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Abstract

Statement of concern We, the undersigned scientists, raise here our gravest concerns about the extinction risk to many species and populations of cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises). Each one of us is a cetacean specialist and each one of us believes this issue is now critical. The lack of concrete action to address threats adversely affecting cetaceans in our increasingly busy, polluted, over-exploited and human-dominated seas and major river systems, means that many, one after another, will likely be declared extinct within our lifetimes. Even the large whales are not safe. The recent listing of the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Critically Endangered reveals the serious failure of its relatively wealthy range countries to address a critical decline. Moreover, the factors driving this ongoing decline are well known, and, we believe, could be addressed. Only a few hundred North Atlantic right whale adults remain and, unless appropriate action comes soon, we will undoubtedly lose this entire species. Similarly, the Critically Endangered vaquita, Phocoena sinus, of the Gulf of California, Mexico, sits poised on the knife-edge of extinction, with an estimated population size that may be as low as only ten individuals. It is now almost inevitable that these two species will follow the baiji or Chinese river dolphin, Lipotes vexillifer, down the road to extinction. The baiji was identified as 'Possibly Extinct' by the IUCN in 2017 and, regrettably, there is little hope for this species. We believe, in all three cases, that enough was known about the situation of the species concerned for these dramatic declines to have been avoided, but that the political will to take action has been lacking. The bleak outlook for these three species shows how often too little is done too late. Of the 90 living species of cetaceans, more than half now have a concerning conservation status according to the IUCN, with 13 species listed as 'Critically Endangered' or 'Endangered', 7 as 'Vulnerable' and 7 as 'Near Threatened', whilst 24 species are 'Data Deficient'. These 'Data Deficient' species may also be imperilled. We simply do not know. This lack of clear information about so many species and populations is itself a major concern. Additionally, there are 32 subspecies and other distinct cetacean populations which are presently either Endangered or Critically Endangered (please see the list below for further details), and with ongoing research we are recognizing more populations of cetaceans that are discrete and require conservation action. Regrettably, as the cases of the Lahille's bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gephyreus) of the subtropical western South Atlantic, the Gulf of Corinth common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the orcas (Orcinus orca) of the Strait of Gibraltar all illustrate, recognition of their distinctiveness may coincide with the realization that their population is already in danger of extinction.
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THE REAL AND IMMINENT EXTINCTION RISK TO WHALES, DOLPHINS
AND PORPOISES:
AN OPEN LETTER FROM [OVER 250] CETACEAN SCIENTISTS [3/9/2020]
Statement of concern
We, the undersigned scientists, raise here our gravest concerns about the extinction risk to
many species and populations of cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
Each one of us is a cetacean specialist and each one of us believes this issue is now critical.
The lack of concrete action to address threats adversely affecting cetaceans in our increasingly
busy, polluted, over-exploited and human-dominated seas and major river systems, means that
many, one after another, will likely be declared extinct within our lifetimes.
Even the large whales are not safe. The recent listing of the North Atlantic right whale,
Eubalaena glacialis, by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as
Critically Endangered reveals the serious failure of its relatively wealthy range countries to
address a critical decline. Moreover, the factors driving this ongoing decline are well known,
and, we believe, could be addressed. Only a few hundred North Atlantic right whale adults remain
and, unless appropriate action comes soon, we will undoubtedly lose this entire species.
Similarly, the Critically Endangered vaquita, Phocoena sinus, of the Gulf of California,
Mexico, sits poised on the knife-edge of extinction, with an estimated population size that may
be as low as only ten individuals.
It is now almost inevitable that these two species will follow the baiji or Chinese river dolphin,
Lipotes vexillifer, down the road to extinction. The baiji was identified as Possibly Extinct by
the IUCN in 2017 and, regrettably, there is little hope for this species. We believe, in all three
cases, that enough was known about the situation of the species concerned for these dramatic
declines to have been avoided, but that the political will to take action has been lacking.
The bleak outlook for these three species shows how often too little is done too late. Of the 90
living species of cetaceans, more than half now have a concerning conservation status
according to the IUCN, with 13 species listed as Critically Endangered or Endangered, 7 as
Vulnerable and 7 as Near Threatened, whilst 24 species are Data Deficient. These Data
Deficient species may also be imperilled. We simply do not know. This lack of clear
information about so many species and populations is itself a major concern.
Additionally, there are 32 subspecies and other distinct cetacean populations which are
presently either Endangered or Critically Endangered (please see the list below for further
details), and with ongoing research we are recognizing more populations of cetaceans that are
discrete and require conservation action. Regrettably, as the cases of the Lahille’s bottlenose
dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gephyreus) of the subtropical western South Atlantic, the Gulf of
Corinth common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the orcas (Orcinus orca) of the Strait of
Gibraltar all illustrate, recognition of their distinctiveness may coincide with the realization that
their population is already in danger of extinction.
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Cetacean populations are adversely affected by many interacting factors, including chemical
and noise pollution, loss of habitat and prey, climate change and ship-strikes. For many,
foremost among these threats is incidental take in fishing operations.
Bearing these urgent matters in mind and with the knowledge that cetacean populations can be
lost very quickly, we call on:
countries with cetaceans in their waters to take precautionary action to ensure these
species and populations are adequately protected from human activities, including
implementing appropriate and fully resourced monitoring. We note that improved
monitoring technologies now offer new opportunities to observe and address activities
at sea; and
all nations to both work with and strengthen the relevant international bodies that seek
to address threats to cetaceans, including, but not limited to, the International Whaling
Commission and the Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
Animals, both of which are generating important conservation initiatives at this time.
Foremost among other relevant international organisations are the regional fisheries
bodies, which can address fishing-related threats to cetaceans, noting the urgent need to
address such impacts on many populations.
Finally, we note that cetacean conservation, like much that relates to the marine environment,
may be a concern that seems remote to many people. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic
has shown, our connection to nature is a key component in our own wellbeing. Whales,
dolphins and porpoises are seen and enjoyed all over the world, and are valued as sentient,
intelligent, social and inspiring species; we should not deny future generations the opportunity
to experience them. They are also sentinels of the health of our seas, oceans and, in some cases,
major river systems and the role of cetaceans in maintaining productive aquatic ecosystems,
which are key for our survival as well as theirs, is also becoming clearer.
Please bring this statement to the attention of the relevant policy makers in your country and
help us to help the cetaceans.
Species and populations of cetaceans that are deemed at risk of extinction
The list shows only the species, subspecies and distinct populations labelled as Critically Endangered (CR),
Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) and displays the latest assessment by the IUCN (highlighted in red) and,
where available, the previous assessment, with their dates.
‘Global population’ refers to the status of the whole species or subspecies.
The population trend is also noted: I = Increasing, D = Decreasing, S = Stable, ? = Unknown.
Balaenidae
Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus
East Greenland-Svalbard-Barents Sea subpopulation 2012: CR, 2018: EN, ?
Okhotsk Sea subpopulation 2012: EN, 2018: EN, D
North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, Global population, 2018: EN, 2020: CR, D
European population, 2007: CR, ?
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North Pacific right whale, Eubalaena japonica, Global population, 2008: EN, 2017: EN, ?
Northeast Pacific subpopulation, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, ?
