process of the fultura.
Etymology
The authors are honoured to name this species after Teresa
di Micco de Santo, a long-time volunteer at ABRI.
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 69
Figure 13Males: Andronymus teresae (holotype) rectoA, versoD (Gen. prep.: SAFI00343); Andronymus caesar caesar (Liberia,
Sapo National Park) rectoB, versoE; Andronymus caesar philander (DRC, North Kivu) recto – C, versoF.
Figure 14females: Andronymus teresae (paratype) rectoA, verso D; Andronymus caesar caesar (Liberia, Putu Range) rectoB, verso
E; Andronymus caesar philander (DRC, Lukolela) rectoC, verso F.
Sáfián et al. / Metamorphosis 31: 56–71 70
Figure 15Male genitalia: Andronymus teresae (holotype) lateral view A, aedeagus D (Gen. prep.: SAFI00343); A. caesar caesar
(Liberia, Sapo National Park) lateral view B, aedeagus E (Gen. prep.: SAFI00345); A. caesar philander (DRC, Kivu) lateral view – C,
aedeagus F (Gen. prep.: SAFI00347).
Figure 16 Approximate distributions of A. caesar caesar,
A. caesar philander and the known localities of A. teresae.
Discussion
Andronymus teresae is known exclusively from lowland
forests in the Equateur Region of DRC (Fig. 16). A
specimen collected at light by Michael Ochse (pers.
comm.) in Ivindo National Park in Gabon is most certainly
a male A. teresae, but the specimen was identified from a
photograph.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to the late Torben B. Larsen for
his amazing work on Afrotropical skippers. Without
Torben’s work, the descriptions of the these taxa would
have suffered further delay. Torben’s widow, Nancy Fee,
kindly permitted access to Torben’s unfinished
monograph on Afrotropical Hesperiidae. The description
of Apallaga klaudiae would not have been possible
without the support of butterfly studies in the Nimba
Mountains by the SMFG and its environmental
programme coordinated by Jamison D. Suter and assisted
by Guy Parker. Claudio Belcastro conducted research in
Ziama Forest with permission from the Guinean
Authorities between 2005 and 2010. The first author’s
field work in Ziama Forest was carried out under the
auspices of the Conserving and Connecting the Ziama-
Wonegizi-Wologizi Transboundary Forest Landscape
between Guinea and Liberia of Fauna & Flora
International (FFI) and in partnership with USAID’s West
Africa Biodiversity and Climate Change Programme and
Centre Forestier de N’Zérékoré (CFZ), and in Guinea with
funding from the USAID West Africa Biodiversity and
Climate Change Program.
Staff of FFI Liberia and FFI Guinea and CFZ were
instrumental in the organisation of the field work, and we
are thankful to Wing-Yunn Crawley, Toupou Koighae,
Alan Deverell, Madam Wata Kamara and Colonel
Dumbouya for their assistance.
The first author is grateful to the African Natural History
Research Trust, Leominster, UK and its trustee and
director Richard H. Smith for additional funding that
allowed the butterfly team to survey Wologizi in 2017 and
2018, Wonegizi in 2019 and also to return to Ziama at the
end of March 2019. All authors are grateful to Klaudia
Florczyk (CEP-MZUJ) who dissected and photographed
several male genitalia. We also used dissections of
Apallaga prepared by Anna Przystalkowska (CEP-
MZUJ). Alain Coache kindly provided additional
comparative material. Renátó Molnár helped with editing
the digital images and plates used in the paper. Thanks to
Jon Baker for proofreading the final draft of the
manuscript and for two reviewers who pushed the authors
to add further information on the new taxa and the
comparative material, particularly on Apallaga, which is
taxonomically the most complex genus of African
Hesperiidae.
LITERATURE CITED
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SÁFIÁN, SZ. & TAKANO, H. 2019. Hypolimnas
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SÁFIÁN, SZ., BELCASTRO, C. & TROPEK, R. 2019.
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4.1.7
... The abbreviations of localities (from west to east), and literature source (wherever applicable) are as follows. The distribution of the localities of observations are illustrated in Fig. 3. Butterfly habitats in the Gola Rainforest National Park, Sierra Leone are described in detail in Belcastro & Larsen (2006) and Sáfián (2010Sáfián ( , 2012, habitats in the Wologizi Mountains are described in Sáfián et al., 2020, while those in the Nimba Mountains in Liberia are described in Sáfián (2014). Habitats in the Bia National Park are discussed in Larsen (2006) and those in the Atewa Range in McCullogh et al. (2007). ...
... The names at specific and subspecific level are based on Larsen (2005) but subsequent updates (e.g. Henning & Williams, 2010Larsen 2012) and new descriptions (Sáfián et al., 2020) are followed. ...
