The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the practical work of learning designers with the aim of helping members of the information science (IS) and learning sciences (LS) communities understand how evidence-informed learning design of online teaching and online learning in higher education is relevant to their research agendas and how they can contribute to this growing field.
Illustrating how current online education instructional designs largely ignore evidence from research, this paper argues that evidence from IS and LS can encourage more effective and nuanced learning designs for e-learning and online education delivery and suggest how interdisciplinary collaboration can advance shared understanding.
Recent reviews of the learning design show that tools and techniques from the LS can support students in self-directed and self-regulated learning. IS studies complement these approaches by highlighting the role that information systems and computer–human interaction. In this paper, the expertise from IS and LS are considered as important evidence to improve learning design, particularly vis-à-vis digital divide concerns that students face during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This paper outlines important ties between the learning design, LS and IS communities. The combined expertise is key to advancing the nuanced design of online education, which considers issues of social justice and equity, and critical digital pedagogy.
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to explore social media's impact on organizational knowledge quality through the theoretical lens of social capital and resource exchange. Design/methodology/approach-Theory-confirming, quantitative study using panel data collected through web-based survey Findings-The results show that while social media affect structural capital and cognitive capital directly, it only affects relational capital indirectly through structural and cognitive capital. Moreover, overall social media and the enhanced social capital do help promote organizational efforts in knowledge management, which subsequently leads to higher level of organizational knowledge quality. Research limitations/implications-All survey respondents were from the U.S., which may limit the generalizability of the findings. The authors also call for more research in establishing the time sequence in the proposed causal relations and in the individual level mechanism through which social media promotes organizational knowledge quality. Practical implications-This study highlights both the potential and limitations of social media in promoting organizational knowledge management. Businesses must consciously manage the assimilation and use of social media to benefit from them. Originality/value-The authors position the study at the intersection of social media, social capital, and knowledge management and explicate how social media work through social capital and organizational knowledge management efforts to affect knowledge quality.
Higher education institutions' (HEI) have begun to develop decision support system data dashboards (DSS‐DD) to improve the data‐informed decision making practices of institutional decision makers. This qualitative study examines the practices of decision makers as they engage with DSS‐DD at a large U.S. Midwestern university and uncovers the socio‐technical characteristics that lead to limited or non‐use of dashboards. To examine these practices and characteristics, this study presents a framework grounded in socio‐technical interaction networks from social informatics and sociomateriality from information systems that explores the socio‐technical practices of users within organizations, while acknowledging the impact of the users' socio‐technical contexts on their DSS‐DD practices. The results show that during the design and implementation phases of these dashboards the institutional contexts that the dashboards are meant to inform are often ignored; and that as users interact with these systems they develop unintended and shadow practices that lead to limited or non‐use of the dashboards for decision making purposes. Additionally, the study finds that users' practices are influenced by their local socio‐technical networks, which includes their prior experiences using institutional data, other actors within their institutional unit, and the political and social contexts which shape the users' decision making behavior and data‐use practices.
A social perspective on knowledge does not exist independently of social relations and social practices. This chapter illustrates the travel of ideas around knowledge management within a social perspective through three processual activities: sharing knowledge and keeping knowledge alive within a community’s practices; embedding knowledge in material practices; and innovating as an ongoing process. Thus, we argue that a social perspective on knowing is based on three types of relations established between practices and knowledge: a relation of containment (knowledge is a process that takes place within situated practices); a relation of mutual constitution (knowing and practising produce each other); a relation of equivalence (the equivalence between knowing and practising arises when priority is denied to the knowledge that exists before the moment of its enactment). A social perspective on knowledge management has taken several turns from the concept of the community of practice to the development of practice-based studies.