Southern right whale, Eubalaena australis
Chile-Peru subpopulation, 2013: CR, 2017: CR, ?
Balaenopteridae
Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, Global population, 2008: EN, 2018: EN, I
European population 2007: EN, ?
Antarctic blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus ssp. intermedia, Global population 2008: CR, 2018: CR, I
Bryde’s whale, Balaenoptera edeni
Gulf of Mexico subpopulation, 2017: CR, D
Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, Global population, 2013: EN, 2018: VU, I
Mediterranean population 2011: VU, D
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
Oceania subpopulation, 2008: EN, I
Arabian Sea subpopulation 2008: EN, ?
Sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis, Global population, 2008: EN, 2018: EN, I
European population, 2007: EN, ?
Eschrichtiidae
Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus
Western North Pacific subpopulation, 2008: CR, 2018: EN, I
Delphinidae
Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii, Global population, 2012: VU, 2017: CR, D
Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, Global population, 2015: VU, D
Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, Global population, 2008: NT, 2017: VU, D
Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus
Mediterranean population, 2009: VU, D
Fiordland subpopulation, New Zealand, 2010: CR, D
Black Sea bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus ssp. ponticus, Global population, 2008: EN, ?
Lahille’s bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus ssp. gephyreus, Global population, 2019: VU, D
Hector’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori, Global population, 2000: EN, 2008: EN, D
North Island Hector’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori ssp. maui, Global population, 2000: CR, 2008:
CR, D
Indian Ocean humpback dolphin, Sousa plumbea, Global population, 2015: EN, D
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis, Global population, 2015: VU, D
Taiwanese humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis spp. taiwanensis, Global population, 2008: CR, 2017:
CR, D
Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, Global population, 2008: VU, 2017: EN, D
Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar subpopulation, 2004: CR, D
Iloilo-Guimaras, Philippines subpopulation, 2018: CR, D
Mahakam river, Indonesia subpopulation, 2000: CR, 2008: CR, ?
Malampaya Sound, Philippines subpopulation, 2004: CR, D
Mekong River subpopulation, 2004: CR, D
Songkhla Lake, Thailand subpopulation, 2004: CR, D
Peruvian dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus ssp. posidonia, Global population, 2019: VU, ?
Killer whale, Orcinus orca
Straits of Gibraltar subpopulation, 2019: CR, S
Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis,
Mediterranean population, 2003: EN, D
Gulf of Corinth subpopulation, 2019: CR, ?
Black Sea short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis ssp. ponticus, Global population, 2008: VU,
Unspecified
Eastern spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris ssp. orientalis. Global population, 2008: VU, I
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Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba
Mediterranean population, 2010: VU, ?
Iniidae
Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, Global population, 2011: DD, 2018: EN, D
Lipotidae
Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer, Global population, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
Monodontidae
Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas
Cook Inlet, United States subpopulation, 2012: CR, 2018: CR, D
Phocoenidae
Harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena
European population, 2007: VU, D
Baltic Sea subpopulation, 1996: VU, 2008: CR, D
Black Sea harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena ssp. relicta, Global population, 1996: VU, 2008: EN, D
Indo-Pacific finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides, Global population, 2012: VU, 2017: VU, D
Narrow-ridged finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis, Global population, 2012: VU, 2017: EN,
D
Yangtze finless porpoise, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis ssp.asiaeorientalis, Global population, 1996: EN,
2012: CR, D
Vaquita, Phocoena sinus, Global population, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
Physeteridae
Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, Global population, 2008: VU, 2019: VU ?
European population, 2007: VU, ?
Mediterranean population, 2006: EN, D
Platanistidae
South Asian river dolphin, Platanista gangetica, Global population, 2012: EN, 2017: EN, ?
Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica ssp. gangetica, Global population, 1996: EN, 2004: EN, D
Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica ssp. minor, Global population, 1996: EN, 2004: EN, ?
Pontoporiidae
Franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, Global population, 2012: VU, 2017: VU, D
Rio Grande do Sul/Uruguay subpopulation, 2003: VU, D
Ziphiidae
Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris
Mediterranean population, 2012: DD, 2018: VU, D
This Statement is supported by the following people: [this list will continue to be
updated until September 30th]
1. Lorenzo Rojas-Bracho PhD, Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP), Mexico
2. Mark Peter Simmonds OBE, Visiting Fellow, University of Bristol and Senior Marine Scientist, Humane
Society International, UK
3. C. Scott Baker PhD, Marine Mammal Institute, Oregon State University, USA
4. Els Vermeulen PhD, University of Pretoria, South Africa
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5. Erich Hoyt, co-chair, IUCN SSC/WCPA Marine Mammal Protected Areas Task Force, UK
6. Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara PhD, co-chair, IUCN Task Force on Marine Mammal Protected Areas,
Italy
7. Ellen Hines PhD, San Francisco State University, USA
8. Pedro Fruet PhD, Museu Oceanográfico "Prof. Eliézer de C. Rios", Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-
FURG & Kaosa, Brazil.
9. Laetitia Nunny MSc, Wild Animal Welfare, Spain
10. Eduardo R. Secchi PhD, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Brazil
11. Artur Andriolo PhD, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora/ Instituto Aqualie, Brazil
12. Stephanie Plön PhD, Bayworld Centre for Research and Education, South Africa
13. Elisabeth Slooten PhD, University of Otago, New Zealand
14. Alexandre N. Zerbini PhD, Cooperative Institute for Climate, Ecosystem and Ocean Studies, University
of Washington & Marine Mammal Laboratory, AFSC/NOAA, USA - Instituto Aqualie, Brazil