Article
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During mass-blooming in the dry season, the highly invasive Siam Weed, Chromolaena odorata, appears to be a prime nectar source for butterflies and a range of diurnal moths and other insects in West Africa. About 10 % of the West African butterfly fauna were recorded visiting C. odorata flowers between Sierra Leone and Western Cameroon as a result of opportunistic observations between 2010 and 2021. Predators on flower-visiting insects, such as crab-spiders and Flower Mantises, also seem to have become adapted to the newly available food-source. These records indicate that beyond the well-known adverse effects of C. odorata invasion to regeneration of natural vegetation on disturbed ground and the exposure of natural rainforest habitats to wildfires because of the plant's susceptibility to fire, the diet shift of a considerable proportion of pollinators could imply further threats to biodiversity, such as reducing the reproductive rate of forest plants pollinated by butterflies. Specific studies further targeting the subject are urgently needed. Citation: The highly invasive Siam Weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asteraceae), as a seasonal prime nectar source for butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) and other insects in West Africa.
... Genitalia of all specimens were dissected at CEP-MZUJ using the methodology described in Sáfián et al. (2020Sáfián et al. ( , 2021Sáfián et al. ( , 2022. References to wing venation follow the simplified "English" or numerical system (Miller 1970), which is also used in other modern works on African butterflies (e.g. ...
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A new species in the genus Iolaus (Papilionoidea, Lycaenidae, Theclinae) is described from the Gatamaiyu Forest, Aberdare Mountains, Central Highlands, Kenya. Morphologically, I. gatamaiyu sp. n. is similar to I. manasei Libert, 1993, a species of submontane forests of the Cameroon Highlands, which has very different male genitalia. The male genitalia of the new species are similar to those of I. crawshayi crawshayi Butler, 1897, I. crawshayi littoralis Stempffer & Bennett, 1958 and particularly to those of I. crawshayi maureli Dufrane, 1954. All these subspecies of I. crawshayi, however, are morphologically and ecologically distinct. The subgeneric placement of I. manasei is also briefly discussed.
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A new species, Iolaus freyaallanae sp. nov. in the subgenus Iolaphilus Stempffer & Bennett, 1958 is described from forests in north-western Zambia. Its general appearance suggests, and examination of male and female genitalia confirms, a close relationship with I. gabunica Riley, 1928 and I. liberiana Sáfián, 2017. For easier navigation between them and other Iolaus species with similar facies, the I. gabunica species group is proposed.
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Capture of the first female in the Nimba Mountains, Liberia reveals new identity to an Iridana Aurivillius, 1920 species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Poritiinae), previously identified from the male as I. agneshorvathae Collins, Larsen & Sáfián, 2008. The male and the matching female represent an undescribed species and is named as I. languyi sp. nov. The newly described species is known only from the upland forest zone of two mountainous areas in Liberia. With 27 figures.
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New distribution records of the Guinea Highlands endemic Nymphalid Hypolimnas aubergeri are presented, supplemented by behavioural observations of adults and information on its habitats and potential conservation issues.
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During extensive field work in West Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone), the authors collected two skipper species in the genus Andronymus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae), which would not fit the descriptions of any existing taxa. Both are described as new, A. magma sp. nov. is known only from Cameroon, while A. fenestra sp. nov. was found in a few localities in the Liberian sub-region of West Africa.
Article
Finding of two undescribed species, closely related to Eresiomera paradoxa (Schultze, 1917) in Liberia and the Democratic Repubic of Congo led the authors to revise the material available in the African Butterfly Reserarch Institute (ABRI), Nairobi. Examination of the material revealed that the placement of E. paradoxa and the related species neither in the genus Eresiomera Clench, 1965, nor in Pseuderesia Butler, 1874 in which the species was originally described, is satisfactory, based on characters offered by the wings and genitalia. Solving the problem a new genus, Parasiomera gen. nov. is erected for E. paradoxa and related taxa and two new species are described: P. alfa sp. nov., P. kivuensis sp. nov. The taxon orientalis Stempffer, 1962 orignally described as subspecies of Pseuderesia paradoxa is also elevated to species rank and placed in the new genus resulting the new combination and new status Parasiomera orientalis (Stempffer, 1962). To secure objectivity of the name usage of P. paradoxa, the only existing syntpe is designated as lectotype.
Preliminary survey of lepidopterans of the Tokadeh and Gangra areas and the East Nimba Nature Reserve
  • P Boireau
BOIREAU, P. 2009. Preliminary survey of lepidopterans of the Tokadeh and Gangra areas and the East Nimba Nature Reserve, Nimba Mountains, Liberia (manuscript report). In: Western Area Deposits, Environmental Studies -BIOPA Studies.
A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. London, Printed by order of the Trustees. xii
  • W H Evans
EVANS, W.H. 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. London, Printed by order of the Trustees. xii, 212 pp.
The Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History
  • T B Larsen
LARSEN, T.B. 1991. The Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 490 pp. + 22 colour plates.
Butterflies of West Africa
  • T B Larsen
LARSEN, T.B. 2005. Butterflies of West Africa. Apollo Books, Svendborg, Denmark. 595 pp. + 135 colour plates.
Skipper butterflies of the Afrotropical region (Hesperiidae)
  • T B Larsen
LARSEN, T.B. † 2015. Skipper butterflies of the Afrotropical region (Hesperiidae). Unpublished manuscript.
Sur la taxonomie du genre Celaenorrhinus Hübner en Afrique (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)
  • M Libert
LIBERT, M. 2014. Sur la taxonomie du genre Celaenorrhinus Hübner en Afrique (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi. 272 pp. + 26 colour plates.