We examine the concept of personal knowledge management using data drawn from our studies of digital nomads. We make two contributions: an empirical and conceptual development of knowledge management as it relates to independent workers and an advancement of social informatics that builds on Gibson's ecological perspective. Digital nomads provide an empirical basis to better understand how knowledge management is shifting from organization-centric, with its concomitant emphasis on organizational information systems to worker-centric, which relies on personal knowledge ecologies. We advance this concept as a combination of personal knowledge management activities and the digital technologies that support them. Our data make clear that individuals are the locus of personal knowledge ecologies, but these ecologies are embedded in a larger community of collaborators, clients, and peers who are often extensively mediated by digital technologies. This embedding and mediation are at the core of the sociotechnical arrangements that define the personal knowledge ecologies that we document. 2
The purpose of this study was to systematically collect and review the English language studies that provided empirical evidence for the existence of relationship between knowledge sharing (KS) and job satisfaction (JS) and their impact on each other.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted searching Google Scholar, LISTA, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses. Searches were completed through March 2017. Language limit was applied; and manual searching from review articles and some key studies using backward and forward citation from Google Scholar was also completed. Studies determining the relationship or correlation between KS and JS were included and books were excluded in this review. Data extraction and critical appraisal were performed to determine the risk of bias of each study.
The findings clearly reveal that these two variables had a significant relationship with and were influenced by each other. It is concluded that KS had a positive impact on JS and, similarly, JS had strong effect on KS among the individuals working in different organizations.
This review is first to examine the relationship between KS and JS and their impact on each other by systematically collecting and reviewing the English language studies. This study has theoretical and practical implications for managers and HR departments.
Employees' personal devices are increasingly evident in the workplace; the use of non‐enterprise sanctioned hardware and software is now commonplace. This phenomenon, frequently referred to as IT consumerization, is gaining momentum. Employees increasingly are using their own devices and choosing their own software (eg, Google Apps, Skype or Dropbox) in addition to—or instead of—enterprise IT. Employees are turning from consumers of enterprise IT to IT deciders, bypassing the IS department to use what critics call “rogue IT.” While discouraged in some contexts, the influx of consumer IT into the workplace has been suggested to influence innovative behaviours among employees. Although the phenomenon is very prevalent, research lags in the operationalization of an IT consumerization model. In this paper, we take a close look at the antecedents and consequences of consumerization behaviours. We examine to what extent an individual's level of satisfaction with enterprise IT in juxtaposition with the level of perceived relative advantage of consumer IT over enterprise IT influences an individual's usage of consumer IT in the workplace; we also examine how organizational mandates and IT empowerment influences IT consumerization behaviours. Finally, we investigate the influence of IT consumerization on innovative behaviours at work.
The voluntary use of private device by employees without formal approval of the IT department, commonly termed Shadow IT, is an increasingly widespread phenomenon. In this paper, we study the role of private smartphones (and related applications like WhatsApp) in knowledge-intensive practices in the manufacturing domain. With an in-depth case study based on data gained from observations and interviews, we are able to empirically illustrate why workers use their private smartphones (contrary to company guidelines) and how they find significant gains of productivity by using the 'forbidden' applications. Our study contributes to knowledge management research by showing how private IT use can change existing knowledge management practices. At the same time, we are able to give rich insights into the rise of Shadow IT in a manufacturing context which takes place in a self-organised way without knowledge of the management. This enables us to take a step towards a knowledge management strategy perspective on Shadow IT.
Historically, organizations owned and controlled the information technologies (IT) their employees used: telephone, inter-office memos, mainframes and timesharing systems. Today, employees often want to use their own IT: not only personal smart phones and tablets, but also Twitter and Google Docs. This new trend can diversify and extend enterprise the IT infrastructure, but leaves organizations struggling with technology uses that they cannot control. With the emergence of new technological paradigms in consumer markets and organizations, the management of IT infrastructure requires a more pragmatic and holistic approach that goes beyond simple technological considerations. In this paper, we present a three-part framework—technology, people and practice— that helps managers understand and mitigate these tensions. Drawing on two empirical studies of European executives and consultants from multiple management consulting firms, the paper further outlines changes taking place along the three aspects of the framework. It concludes by discussing three distinct approaches to the management of organizational IT infrastructure (passive, reactive, and pragmatic), and by offering greater insight regarding a pragmatic approach.