15. Mariano A. Coscarella PhD, CESIMAR-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan
Bosco, Argentina
16. Frank Cipriano PhD, California Academy of Science, USA
17. Juan Pablo Torres-Florez PhD, ICMBio/CMA, Brazil
18. Karen A Stockin PhD, Massey University, New Zealand
19. Olaf Meynecke PhD, Griffith University, Australia
20. Ada Natoli PhD, Zayed University, UAE Dolphin Project, UAE
21. Daren Grover, Project Jonah New Zealand
22. Steve Dawson PhD, University of Otago, New Zealand
23. Silvia Frey PhD, KYMA sea conservation & research, Switzerland
24. Dipani Sutaria, Marine Mammal Research and Conservation Network of India, India
25. Carolina Loch PhD, University of Otago New Zealand
26. Susan Bengtson-Nash, Assoc Professor, Griffith University, Australia
27. Isabel C. Avila PhD, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
28. Krista Hupman PhD, NIWA, New Zealand
29. Mike Bossley PhD, Whale and Dolphin Conservation, Australia
30. Will Rayment PhD, University of Otago, New Zealand
31. Isabella Clegg PhD, Animal Welfare Expertise, Sydney, Australia
32. Meike Scheidat PhD, Wageningen Marine Research, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands
33. Fabian Ritter, President, MEER e.V., Germany
34. Naomi A. Rose PhD, Animal Welfare Institute, USA
35. Katharina J. Peters PhD, Massey University, New Zealand
36. Emma Betty PhD, Massey University, New Zealand
37. Raphaela Stimmelmayr PhD, University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA.
38. Kerstin Bilgmann PhD, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
39. Miguel Iñíguez Bessega MSc, Fundación Cethus, Argentina
40. Vanesa Reyes Reyes PhD, Fundación Cethus, Argentina, and Whale and Dolphin Conservation, UK
41. David G Kaplan Esq, Cetacean Society International, USA
42. Claudio Campagna, WCS, Argentina
43. Joan Gonzalvo PhD, Tethys Research Institute, Italy
44. Diego Rodríguez PhD, Mar del Plata University, Argentina
45. Fernando Trujillo PhD, Fundacion Omacha, Colombia and Correspondence Member of the Science
Academy of Colombia
46. Danielle Kreb PhD, Yayasan Konservasi RASI, Indonesia
47. George Sangster PhD, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands
48. Jolanda Luksenburg PhD, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, The Netherlands
49. Cornelis J. Hazevoet PhD, Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Lisbon, Portugal
50. Cristina Milani PhD, Italy
51. Alexander Werth PhD, Hampden-Sydney College, USA
52. Caroline Weir PhD, Ketos Ecology, United Kingdom
53. Colin D. MacLeod PhD, GIS IN Ecology, UK
54. Giovanni Di Guardo Professor, DVM, Dipl. ECVP, University of Teramo, Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine, Italy
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55. Robin W. Baird Ph.D., Cascadia Research Collective, USA
56. Jeremy J. Kiszka PhD, Florida International University, Miami, USA
57. Arda M. Tonay PhD, Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Istanbul University / Turkish Marine Research
Foundation (TUDAV), Turkey
58. Rebecca M Boys, Massey University, New Zealand
59. Giovanni Bearzi PhD, Dolphin Biology and Conservation, Italy
60. Marta Hevia, Fundación Cethus, Argentina
61. Mariano Sironi PhD, Instituto de Conservación de Ballenas, Argentina
62. Paulo H. Ott PhD, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul Uergs & Grupo de Estudos de
Mamíferos Aquáticos do Rio Grande do Sul GEMARS, Brazil
63. Lindsay Porter PhD, IUCN Species Survival Commission-Cetacean Specialist Group, Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region
64. Emmanuelle Martinez PhD., NorthTec, New Zealand
65. Lindy Weilgart PhD, Dalhousie University, Canada and OceanCare, Switzerland
66. Beatrice Jann, President Swiss Whale Society SWG, Switzerland
67. Enrico Gennari PhD, Oceans Research Institute, South Africa
68. Simone Panigada PhD, President, Tethys Research Institute
69. Marijke Nita de Boer PhD, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands
70. Maria Jiménez A. MSc, Fundación Conservaré, Colombia
71. Hanna Nuuttila PhD, Swansea University, UK
72. Meredith Thornton, University of Pretoria, South Africa
73. Michael Stachowitsch PhD, University of Vienna, Austria
74. Joan Giménez PhD, University College Cork, Ireland
75. Draško Holcer PhD, Blue World Institute of Marine Research and Conservation, Croatia
76. Liliane Lodi PhD, Instituto Mar Adentro, Brazil
77. Sarah Dolman MSc, Whale and Dolphin Conservation, UK
78. Pablo Denuncio PhD, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata / CONICET, Argentina
79. Patricia Burkhardt-Holm Dr. rer.nat., Professor of Ecology, University of Basel, Switzerland
80. Patrick Lyne C.Mar.Sci., IWDG, DMAD, MMOA, Ireland
81. Paulo C. Simões-Lopes, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Aquatic Mammals Lab (LAMAQ)
BrazilSharon Young MSc, Humane Society of the United States, USA
82. Janet Mann PhD, Georgetown University, USA
83. Leonardo L. Wedekin PhD, Socioambiental Consultores Associados, Brazil
84. Lars Bejder PhD, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
85. Milton Marcondes DVM, Research Coordinator Humpback Whale Institute, Brazil.
86. Mauricio Cantor PhD, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina & Max Planck Institute of Animal
Behaviour, Brazil
87. Peter Mackelworth PhD, Blue World Institute, Croatia
88. Hal Whitehead PhD, Dalhousie University, Canada
89. Ida Carlén, Coalition Clean Baltic, Sweden
90. Nicola Hodgins, Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC) & University of Exeter, UK
91. Ignacio Benites Moreno PhD, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
92. Monique Pool, Green Heritage Fund Suriname, Suriname
93. Marina Costa PhD, Tethys Research Institute, Italy
94. Simon Elwen PhD, Sea Search Research and Conservation, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
95. Tess Gridley PhD, Sea Search Research and Conservation, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
96. Randall Reeves, chair, IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group, Canada
97. Bill Fulton BSc Dip Aut Comp, Living Ocean Inc, Australia
98. Camila Domit PhD, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil
99. Jose David Palacios Alfaro Lic, Fundación Keto, Costa Rica
100. Gianni Pavan, University of Pavia, Italy
101. Suwat Jutapruet PhD, Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus, Thailand
102. Denise Risch PhD, Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), Scotland, UK
103. Anoukchika D Ilangakoon MSc, IUCN SSC - Cetacean Specialist Group, Sri Lanka
104. Gianna Minton PhD, Megaptera Marine Conservation, The Netherlands
105. Fredrik Christiansen PhD, Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Denmark
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106. R. Ewan Fordyce, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
