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Visual fatigue impacts on learning via serious game in virtual reality

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Abstract

A new generation of Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) is on the consumer and enterprise market. Nowadays, they are increasingly integrated into training. These devices display stereoscopic images (S3D). Exposure to these images can cause visual fatigue. Simultaneously, the Serious Game (SG) is tending to become a type of knowledge mediation that has been adopted, although still being questioned. VR and SG require additional scientific evidence of their effectiveness in learning to motivate reasoned use. The risks of visual fatigue need to be quantified and documented, particularly at the request of health authorities. We determine that the SG, VR, their combination and S3D are more effective for learning when compared to other modalities and 2D displays. Two experiments are conducted involving 152 participants and testing 7 experimental conditions. Experiment 1 shows that the new generation HMDs cause visual fatigue, which is higher than a PC screen. Visual fatigue in HMDs tends to be higher with S3D compared to 2D. Visual fatigue has not negatively impacted learning. Experience 2 indicates that cyclically displaying S3D fatigued more than displaying regular S3D. The more stereopsis is activated via conflicting stimuli, the higher the fatigue. Links between visual fatigue and cognitive load are identifiable. It appears that the more sensory-motor conflicts are numerous and accumulate, the more the visual system compensates with behaviours associated with visual fatigue.
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... D2.1 Review of the impacts on cognition, health, and well -being for sustained AR/VR headset use D2.1 Review of the impacts on cognition, health, and well -being for sustained AR/VR headset use Figure 1: Technocentric diagram of Immersion and Interaction based on Fuchs et al., 2006, p. 11 ............... -14 -Figure 2: Virtuality continuum, described by (Milgram & Kishino, 1994). The continuum includes Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality ( : Vergence mechanism, different movements to align the optical axes according to the distance from the viewed object (F means Far, N means Near object) from left to right: vergence to an infinite object, vergence to a far object, and vergence to a near object based on (Souchet, 2020) Table 3: Variety of avatar system features in different social VR frameworks according to Kolesnichenko et al. (2019) Table 7: Symptoms of cybersickness associated with physiological changes according to Gallagher and Ferrè (2018) Marteau and Bekker (1992) (Zhang, 2008a) . ...
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Preprint
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