Knowledge management derives their power from the knowledge they use. When knowledge developers begin the building process, the first step is capturing tacit knowledge. The next step is to find a way to codify and organise knowledge into a form for others to use when needed. Getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time is the whole idea behind knowledge codification (Fig. 5.1).
In public administration, knowledge management (KM) is increasingly advocated for improving novelty and agility in policy development and service delivery. This study identifies factors influencing KM, theorizes their interaction effects based on the resource-based view, and assesses the impact of KM on organizational effectiveness. Physical resources invested specifically to promote KM (e.g., KM technology) are hypothesized to interact with organizational and human resources to influence public organizations' KM capability in capturing, sharing, applying, and creating knowledge. Data collected from 101 public organizations indicate that senior management championship, social capital, and employees' job expertise enhance the effectiveness of physical KM resources while organizational structure has a suppressing effect. Among them, senior management championship has the strongest enhancing effect. The findings also support the general expectation that developing a strong KM capability improves organizational effectiveness. Clarifying the interaction effects has important implications for the theoretical understanding of KM in public administration, while providing empirical evidence for the performance impact of KM informs public management.
– The purpose of this paper is to study organizational learning from complex and heterogeneous experiences. According to March (2010), this kind of high intellect learning is difficult to accomplish because it requires deliberate investments in knowledge transfer and creation. Zollo and Winter (2002) emphasized how knowledge codification can facilitate this process, as long as it is “well-performed”. However, knowledge management scholars have yet to explore what is meant by well-performed codification and how to achieve it.
– This paper addresses this gap and provides a conceptual analysis based on two related but previously disconnected research areas: organizational learning and knowledge management.
– This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. First, a new understanding of different types of experiences and their effects on learning is proposed. Then the codification process using a critical realist paradigm to overcome the epistemological boundaries of knowledge versus knowing is discussed; in doing so, it is shown that codification can take different forms to be “well-performed”. Finally, appropriate codification strategies based on experience type are identified.
– The abstraction-oriented codification outlined in this paper runs counter to the logic of concrete codification that dominates both theory and practice. Thus, going beyond the traditional debate on the degree of codification (i.e. should knowledge be fully codified or just partly codified), this paper introduced a new debate about the appropriate degree of abstraction.
The aim of this paper is to explore the focus on individuals in the field of knowledge management (KM). Through a meta-review of the KM literature, we identify a relative disregard of the individual in the KM literature while information technology (IT) oriented concepts are widely represented. Our review indicates the need for a greater emphasis on individuals in KM as knowledge is based on individuals' ability and willingness to create, share and transfer knowledge. We offer suggestions on how to integrate individuals into theorising and enacting KM and also identify some avenues for future research.
Many organizations have embarked on Enterprise 2.0. However, not many have successfully implemented it. Availability of inexpensive tools does not guarantee their usage by organizations and their employees. To have Enterprise 2.0 implemented widely and effectively by organizations, it is important that both managers and employees benefit from using it. It is expected that the level of congruence of management–employees perceived benefits would affect the level of adoption of Enterprise 2.0 in organizations. Testing this is the purpose of this research. Using the case study of two large global organizations, this study analyzed the use of Enterprise 2.0 by both employees and managers. The results showed that even though both employees and managers believe that Enterprise 2.0 usage does have a positive impact on communication, collaboration, community building, and employee engagement, the level of belief is different: managers’ perception of Enterprise 2.0 benefits is less than that of employees. There was a greater degree of congruence though between both the groups on the perceived benefits of Enterprise 2.0 on knowledge management and organizational outcomes. The size and the type (not-for-profit) of organization was a disadvantage in adopting such tools. The not-for-profit organization was more at loss when applying Enterprise 2.0 as its employees are less aware of the type of tools and of their benefits, and there is less managerial support.
Shadow IT is a currently misunderstood and relatively unexplored phenomena. It represents all hardware, software, or any other solutions used by employees inside of the organisational ecosystem which have not received any formal IT department approval. But how much do we know about this phenomenon? What is behind the curtain? Is security in organisations jeopardised? In the research study reported here, we conducted an in-depth analysis of the organisational Shadow IT software database, reporting the view from behind the curtain. The study used triangulation approach to investigate the Shadow IT phenomena and its findings open Pandora’s Box as they lay a new picture of what Shadow IT looks like from the software perspective. Our study revealed that greynet, content apps, and utility tools are the most used shadow systems. This study offers important insights on the Shadow IT phenomena for information management professionals and provides new research directions for academia.