107. Vic Cockcroft PhD, Nelson Mandela University. South Africa.
108. Graham John Pierce, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Spain
109. Manuel E. dos Santos PhD, MARE-ISPA, Portugal
110. Shane Gero PhD, Dalhousie University, Aarhus University, and The Dominica Sperm Whale Project,
Canada/Dominica
111. David Gruber PhD, City University of New York, USA
112. Michael J. Tetley PhD, IMMA Coordinator, IUCN SSC/WCPA Marine Mammal Protected Areas Task
Force, UK
113. Frants H. Jensen PhD, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
114. Robert Wood PhD, Harvard University, USA
115. Florent Nicolas, Groupe d´Etude des Cétacés du Cotentin, France
116. Nicholas Tregenza DCH, University of Exeter, UK.
117. Anastasia Miliou, Scientific Director, Archipelagos Institute of Marine Conservation, Greece
118. Sandra Hörbst MSc, Gansbaai South Africa
119. Steven Benjamins PhD, Scottish Association for Marine Science, UK
120. Trish Franklin PhD, The Oceania Project and Southern Cross University, Australia
121. Wally Franklin, PhD, The Oceania Project and Southern Cross University, Australia
122. Kevin Robinson PhD Cetacean Research & Rescue Unit, Scotland
123. Jimena Belgrano, Fundación Cethus, Argentina
124. Jörn Selling, firmm.org, Spain
125. Caterina Fortuna PhD, National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Italy)
126. Isabel García-Barón PhD, Institution: AZTI, Spain
127. Natacha Aguilar de Soto PhD, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
128. Jean-Luc Jung PhD, HDR, ISYEB, UMR 7205, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle et Université de
Brest, France
129. Gill Braulik PhD, University of St. Andrews, UK
130. Mario Acquarone PhD, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Norway
131. Peter Corkeron PhD, Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life, New England Aquarium, USA
132. Alana Alexander PhD, University of Otago, New Zealand
133. Rochelle Constantine PhD, University of Auckland | Te Whare Wananga o Tāmaki Makaurau, New
Zealand
134. Laura J May-Collado PhD, Smithsonian Research Tropical Institute,Panama and CIMAR-Universidad de
Costa Rica
135. Astrid Frisch Jordán, Ecología y Conservación de Ballenas (ECOBAC), México
136. Krishna Das PhD, University of Liège, Belgium
137. Thibaut Bouveroux PhD, University of South Alabama, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Alabama, USA
138. Philippa Brakes, Research Fellow, Whale and Dolphin Conservation, New Zealand
139. Ursula K. Verfuss PhD, SMRU Consulting, UK
140. Marta Azzolin PhD, University of Torino and Gaia Research Institute Onlus, Italy
141. Maša Frleta - Valić, Blue World Institute of Marine Research and Conservation, Croatia
142. Michael Stocker, Director, Ocean Conservation Research, California, USA
143. Paola Tepsich PhD, CIMA Research Foundation, Italy
144. Weerapong Laovechprasit DVM Thailand Fulbright Fellow, University of Georgia, Thailand
145. Emma Carroll PhD, Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau University of Auckland, Aotearoa New
Zealand
146. Alexandros Frantzis PhD, Pelagos Cetacean Research Institute, Greece
147. Javier Almunia PhD, Loro Parque Fundación, Spain
148. Katrina Johnson, Bates College, USA
149. Sarah Dwyer PhD, Far Out Ocean Research Collective, New Zealand
150. Rodrigo García Píngaro, Organization for Cetacean Conservation of Uruguay, Uruguay
151. Andrew Stanworth PhD, Falklands Conservation, Falkland Islands
152. Helena Herr PhD, University of Hamburg, Germany
153. Katherine Graham M.S., New England Aquarium, USA
154. Anderson Cabot, Center for Ocean Life, New England Aquarium, USA
155. Enrico Pirotta PhD, Washington State University, USA
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156. María Piotto, Research Assistant, Instituto de Conservación de Ballenas, Argentina
157. Rodolfo Werner PhD, Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC), Argentina
158. Shanan Atkins MSc, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
159. Fernando Félix Grijalva, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (PUCE), Ecuador
160. Robin M. Perrtree, Savannah State University, USA
161. Renan Paitach MSc, Universidade da Região de Joinville, Brazil
162. Rosie Williams Meng, Zoological Society of London, UK
163. Katrina Johnson, Bates College, USA
164. Belén García Ovide MSc, Ocean Missions, Iceland
165. Conor Ryan PhD, Marine Conservation Research, UK
166. Thomas A. Jefferson PhD, Clymene Enterprises and VIVA Vaquita, USA
167. Joëlle De Weerdt MSc, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Biology Lab, Belgium
168. Douglas Wartzok PhD, Florida International University, USA
169. Erin Casellas, The Whale Museum, USA
170. Marie A. Roch PhD, San Diego State University, USA
171. Karolinen Hots MSc, Germany
172. Paul Wensveen PhD, University of Iceland, Iceland
173. Larissa Dalpaz MSc, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, AquaticMammals Lab (LAMAQ) & VIVA
Instituto Verde Azul, Brazil
174. Shannon Leone Fowler PhD, University of Roehampton, UK/USA
175. Michael Moore Vet MB, PhD, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
176. Philip Hamilton MSc, Anderson Cabot Center at the New England Aquarium, USA
177. Alison S. Craig PhD, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
178. Ashley N. Ramirez, Humboldt State University, USA
179. Andy Rogan MSc, Ocean Alliance, UK
180. Leonardo Flach PhD, Instituto Boto Cinza, Brazil
181. Lei Lani Stelle PhD, University of Redlands, USA
182. Suzanne M. Smith, Amazon River Dolphin Conservation Foundation, USA/Brazil
183. Allison Santos MSc, California State University Fullerton, USA/Philippines
184. Taylor Stumpf BSc, Metlakatla Department of Fish and Wildlife, USA
185. Inaê Guion PhD, Kākou Conservation, Brazil
186. Robert C. Rocha Jr. MSc, New Bedford Whaling Museum, USA
187. Fannie W. Shabangu PhD, Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, South Africa
188. Kathryne Daniels, Vashon Nature Center, USA
189. Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso PhD, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C. Unidad
