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Do we trust in vaccines of covid 19 Professor Tareq alasadi

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Abstract

Vaccine experts around the world are justifiably concerned by the lack of scientific data on the “Sputnik V” vaccine for Covid-19 that Russia recently approved after less than two months of human testing on a non-randomized group of 39 patients. But they are also worried about the potentially chilling effect its possible failure could have on public acceptance of whichever of the dozens of other Covid-19 vaccines in the pipeline eventually proves safe and effective. Business leaders should be concerned as well and must begin to play a central role now in building public confidence in vaccines. Even safe and effective vaccines only work to protect the population if enough people are immunized. Unfortunately, there is already ample public opinion data to suggest that, egged on by anti-vaccine activists, large numbers of people won’t accept immunization. A third of Americans currently say they have no interest in taking a Covid-19 vaccine if one were available, even at little or no cost. Similar sentiments have been expressed in the UK, France, and other countries. • We cannot establish the level of “herd immunity” needed to co
Do we trust in vaccines of
covid 19
Professor Tareq alasadi
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;:A%>+*&&/5#
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"&8
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(#++

#&
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#+
#9'!&-

& searchers are working
to develop a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-
CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.
Before a vaccine is available to the public, it must go
through several stages of testing. The first stage is a
Phase 1 clinical trial. In Phase 1, the vaccine is given to
healthy volunteers to test if it’s safe and induces an
immune response against the virus.
Scientists began Phase 1 trials of an experimental
vaccine for COVID-19 in mid-March. The vaccine,
called mRNA-1273, is being co-developed by
researchers at NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the biotech company
Moderna, Inc.
The two-dose vaccine is designed to prompt the immune
system to produce antibodies against a portion of the
coronavirus “spike” protein, which the virus uses to bind
to and enter human cells. The vaccine uses messenger
RNA (mRNA), a molecule critical for the virus to
produce protein.
The researchers, led by Dr. Lisa A. Jackson of Kaiser
Permanente Washington Health Research Institute,
Seattle, published an interim report of the trial findings in
the New England Journal of Medicine on July 14, 2020.
The team tested the vaccine in 45 healthy adults, ages 18
to 55. Participants were enrolled at study sites in Seattle
and Atlanta. The volunteers were divided into three
groups. Each group received different doses of the
vaccine (25, 100, or 250 micrograms). Participants
received two injections, 28 days apart.
After the second injection, the team evaluated how well
the vaccine provoked an immune response against
SARS-CoV-2. They also tested whether the antibodies
could neutralize the virus in the laboratory. Safety was
assessed throughout the trial as well.
The investigational vaccine induced a strong immune
response and was generally well tolerated. Antibody
levels were higher with higher doses of the vaccine. In
both the middle and high dose groups, the researchers
observed high levels of neutralizing antibody activity
through day 43 after the second injection. These levels
were similar to the upper range found in patients who
had recovered from COVID-19.
None of the participants experienced serious side effects
from the vaccine. However, more than half reported
fatigue, headache, chills, or pain at the injection site.
These symptoms were most common following the
second vaccination and in those who received the highest
vaccine dose. Based on side effects and immune
response, the 100 microgram dose was chosen for an
upcoming Phase 3 trial.
The phase 1 trial is ongoing and currently has 120
participants. In April, researchers enrolled adults ages 55
years and older. A larger phase 2 clinical trial of mRNA-
1273, sponsored by Moderna, began enrollment in late
May. During this phase, researchers will continue to
evaluate vaccine dosing and immune response. Plans are
underway to launch a Phase 3 trial later this month to test
the vaccine’s effectiveness in thousands of people.
“Finding a safe and effective vaccine to prevent infection
with SARS-CoV-2 is an urgent public health priority,”
says NIAID Director Dr. Anthony S. Fauci. “The
preliminary result of this trial is an important milestone
toward this goal.”
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