By using social media, many companies try to exploit new forms of interaction, collaboration, and knowledge sharing through leveraging the social, collaborative dimension of social software. The traditional collective knowledge management model based on a top-down approach is now opening up new avenues for a bottom-up approach incorporating a more personal knowledge management dimension, which could be synergized into collective knowledge using the social-collaborative dimension of social media. This article addresses the following questions: (1) How can social media support the management of personal and collective knowledge using a synergetic approach? (2) Do the personal and collective dimensions compete with each other, or can they reinforce each other in a more effective manner using social media?Our findings indicate that social media supports both the personal and collective dimensions of knowledge, while integrating a social collaborative dimension. The article introduces a framework that classifies social software into four categories according to the level of interaction and control. With certain tools, individuals are more in control. With other tools, the group is in control, resulting in a higher level of interaction and a diversity of knowledge and mindsets brought together. However, deploying and adopting these new tools in an organizational context is still a challenging task for management, owing to both organizational and individual factors.
Purpose ‐ Researchers debate whether tacit knowledge sharing through information technology (IT) is actually possible. However, with the advent of social web tools, it has been argued that most shortcomings of tacit knowledge sharing are likely to disappear. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to demonstrate the existing debates in the literature regarding tacit knowledge sharing using IT; and second, to identify key research gaps that lay the foundations for future research into tacit knowledge sharing using the social web.Design/methodology/approach ‐ This paper reviews current literature on IT-mediated tacit knowledge sharing and opens a discussion on tacit knowledge sharing through the use of the social web.Findings ‐ First, the existing schools of thought in regards to IT ability for tacit knowledge sharing are introduced. Next, difficulties of sharing tacit knowledge through the use of IT are discussed. Then, potentials and pitfalls of social web tools are presented. Finally, the paper concludes that whilst there are significant theoretical arguments supporting the notion that the social web facilitates tacit knowledge sharing there is a lack of empirical evidence to support these arguments and further work is required.Research limitations/implications ‐ The limitations of the review include: covering only papers that were published in English, issues of access to full texts of some resources, and the possibility of missing some resources due to search strings used or limited coverage of databases searched.Originality/value ‐ The paper contributes to the fast growing literature on the intersection of KM and IT particularly by focusing on tacit knowledge sharing in social media space. The paper highlights the need for further studies in this area by discussing the current situation in the literature and disclosing the emerging questions and gaps for future studies.
Shadow IT is becoming increasingly important as digital work practices make it easier than ever for business units crafting their own IT solutions. Prior research on shadow IT systems has often used
fixed accounts of good or evil: They have been celebrated as powerful drivers of innovation or
demonized as lacking central governance. We introduce a method to IT managers and architects
enabling a more nuanced understanding of shadow IT systems with respect to their architectural
embeddedness. Drawing on centrality measures from network analysis, the method portrays shadow
IT systems as most critical if they hold a central position in a network of applications and information
flows. We use enterprise architecture data from a recycling company to demonstrate and evaluate the
method in a real project context. In the example, several critical and yet disregarded shadow IT
systems have been identified and measures were taken to govern them decently.
We identify the effects of specific organizational norms, arrangements, and policies regarding uses of social technologies for informal knowledge sharing by consultants. For this study, the term social technologies refers to the fast-evolving suite of tools such as traditional applications like e-mail, phone, and instant messenger; emerging social networking platforms (often known as social media) such as blogs and wikis; public social networking sites (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn); and enterprise social networking technologies that are specifically hosted within one organization's computing environment (i.e., Socialtext). Building from structuration theory, the analysis presented focuses on the knowledge practices of consultants related to their uses of social technologies and the ways in which organizational norms and policies influence these practices. A primary contribution of this research is a detailed contextualization of social technology uses by knowledge workers. As many organizations are allowing social media-enabled knowledge sharing to develop organically, most corporate policy toward these platforms remains defensive, not strategic, limiting opportunities. Implications for uses and expectations of social technologies arising from this research will help organizations craft relevant policies and rules to best support technology-enabled informal knowledge practices.