Guaymas, Mexico
190. Timothy B. Werner PhD, OAI Consulting and UMASS-Boston, USA
191. David K. Mellinger PhD, Oregon State University, USA
192. Jan Haelters, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium
193. Per J. Palsbøll PhD, OvideProfessor, Groningen Institute of Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of
Groningen, The Netherlands
194. Stefan Bräger PhD, German Oceanographic Museum, Germany
195. Jochen Zaeschmar MSc, Far Out Ocean Research Collective, New Zealand
196. Dylan Walker MSc, World Cetacean Alliance, UK
197. Andreas Fahlman PhD, Foundacion Oceanografic, Spain
198. Cecilia Passadore PhD, Uruguay
199. Lucy Keith-Diagne PhD, African Aquatic Conservation Fund, Senegal
200. Alessandro Bocconcelli, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
201. José Zamorano-Abramson PhD, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
202. Daniel M. Palacios PhD, Marine Mammal Institute and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon
State University, USA
203. Arthur H. Kopelman PhD, President, Coastal Research and Education Society of Long Island, USA
204. Jan Herrmann, Cetacea.de, Germany
205. Benjamin de Montgolfier PhD, Aquasearch, Martinique, France
206. Anita Gilles PhD, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
207. Maddalena Bearzi PhD, Ocean Conservation Society, USA
9
208. Shana Rapoport MA, Ocean Conservation Society, USA
209. Lawrence M. Dill PhD, FRSC, Simon Fraser University, Canada
210. David G. Senn, PhD prof. em., University of Basel, Switzerland
211. Ted Cheeseman MSc, Southern Cross University and Happywhale, USA
212. Eric M. Keen PhD, North Coast Cetacean Society & Marine Ecology & Telemetry Research, USA
213. Simone Baumann-Pickering PhD, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, USA
214. Peter Gill PhD, Blue Whale Study, Victoria Australia
215. Shanan Atkins MSc, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
216. Giovanni Galarza, BAS Evergreen State College, USA
217. Angie Gullan, Dolphin Encountours Research Center, Mozambique
218. Olivia Marin Delgado MSc, University of La Laguna, Spain
219. Stephen Comerford PhD, Irish Whale and Dolphin Group, Ireland
220. Hannah Cubaynes PhD, British Antarctic Survey, UK
221. Voula Alexiadou MSc, Pelagos Cetacean Research Institute, Greece
222. Sue Sayer, Seal Research Trust, UK
223. Ksenia Orekhova DVM PhD-candidate, University of Padova, Italy
224. Rob Deaville, Zoological Society of London/Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme, UK
225. Andrew Brownlow PhD MRCVS, Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, UK
226. Nick Davison Msc, Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, UK
227. Luke Rendell PhD, University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK
228. Prof. Antonio Fernandez dECVP, University of Las Palmas, Spain
229. Morgan J. Martin, PhD, University of Victoria and the Wildlife Conservation Society, British Columbia,
Canada
230. Ulrich Karlowski, Deutsche Stiftung Meeressschutz, Germany
231. Chris Johnson MSc, WWF Protecting Whales & Dolphins Initiative, Australia
232. Daphne Willems MSc, WWF River Dolphin Initiative, The Netherlands
233. Wendy Elliott, WWF International, Rwanda
234. María José Villanueva PhD, WWF Mexico, Mexico
235. Stina Nyström MSc, WWF Sweden, Sweden
236. Uzma Khan PhD, WWF River Dolphin Initiative, Pakistan
237. Yacqueline Montecinos MPhil, WWF Chile, Chile
238. Leigh Henry MELP, WWF US, USA
239. Manel Gazo PhD, SUBMON-awarwness, study and conservation of the marine environment, Spain
240. Alejandro Cammareri, Fundacion Marybio, Argentina
241. Stephanie H. Stack MSc, Pacific Whale Foundation, Australia.
242. Cristina Castro Ayala PhD, Pacific Whale Foundation, Ecuador.
243. Jens J. Currie MSc, Pacific Whale Foundation, USA.
244. Tamara McGuire PhD, The Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Photo-ID Project/Aqua Wildlife Research
Anchorage, Alaska USA
245. Volker Deecke PhD, University of Cumbria, UK
246. ECM Parsons PhD, Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of
Glasgow, UK
247. Heather Fowle RMarSci, MMOA, Wales, UK
248. Stephen C.Y. Chan PhD, Cetacea Research Institute & University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
249. Leszek Karczmarski PhD, Cetacea Research Institute & University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
250. Scott Y.S. Chui, Cetacea Research Institute & University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
251. Yuen-Wa Ho, Cetacea Research Institute, University of Hong Kong & Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong
252. John H.W. Kwok, Cetacea Research Institute & Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
253. Andy T.L. Lee, Cetacea Research Institute, Hong Kong and Yale School of the Environment, USA
254. Elizabeth Robinson, University of Bristol, UK
255. Leonardo G. Berninsone, AquaMarina, Argentina.
256. Théa Jacob MSc, Marine Species and Fisheries Program Manager, WWF France
257. Alice Lima PhD, Zoo Parc de Beauval, France
258. Barbara Mussi, Oceanomare Delphis, Italy
259. Howard Rosenbaum PhD, Wildlife Conservation Society-Global Conservation, USA
10
260. Susan Lieberman PhD, Wildlife Conservation Society-Global Conservation, USA
261. Luciana Moller PhD, Flinders University, Australia
262. Tim Collins, Wildlife Conservation Society, Kenya
263. Brian D. Smith, Wildlife Conservation Society-Global Conservation, USA
264. Javier Rodríguez-Fonseca, Costa Rica
265. Heather Pettis, North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium, USA
266. Anderson Cabot, Center for Ocean Life at the New England Aquarium, USA
267. Arturo Serrano PhD, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico
268. Uko Gorter, American Cetacean Society, USA
269. Cara Miller PhD, University of New England, Australia
270. Guido J. Parra PhD, Cetacean Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution Lab, College of Science and
Engineering, Flinders University, Australia
271. Ana Mafalda Correia PhD, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research -
CIIMAR.UP, Portugal
11
Annex I SPANISH
EL REAL E INMINENTE RIESGO DE EXTINCIÓN DE BALLENAS, DELFINES
Y MARSOPAS: CARTA ABIERTA DE [> 250] INVESTIGADORES DE CETÁCEOS [03/09/2020]
Declaración Pública de Preocupación
Los científicos abajo firmantes expresamos nuestra más seria preocupación sobre el riesgo de extinción
de muchas especies y poblaciones de cetáceos (ballenas, delfines y marsopas).
Somos especialistas en cetáceos y creemos que este problema ha llegado a un punto crítico. La falta de
acciones concretas que aborden las amenazas que afectan a los cetáceos en mares, ríos y estuarios, cada
vez más transitados, contaminados, sobreexplotados y dominados por los seres humanos, significa que
muchos, uno tras otro, probablemente serán declarados extintos en poco tiempo.
Incluso las grandes ballenas no están seguras. La reciente clasificación de la ballena franca del Atlántico
Norte, Eubalaena glacialis, por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN)
como En Peligro Crítico revela el serio fracaso para abordar su crítico declive de los países relativamente
ricos en cuyas aguas se distribuye. Además, los factores que impulsan este continuo declive son bien
conocidos y, creemos, podrían ser tratados. Sólo quedan algunos cientos de individuos adultos de ballena
franca del Atlántico Norte y, a menos que se tomen medidas pronto, sin duda perderemos la especie.
De manera similar, la vaquita, Phocoena sinus, del golfo de California, México, está En Peligro Crítico
y se encuentra al borde de la extinción con un tamaño poblacional estimado que puede ser de tan solo
diez individuos.
Ahora es casi inevitable que estas dos especies sigan al delfín de río chino o baiji, Lipotes vexillifer, en el
camino hacia la extinción. El baiji fue clasificado como "Posiblemente Extinto" por la UICN en 2017 y,
lamentablemente, quedan pocas esperanzas para esta especie. Creemos que, en los tres casos, se tenía
suficiente información sobre la situación de cada especie para evitar estas dramáticas disminuciones, pero
faltó la voluntad política para actuar.
El panorama desolador para estas tres especies muestra cuán frecuentemente se hace tan poco y
demasiado tarde. De las 90 especies de cetáceos que existen actualmente, más de la mitad se encuentra
en un estado de conservación preocupante según la UICN, con 13 especies clasificadas como 'En peligro
crítico' o 'En peligro', 7 como 'Vulnerables' y 7 como 'Casi amenazadas', mientras que 24 especies poseen
'Datos Insuficientes'. Estas especies con "datos insuficientes" también pueden estar en peligro.
Simplemente no lo sabemos. La falta de información clara sobre tantas especies y poblaciones es en sí
misma una gran preocupación.
Además, hay 32 subespecies y distintas poblaciones de cetáceos que se encuentran en peligro o en peligro
crítico (ver la lista a continuación para más detalles). Con las investigaciones en curso estamos dándonos
cuenta que existen otras poblaciones de cetáceos que son discretas y que requieren acciones de
conservación. Lamentablemente, como ilustran los casos del delfín nariz de botella de Lahille (Tursiops
truncatus gephyreus) del Atlántico Sudoccidental subtropical, el delfín común del golfo de Corinto
(Delphinus delphis) y las orcas (Orcinus orca) del estrecho de Gibraltar, este reconocimiento de su
singularidad puede coincidir con la constatación del peligro de extinción en el que se encuentran.
Las poblaciones de cetáceos se ven afectadas negativamente por muchos factores que interactúan entre
sí, como la contaminación química y acústica, la pérdida de hábitat y de presas, el cambio climático y las
colisiones con embarcaciones. Para muchas de estas poblaciones, la principal amenaza es la captura
incidental en las actividades pesqueras.
12
Considerando estos problemas urgentes y sabiendo que las poblaciones de cetáceos pueden perderse
rápidamente, hacemos un llamamiento a:
los países con cetáceos en sus aguas para que tomen medidas de acción precautorias que
garanticen que estas especies y poblaciones estén adecuadamente protegidas de las actividades
humanas, incluida la implementación de un monitoreo apropiado que disponga de todos los
recursos necesarios. Destacamos que las nuevas tecnologías de seguimiento ofrecen nuevas
oportunidades para observar y abordar las actividades en el mar; y a
todas las naciones para trabajar en conjunto y fortalecer los organismos internacionales
relevantes que buscan tratar las amenazas a los cetáceos, incluidos, entre otros, la Comisión
Ballenera Internacional y la Convención para la Conservación de Especies Migratorias de
Animales Silvestres, las cuales actualmente están generando iniciativas de conservación. Entre
otras organizaciones internacionales relevantes, las más importantes son los organismos
regionales de pesca, que pueden abordar las amenazas relacionadas con la pesca para los
cetáceos, señalando la urgente necesidad de abordar tales impactos en las poblaciones.
Por último, destacamos que la conservación de los cetáceos, como la mayoría de los temas vinculados
con el medio marino, puede ser una preocupación lejana para muchas personas. Sin embargo, como ha
demostrado la pandemia mundial de Covid-19, la conexión con la naturaleza es un componente clave
para nuestro propio bienestar. Las ballenas, los delfines y las marsopas se ven y se disfrutan en todo el
mundo, y se valoran como especies sensibles, inteligentes, sociales e inspiradoras; no debemos negar a
las generaciones futuras la oportunidad de apreciarlos. También son centinelas de la salud de los mares,
océanos y, en algunos casos, de los principales ríos y estuarios; y, poseen un papel clave en el
mantenimiento de la productividad de los ecosistemas acuáticos, fundamentales para nuestra
supervivencia y la de ellos.
Por favor, haga llegar esta declaración a los responsables políticos pertinentes en su país y ayúdenos a
ayudar a los cetáceos.
Especies y poblaciones de cetáceos consideradas en riesgo de extinción.
La lista muestra solo las especies, subespecies y distintas poblaciones clasificadas como 'En peligro
crítico' (CR), 'En peligro' (EN) o 'Vulnerable' (VU), la última evaluación de la UICN (resaltada en rojo),
y, en los casos en que están disponibles, las evaluaciones previas, con sus fechas.
"Población global" se refiere al estado de todas las especies o subespecies.
También se presenta la tendencia de la población: C = creciendo, D = decreciendo, E = estable, ? =
Desconocida.
Balaenidae
• Ballena de Groenlandia, Balaena mysticetus
Subpoblación de Groenlandia Oriental Mar de Barents Archipiélagos de Svalbard, 2012: CR, 2018: EN,
?
Subpoblación del mar Okhotsk, 2012: EN, 2018: EN, D
Ballena franca del Atlántico Norte, Eubalaena glacialis, Población global, 2018: EN, 2020: CR, D
Poblaciones europeas, 2007: CR, ?
13
• Ballena franca del Pacífico Norte, Eubalaena japonica, Población global, 2008: EN, 2017: EN, ?
Subpoblación del Pacífico Noreste, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, ?
• Ballena franca austral, Eubalaena australis
Subpoblación de Chile - Peru, 2013: CR, 2017: CR, ?
Balaenopteridae
• Ballena azul, Balaenoptera musculus, Población global, 2008: EN, 2018: EN, C
Población europea 2007: EN, ?
• Ballena azul antártica, Balaenoptera musculus ssp. intermedia, Población global, 2008: CR, 2018: CR, C
• Ballena de Bryde, Balaenoptera edeni
Subpoblación del Golfo de México, 2017: CR, D
• Ballena fin, Balaenoptera physalus, Población global, 2013: EN, 2018: VU, C
Población mediterránea 2011: VU, D
Ballena jorobada, Megaptera novaeangliae
Subpoblación de Oceanía, 2008: EN, C
Subpoblación del mar Arábigo 2008: EN, ?
• Ballena sei, Balaenoptera borealis, Población global, 2008: EN, 2018: EN, C
Población europea, 2007: EN, ?
Eschrichtiidae
• Ballena gris, Eschrichtius robustus
Subpoblación del Pacífico Noroeste, 2008: CR, 2018: EN, C
Delphinidae
Delfín blanco africano, Sousa teuszii, Población global, 2012: VU, 2017: CR, D
• Delfín jorobado de Australia, Sousa sahulensis, Población global, 2015: VU, D
• Delfín beluga de Heinsohn, Orcaella heinsohni, Población global, 2008: NT, 2017: VU, D
• Delfín nariz de botella común, Tursiops truncatus
Población mediterránea, 2009: VU, D
Subpoblación de Fiordland, Nueva Zelanda, 2010: CR, D
• Delfín nariz de botella del mar Negro, Tursiops truncatus ssp. ponticus, Población global, 2008: EN, ?
• Delfín nariz de botella de Lahille, Tursiops truncatus ssp. gephyreus, Población global, 2019: VU, D
• Delfín de Héctor, Cephalorhynchus hectori, Población global, 2000: EN, 2008: EN, D
• Delfín de Māui, Cephalorhynchus hectori ssp. maui, Población global, 2000: CR, 2008: CR, D
Delfín blanco de China, Sousa plumbea, Población global, 2015: EN, D
Delfín jorobado del Indo-Pacífico , Sousa chinensis, Población global, 2015: VU, D
14
• Delfín jorobado de Taiwán, Sousa chinensis spp. taiwanensis, Población global, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
• Delfín del Irrawaddy, Orcaella brevirostris, Población global, 2008: VU, 2017: EN, D
Subpoblación del río Ayeyarwady, Myanmar, 2004: CR, D
Subpoblación de Iloilo-Guimaras, Filipinas, 2018: CR, D
Subpoblación del río Mahakamr, Indonesia, 2000: CR, 2008: CR, ?
Subpoblación de Malampaya Sound, Filipinas, 2004: CR, D
Subpoblación del río Mekong, 2004: CR, D
Subpoblación del lago Songkhla, Tailandia, 2004: CR, D
• Delfín oscuro peruano, Lagenorhynchus obscurus ssp. posidonia, Población global, 2019: VU, ?
• Orca, Orcinus orca
Subpoblación del estrecho de Gibraltar, 2019: CR, E
• Delfín común, Delphinus delphis,
Subpoblación mediterránea, 2003: EN, D
Subpoblación del golfo de Corinto, 2019: CR, ?
• Delfín común del mar Negro, Delphinus delphis ssp. ponticus, Población global, 2008: VU, No especificado.
• Delfín tornillón oriental, Stenella longirostris ssp. orientalis. Población global, 2008: VU, C
• Delfín listado, Stenella coeruleoalba
Población mediterránea, 2010: VU, ?
Iniidae
• Delfín rosado, Inia geoffrensis, Población global, 2011: DD, 2018: EN, D
Lipotidae
• Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer, Población global, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
Monodontidae
• Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas
Subpoblación de la ensenada de Cook, Estados Unidos, 2012: CR, 2018: CR, D
Phocoenidae
• Marsopa común, Phocoena phocoena
Población europea, 2007: VU, D
Subpoblación del mar Báltico, 1996: VU, 2008: CR, D
• Marsopa común del mar Negro, Phocoena phocoena ssp. relicta, Población global, 1996: VU, 2008: EN, D
• Marsopa negra, Neophocaena phocaenoides, Población global, 2012: VU, 2017: VU, D
• Marsopa lisa, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis, Población global, 2012: VU, 2017: EN, D
15
• Marsopa lisa de Yangtze, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis ssp. asiaeorientalis, Población global, 1996: EN, 2012:
CR, D
• Vaquita, Phocoena sinus, Población global, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
Physeteridae
• Cachalote, Physeter macrocephalus, Población global, 2008: VU, 2019: VU, ?