Knowledge management systems (KMSs) provide organizations processes and tools to capture, organize, and manage knowledge. A plethora of research has investigated how technical and social aspects of KMSs impact users’ intentions and usage behavior. Recent inquiries on KMSs have begun to explore individual related factors such as individual motivation and personal information management practices. This study explores the effect of personal information management motivation (specifically information proactiveness, transparency, and formality) on users’ commitment to knowledge systems. Theoretically grounded in the three-component model of commitment, the research model tests the relationships between personal information management motivation and the affective, calculative, and normative dimensions of commitment. Survey results of 78 accounting professionals demonstrate that information formality has the strongest effect on users’ knowledge system commitment compared to information proactiveness and transparency. This study contributes to knowledge management research by incorporating and emphasizing the power of “person” in knowledge management.
This book fills the void between existing works in Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). CSCL and CSCW each make important and distinct contributions to the construction of collaborative workplace learning and this book fully encapsulates the emerging application of collaborative learning theories and practices to workplace learning.
Intended for researchers and practitioners, CSCL at Work first guides the reader through the theoretical and methodologic implications of the latest data. Once a foundation is in place, numerous detailed case studies prompt readers to rethink how workplace training is presently conducted, how more collaborative learning strategies can contribute to higher performance, faster transfer of technology from research and development and other significant workplace output measures.
Contrasting with traditional workplace learning, focused on task oriented, practice oriented, or regulatory compliance objectives, CSCL at Work recognizes that creativity and innovation emerges from collaborative learning. Researchers in the fields of CSCL and CSCW need this book to expand their understanding of the intersection of these two related but discrete fields, and to provide guidance in the application of the principles of CSCL in the workplace.
Social media—computer-mediated tools of the Web 2.0 generation that make it possible for anyone to create, circulate, share, and exchange information in a variety of formats and with multiple communities—have become increasingly widespread in today’s organizations. Social media have started to affect multiple organizational phenomena and processes. This article pursues three interrelated goals. First, it provides a theoretical framework, based upon the concept of affordances, to theorize the potential implications of social media use for organizing. Second, it reviews existing scholarship on social media and organizing, highlighting social media diffusion, use, and implications for organizational processes of communication, collaboration, and knowledge sharing. Third, it relies upon the affordance perspective and existing scholarship to articulate an agenda for future research on social media and organizing, advocating for a diversification of the phenomena under study and for greater diversity and innovativeness in the methodological approaches devised to investigate these phenomena.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the applications of big data in personal knowledge management (PKM).
Five conventional knowledge management dimensions, namely, the value of data, data collection, data storage, data application and data presentation, were applied for integrating big data in the context of PKM.
This study concludes that time management, computer usage efficiency management, mobile device usage behavior management, health management and browser surfing management are areas where big data can be applied to PKM.
While the literature discusses PKM without considering the impact of big data, this paper aims to extend existing knowledge by demonstrating the application of big data in PKM.
This chapter explores the benefits and challenges that Web 2.0 tools present to knowledge workers and proposes a framework of personal knowledge management (PKM) skills to foster effectiveness in Web 2.0 settings. Research into Web 2.0 in the enterprise has focused primarily at the organizational level. Although the importance of individual knowledge workers is well known, there is limited understanding of the issues that Web 2.0 tools present for PKM and the related skills required. Our study aimed to address this gap. We interviewed six individuals from multinational software companies—three software developers and three middle managers. Our analysis combined an inductive approach with use of Avery et al. (Personal knowledge management: Framework for integration and partnership. ASCUE 2001 Conference Proceedings, North Myrtle Beach, SC, 2001) PKM skills model. Key perceived benefits of Web 2.0 were time saving, timeliness, improved collaboration, ability to locate knowledge holders, and improved communication across hierarchies and silos. Participants highlighted five main challenges: unreliable information quality, inequality of participation, lack of knowledge about the nature of technology, security risk, and fragmentation of information. They combined eight PKM skills to militate the challenges and realize the benefits of Web 2.0. We propose an adaptation of Avery et al. (Personal knowledge management: Framework for integration and partnership. ASCUE 2001 Conference Proceedings, North Myrtle Beach, SC, 2001) model that identifies eight PKM skills relevant to Web 2.0 and a framework for understanding how these promote individual performance in the context of Web 2.0. While the need for some traditional skills appears to be reduced, we found that two additional PKM skills were critical: creating and curating information and exercising time control.