Población europea, 2007: VU, ?
Población mediterránea, 2006: EN, D
Platanistidae
• Delfín de río asiático, Platanista gangetica, Población global, 2012: EN, 2017: EN, ?
• Delfín del Ganges, Platanista gangetica ssp. gangetica, Población global, 1996: EN, 2004: EN, D
• Delfín del Indo, Platanista gangetica ssp. minor, Población global, 1996: EN, 2004: EN, ?
Pontoporiidae
• Franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, Población global, 2012: VU, 2017: VU, D
Subpoblación de Río Grande do Sul - Uruguay, 2003: VU, D
Ziphiidae
• Zifio de Cuvier, Ziphius cavirostris
Población mediterránea, 2012: DD, 2018: VU, D
La presente declaración está respaldada por las siguientes personas:
16
ANNEX II - PORTUGUESE
O RISCO DE EXTINÇÃO REAL E IMINENTE PARA BALEIAS, GOLFINHOS E
BOTOS: UMA CARTA ABERTA DE [>250] CIENTISTAS DE CETÁCEOS
[03/09/2020]
Declaração de preocupação
Nós, os cientistas abaixo assinados, levantamos aqui nossas maiores preocupações sobre o risco de
extinção de muitas espécies e populações de cetáceos (baleias, golfinhos e botos).
Cada um de nós é um especialista em cetáceos e cada um de nós acredita que este problema é agora
crítico. A falta de ações concretas para enfrentar as ameaças que afetam adversamente os cetáceos em
nossos mares cada vez mais ocupados, poluídos, superexplorados e dominados pelo homem e nos
principais sistemas fluviais, significa que muitos, um após o outro, provavelmente serão declarados
extintos durante nosso tempo de vida.
Mesmo as grandes baleias não estão seguras. A recente listagem da baleia-franca-do-Atlântico-Norte,
Eubalaena glacialis, pela União Internacional para Conservação da Natureza (IUCN) como
'Criticamente em Perigo', revela o grave fracasso de seus países relativamente ricos em lidar com um
declínio crítico. Além disso, os fatores que impulsionam esse declínio contínuo são bem conhecidos e,
acreditamos, podem ser resolvidos. Restam apenas algumas centenas de adultos de baleia-franca-do-
Atlântico Norte e, a menos que ações efetivas aconteçam logo, sem dúvida perderemos essa espécie.
Da mesma forma, a vaquita, Phocoena sinus, do Golfo da Califórnia, México, está 'Criticamente em
Perigo' e à beira da extinção, com um tamanho populacional estimado que pode chegar a apenas dez
indivíduos.
Agora é quase inevitável que essas duas espécies sigam o baiji ou golfinho-de-rio-chinês, Lipotes
vexillifer, no caminho da extinção. O baiji foi classificado como 'Possivelmente Extinto' pela IUCN em
2017 e, infelizmente, há pouca esperança para esta espécie. Acreditamos, nos três casos, que se sabia o
suficiente sobre a situação destas espécies para que essas dramáticas quedas tivessem sido evitadas, mas
que faltou vontade política para agir.
O panorama desolador para essas três espécies mostra que, frequentemente, muito pouco é feito e, tarde
demais. Das 90 espécies vivas de cetáceos, mais da metade estão num estado de conservação
preocupante de acordo com a IUCN, com 13 espécies listadas como 'Criticamente em Perigo' ou 'Em
Perigo', 7 como 'Vulneráveis' e 7 como 'Quase Ameaçadas', enquanto 24 espécies são 'deficientes em
dados' para serem avaliadas. Essas espécies com deficiência de dados também podem estar em perigo.
Nós simplesmente não sabemos. Essa falta de informações claras sobre tantas espécies e populações é
em si uma grande preocupação.
17
Além disso, existem 32 subespécies e outras populações distintas de cetáceos que estão atualmente ‘Em
Perigo’ ou ‘Criticamente em Perigo’ (consulte a lista abaixo para obter mais detalhes) e, com a pesquisa
em andamento, estamos reconhecendo mais populações de cetáceos que são discretas e requerem ações
de conservação. Lamentavelmente, como ilustram os casos do Golfinho-nariz-de-garrafa-de-Lahille
(Tursiops truncatus gephyreus) do Atlântico sul ocidental subtropical, o golfinho-comum (Delphinus
delphis) do Golfo de Corinto e as orcas (Orcinus orca) do Estreito de Gibraltar, o reconhecimento de
sua distinção pode coincidir com a percepção de que sua população já está em perigo de extinção.
As populações de cetáceos são adversamente afetadas por muitos fatores de interação, incluindo
poluição química e sonora, perda de habitat e presas, mudanças climáticas e colisões com embarcações.
Para muitos, a principal dessas ameaças é a captura acidental nas operações de pesca.
Tendo em mente essas questões urgentes e com o conhecimento de que as populações de cetáceos
podem ser perdidas muito rapidamente, pedimos que:
• os países com cetáceos em suas águas devem tomar medidas de precaução para garantir que
essas espécies e populações sejam adequadamente protegidas das atividades humanas, incluindo
a implementação de monitoramento apropriado e com todos os recursos. Notamos que
tecnologias de monitoramento aprimoradas agora oferecem novas oportunidades para observar e
abordar atividades no mar; e
• todas as nações devem trabalhar com e fortalecer os órgãos internacionais relevantes que
buscam abordar as ameaças aos cetáceos, incluindo, mas não se limitando à Comissão Baleeira
Internacional e à Convenção para a Conservação de Espécies Migratórias de Animais Silvestres,
os quais estão gerando importantes iniciativas de conservação neste momento. Em primeiro
lugar, entre outras organizações internacionais relevantes, estão os órgãos regionais de pesca, que
podem abordar as ameaças aos cetáceos relacionadas à pesca, observando a necessidade urgente
de lidar com esses impactos em muitas populações.
Finalmente, notamos que a conservação dos cetáceos, como muitas coisas que se relacionam com o
ambiente marinho, pode ser uma preocupação que parece remota para muitas pessoas. No entanto,
como a pandemia COVID-19 mostrou, nossa conexão com a natureza é um componente-chave para o
nosso próprio bem-estar. Baleias, golfinhos e botos são vistos e apreciados em todo o mundo e são
considerados como espécies carismáticas, inteligentes, sociais e inspiradoras; não devemos negar às
gerações futuras a oportunidade de conhecê-las. São também sentinelas da saúde dos nossos mares,
oceanos e, em alguns casos, dos principais sistemas fluviais. O papel dos cetáceos na manutenção de
ecossistemas aquáticos produtivos, que são fundamentais para a nossa sobrevivência, bem como a deles,
também está se tornando mais claro.
Por favor, leve esta declaração à atenção dos tomadores de decisão relevantes em seu país e ajude-nos a
cuidar dos cetáceos.
18
Espécies e populações de cetáceos consideradas em risco de extinção
A lista mostra apenas as espécies, subespécies e populações distintas classificadas como 'Criticamente em Perigo'
(CR), 'Em Perigo' (EN) ou 'Vulneráveis' (VU) e exibe a avaliação mais recente da IUCN (destacada em vermelho)
e, quando disponíveis, a avaliação anterior, com suas respectivas datas.
'População global' refere-se ao status de toda a espécie ou subespécie.
A tendência populacional também é observada: I = Aumentando, D = Diminuindo, S = Estável,? = Desconhecida.
Balaenidae
• Baleia-da-Groenlândia, Balaena mysticetus
Subpopulação 2012 do mar da Groenlândia Oriental-Svalbard-Barents: CR, 2018: EN,?
Subpopulação do mar de Okhotsk 2012: EN, 2018: EN, D
• Baleia-franca-do-Atlântico-Norte, Eubalaena glacialis, População global, 2018: EN, 2020: CR, D
População europeia, 2007: CR,?
• Baleia-franca-do-Pacífico-Norte, Eubalaena japonica, População global, 2008: EN, 2017: EN,?
Subpopulação do Nordeste do Pacífico, 2008: CR, 2017: CR,?
• Baleia-franca-austral, Eubalaena australis
Subpopulação Chile-Peru, 2013: CR, 2017: CR,?
Balaenopteridae
• Baleia-azul, Balaenoptera musculus, População global, 2008: EN, 2018: EN, I
População europeia 2007: EN,?
• Baleia-azul-da-Antártica, Balaenoptera musculus ssp. intermedia, População global 2008: CR, 2018: CR, I
• Baleia-de-Bryde, Balaenoptera edeni
Subpopulação do Golfo do México, 2017: CR, D
• Baleia-fin, Balaenoptera physalus, População global, 2013: EN, 2018: VU, I
População mediterrânea de 2011: VU, D
• Baleia-jubarte, Megaptera novaeangliae
Subpopulação da Oceania, 2008: EN, I
19
Subpopulação do Mar Arábico 2008: EN,?
• Baleia-Sei, Balaenoptera borealis, População global, 2008: EN, 2018: EN, I
População europeia, 2007: EN,?
Eschrichtiidae
• Baleia-cinzenta, Eschrichtius robustus
Subpopulação do Pacífico Norte Ocidental, 2008: CR, 2018: EN, I
Delphinidae
• Golfinho-corcunda-do-Atlântico, Sousa teuszii, População global, 2012: VU, 2017: CR, D
• Golfinho-corcunda-australiano, Sousa sahulensis, População global, 2015: VU, D
• Golfinho-australiano, Orcaella heinsohni, População global, 2008: NT, 2017: VU, D
• Golfinho-nariz-de-garrafa-comum, Tursiops truncatus
População mediterrânea, 2009: VU, D
Subpopulação Fiordland, Nova Zelândia, 2010: CR, D
• Golfinho-nariz-de-garrafa-do-Mar-Negro, Tursiops truncatus ssp. ponticus, População global, 2008: EN,?
• Golfinho-nariz-de-garrafa-de-Lahille, Tursiops truncatus ssp. gephyreus, População global, 2019: VU, D
• Golfinho-de-Hector, Cephalorhynchus hectori, População global, 2000: EN, 2008: EN, D
• Golfinho-de-Hector-da-Ilha-Norte, Cephalorhynchus hectori ssp. maui, População global, 2000: CR, 2008: CR,
D
• Golfinho-corcunda-do-Índico, Sousa plumbea, População global, 2015: EN, D
• Golfinho-corcunda-do-Indo-Pacífico, Sousa chinensis, População global, 2015: VU, D
• Golfinho-corcunda-taiwanês, Sousa chinensis spp. taiwanensis, População global, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
• Golfinho-do-Irrawaddy, Orcaella brevirostris, População global, 2008: VU, 2017: EN, D
Rio Ayeyarwady, subpopulação de Mianmar, 2004: CR, D
Iloilo-Guimaras, subpopulação das Filipinas, 2018: CR, D
Rio Mahakam, subpopulação da Indonésia, 2000: CR, 2008: CR,?
Malampaya Sound, subpopulação das Filipinas, 2004: CR, D
Subpopulação do rio Mekong, 2004: CR, D
Lago Songkhla, subpopulação da Tailândia, 2004: CR, D
• Golfinho-escuro-peruano, Lagenorhynchus obscurus ssp. posidonia, População global, 2019: VU,?
• Baleia-assassina, Orcinus orca
Subpopulação do Estreito de Gibraltar, 2019: CR, S
• Golfinho-comum-de-bico-curto, Delphinus delphis,
População mediterrânea, 2003: EN, D
20
Subpopulação do Golfo de Corinto, 2019: CR,?
• Golfinho-comum-de-bico-curto-do-Mar-Negro, Delphinus delphis ssp. ponticus, População global, 2008: VU,
não especificado
• Golfinho-rotador-oriental, Stenella longirostris ssp. orientalis. População global, 2008: VU, I
• Golfinho-listrado, Stenella coeruleoalba
População mediterrânea, 2010: VU,?
Iniidae
• Golfinho-do-rio-Amazonas, Inia geoffrensis, População global, 2011: DD, 2018: EN, D
Lipotidae
• Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer, População global, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
Monodontidae
• Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas
Cook Inlet, subpopulação dos Estados Unidos, 2012: CR, 2018: CR, D
Phocoenidae
• Golfinho-do-porto, Phocoena phocoena
População europeia, 2007: VU, D
Subpopulação do Mar Báltico, 1996: VU, 2008: CR, D
• Gofinho-do-porto-do-Mar Negro, Phocoena phocoena ssp. relicta, População global, 1996: VU, 2008: EN, D
• Golfinho-sem-dorsal-do-Indo-Pacífico, Neophocaena phocaenoides, População global, 2012: VU, 2017: VU, D
• Golfinho-sem-dorsal-de-quilhas-estreitas, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis, População global, 2012: VU, 2017: EN,
D
• Golfinho-sem-dorsal-do-Yangtze, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis ssp. asiaeorientalis, População global, 1996:
EN, 2012: CR, D
• Vaquita, Phocoena sinus, População global, 2008: CR, 2017: CR, D
Physeteridae
• Cachalote, Physeter macrocephalus, População global, 2008: VU, 2019: VU? População europeia, 2007: VU,?
População mediterrânea, 2006: EN, D
Platanistidae
• Golfinho-de-rio-do-sul-da-Ásia, Platanista gangetica, População global, 2012: EN, 2017: EN,?
21
• Golfinho-do-rio-Ganges, Platanista gangetica ssp. gangetica, População global, 1996: EN, 2004: EN, D
• Golfinho-do-rio-Indus, Platanista gangetica ssp. minor, População global, 1996: EN, 2004: EN,?
Pontoporiidae
• Toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei, População global, 2012: VU, 2017: VU, D
Subpopulação Rio Grande do Sul / Uruguai, 2003: VU, D
Ziphiidae
• Baleia-bicuda-de-Cuvier, Ziphius cavirostris
População mediterrânea, 2012: DD, 2018: VU, D
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