Social media has become a widely-adopted technology over the past decade, affecting organizations in myriad ways. One of the most important is the effect on organizational knowledge management, in which social media overcomes many of the limitations of previous generations of knowledge management technologies. In this paper, I explore the effects of social media on organizational knowledge management. In doing so, I argue that social media is not a monolithic class of technologies, but a diverse and evolving technological infrastructure that supports and changes the way people communicate and collaborate. Key aspects of social media have gone through a technological evolution over the past decade from cloud computing, to mobile technologies, and into analytics. Each of these shifts has distinct implications for organizational knowledge management, many of which have yet to be fully realized. Furthermore, trends suggest that social media will continue to evolve with emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and augmented reality, which will further influence how organizational knowledge management is practiced. This evolutionary perspective suggests we may be closer to the beginning than the end of how social media will affect organizations and their knowledge management practices. As such, a broad perspective on social media may provide many open areas for research in coming years.
This text serves as a complete introduction to the subject of knowledge management, incorporating technical, and social aspects of knowledge management, as well as practical examples, traditional approaches, and emerging topics.
In recent years, as the amount of data grows, personal information management has become essential as well as challenging for everyday lives. Tagging, an alternative or complement to classifying into tree-structured directories, allows users to classify a single information item in multiple categories. Due to its flexibility, tagging system has become popular and a lot of studies have been conducted. Much previous research investigated the quality of tags with various tools such as questionnaires. However, the actual usage behavior of tag-based browsing and retrieval of stored information has rarely been studied. In this study, we examined the effects of tag attributes on the user behavior in browsing self-tagged documents under personal information management settings.Three attributes, tag commonness, tag frequency and tag position, were identified. A controlled experiment with tasks of tagging and retrieval to trace users’ behavior revealed that the tags with higher tag commonness, higher tag frequency and lower tag position were more likely to be used. The tags with lower tag commonness and lower tag frequency helped the users to recognize a desired document among a list of candidates. Among the three attributes, tag position was found the most influential. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of the quality tags and help information designers in building effective tagging environment.
Manufacturing small-sized and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) now evolve in a globalized business environment that is characterized by the need for global competitiveness based on knowledge and innovation. This research uses the concept of absorptive capacity as a theoretical lens to study the effect of e-business and strategic capabilities upon the performance of the SMEs in implementing their innovation and international strategies. It addresses the following three research questions: To what extent does the SME's entrepreneurial orientation influence its development of e-business capabilities? To what extent does the SME's entrepreneurial orientation and development of e-business capabilities influence the development of its strategic capabilities and, in so doing, help build its absorptive capacity? To what extent does this influence contribute to the firm's competitive performance, that is, to the successful outcome of its innovation and internationalization processes? The results of a survey study of 588 manufacturing SMEs indicate that e-business capabilities have a significant impact on competitive performance to the extent that these capabilities are developed as a result of a more entrepreneurial orientation and are realized through the development of strategic capabilities.
Historically, most enterprise knowledge management efforts have been content-based; however, recently firms have begun to focus their knowledge management efforts into collaboration. As a result, enterprises are changing their knowledge management strategy, focusing on collaboration, using enterprise social networking (ESN). This bifurcation has brought attention to user’s potential supply and demand of knowledge for tasks and decision making: Which do they use, content, collaboration or both? This paper investigates three potential theories to analyze that choice. In addition, the bifurcation suggests development of approaches to facilitate the integration of content and collaboration. Further, this paper investigates the role of personal knowledge management in collaboration and content generation. A case study is presented to illustrate some of the concepts generated in this paper. Finally, this paper proposes a number of potential research issues resulting from this investigation.
This paper offers a theory of communication visibility based on a field study of the implementation of a new enterprise social networking site in a large financial services organization. The emerging theory suggests that once invisible communication occurring between others in the organization becomes visible for third parties, those third parties could improve their metaknowledge (i.e., knowledge of who knows what and who knows whom). Communication visibility, in this case made possible by the enterprise social networking site, leads to enhanced awareness of who knows what and whom through two interrelated mechanisms: message transparency and network translucence. Seeing the contents of other's messages helps third-party observers make inferences about coworkers' knowledge. Tangentially, seeing the structure of coworkers' communication networks helps third-party observers make inferences about those with whom coworkers regularly communicate. The emerging theory further suggests that enhanced metaknowledge can lead to more innovative products and services and less knowledge duplication if employees learn to work in new ways. By learning vicariously rather than through experience, workers can more effectively recombine existing ideas into new ideas and avoid duplicating work. Moreover, they can begin to proactively aggregate information perceived daily rather than engaging in reactive search after confronting a problem. I discuss the important implications of this emerging theory of communication visibility for work in the knowledge economy.
Knowledge, as resource, and technological innovation, as a dynamic capability, are key sources for firm's sustained competitive advantage and survival in knowledge-based and high-tech industries. Under this rationale has emerged a research stream where knowledge management, organizational learning, or intellectual capital, help to understand and constitute the key pieces of one of the most complex business phenomena; the ‘firm's technological advantage’. This being so, it is also true that in knowledge-based and high-tech industrial markets, competitive success comes directly from continuous technological innovations, where a single organization cannot successfully innovate in isolation; therefore, firms should rely on external relationships and networks in order to complement its knowledge domains, and then, develop better and faster innovations. In this sense, I would like to highlight the cross-fertilizing role of three constructs that are nurtured by different research traditions: ‘collaborative/open innovation’, from Strategy and Innovation Management research; ‘absorptive capacity’, from ‘A Knowledge-Based View’; and ‘market orientation’, from Marketing research.
This paper presents the results of a 9-month ethnographic and action research study of rural technology workers where computer support for collaborative learning through workplace technologies was introduced to a US-based technology firm. Throughout the implementation of this support and participation, issues related to geographic isolation are contrasted with the information and learning needs of 89 employees. The development of information seeking, cataloguing and coordination practices through technology is described. Resulting insights have led to the identification of learning ensembles as an informal, socio-technical unit of organization within geographically isolated firms. Learning ensembles are hypothesized as a bridge between the mid-level, limited knowledge required in order to perform particular duties at the firm, and the greater potential of individual team members that is enabled by participation in the firm's technologically mediated, geographically dispersed customer teams. The discussion calls for future research on learning ensembles to further inform technologically mediated workplace learning.
Purpose ‐ A pattern of personal intelligence is seen emerging from the concept of agent-mediated personal knowledge management (PKM) in achieving collective organisational goals. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of surveys undertaken to prove this emergence.Design/methodology/approach ‐ A quantitative analysis supported by a qualitative analysis was conducted across three main industries in Malaysia, namely manufacturing, service and education. The triangulation of analysis is based on the four proposed hypotheses.Findings ‐ From these analyses, it was discovered that the emergence of personal intelligence is embedded within the collaborative interactions amongst software agents, and between agents and human knowledge workers. All the hypotheses are supported by the results of the surveys which manifest organisational knowledge management (OKM) practices as a consequence of the agent-mediated PKM processes.Research limitations/implications ‐ This research focused on the PKM in Malaysia, where the level of KM implementation varies among the organisations. The results may not reflect other developing countries due to the socio-cultural differences amongst the knowledge workers.Practical implications ‐ The results from this paper can be used either to relook and reanalyse the existing organisational KM system or to plan and design a KM system for organisations that have not implemented any.Originality/value ‐ The focus on personal intelligence and agent-mediated PKM contribute to further development of agent-based system that animates these theories in the real working environment.