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Short Communication: Growth performance, and blood profile of kampong chicken fed diets containing Moringa oleifera powder and liquid

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Adli DN. 2020. Short Communication: Growth performance, and blood profile of kampong chicken fed diets containing Moringa oleifera powder and liquid. Asian J Agric 3: 72-75. The research purpose is to carry out the possible effect of Moringa oleifera on Growth performance, and intestinal properties of Lohmann broiler. 80 one-day-old kampong were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments and 4 replicates of 5 birds per cage. Four treatments used for research were dietary with control (T0), basal diet + M. oleifera 80 g (T1), Drinking water + 2 mL/L M. oleifera (T2), and basal feed + M. oleifera 80 g+ drinking water 2 mL/L M. oleifera (T3). The results showed that using M. oleifera presented no significant difference (P < 0.05) on body weight gain at 1-35 days and intestinal properties. The microstructure didn't affect negatively to its structure. In conclusion, addition of M. oleifera does not impact growth performance, and but can reduce amount of glucose of kampong chicken.
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AS IA N JOU RN AL OF AG RI CUL TURE
Volume 4, Number 2, December 2020 E-ISSN: 2580-4537
Pages: 72-75 DOI: 10.13057/asianjagric/g040202
Short Communication:
Growth performance, and blood profile of kampong chicken fed diets
containing Moringa oleifera powder and liquid
DANUNG NUR ADLI
Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Brawijaya. Jl. Pringgodani, Mrican, Mojoroto, Kediri 64111, East Java,
Indonesia. Tel./fax.: +62-341-553513, email: danungnuradli1994@gmail.com
Manuscript received: 2 June 2020. Revision accepted: 2 September 2020.
Abstract. Adli DN. 2020. Short Communication: Growth performance, and blood profile of kampong chicken fed diets containing
Moringa oleifera powder and liquid. Asian J Agric 3: 72-75. The research purpose is to carry out the possible effect of Moringa oleifera
on Growth performance, and intestinal properties of Lohmann broiler. 80 one-day-old kampong were randomly allocated to 4 dietary
treatments and 4 replicates of 5 birds per cage. Four treatments used for research were dietary with control (T0), basal diet + M. oleifera
80 g (T1), Drinking water + 2 mL/L M. oleifera (T2), and basal feed + M. oleifera 80 g+ drinking water 2 mL/L M. oleifera (T3). The
results showed that using M. oleifera presented no significant difference (P < 0.05) on body weight gain at 1-35 days and intestinal
properties. The microstructure didn't affect negatively to its structure. In conclusion, addition of M. oleifera does not impact growth
performance, and but can reduce amount of glucose of kampong chicken.
Keywords: Blood biochemistry, Kampong chicken, performance
INTRODUCTION
Intensive poultry production systems demand a supply
of high protein- and easily available in developing
countries. However, during the last decade, dietary protein
sources for livestock have become tremendously expensive
and difficult to access, challenging researchers and farmers
globally to seek alternative protein sources, and increase
the quality and availability of alternative livestock feeds
(Adli et al. 2018).
As a consequence, various forage trees and shrubs have
been explored as potential protein sources, and special
attention has been paid to the tree Moringa oleifera. M.
oleifera were substances that provide a source of
antioxidant for animals. The source of antioxidant was later
called natural growth promoters (Adli et al. 2017).
Originating from the Indian sub-continent. M. oleifera
is reputed for its adaptability to grow in all types of soils
and to tolerate hot and dry conditions d (Jet et al. 2014)
The antibiotics are provided as a growth promoter;
however, they cause bacterial resistance and residue in the
carcass. Alternative feed additive such as M. oleifera has
been the center of attention for many studies during the
past five years due to its beneficial effect on feed
efficiency. M. oleifera replaces use of the antibiotics
because they are safer and act as a natural growth promoter
(NGPs) in the kampong chicken (Adli et al. 2018).
Moringa oleifera was potential for natural growth
promoters. The moringa can be used as feed additive in the
term of non-nutiritonal value of poultry additive. (Jet et al.
2014). It contains negligible amounts of antinutritional
factors, has a high crude protein (CP) content, significant
amounts of vitamins A, B, and C in the foliage, and high
amounts of polyphenols, resulting in significant anti-
oxidative activity. M. oleifera also called miracle tree since
it provided a lot of chemical properties on its leaf. M.
oleifera later called miracle of tree were economical tree
that grows in tropical areas (Su and Chen 2020). M.
oleifera acts as anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-
inflammatory (Auriem et al. 2019).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animals, housing, and experimental design
A total of 80 kampong chicken with initial body weight
(BW) of 22.13±2.13 kg were used in a 8-weeks trial.
Treatments were as follows with control (T0), basal diet +
M. oleifera 80 g (T1), Drinking water + 2 mL/L M. oleifera
(T2), and basal feed + M. oleifera 80 g+ drinking water 2
mL/L M. oleifera (T3). The house set with temperature of
29ºC and 65% temperature. Furthermore, it set 23 hours of
light and 2 hours of darkness. Feed nutrient can be seen in
Table 1.
Growth performance
The kampong chickens were individually weighed at
the beginning of the experiment, and every week thereafter
until the end of the experiment. The gain in body weight
(BWG) of birds per week was calculated as the difference
between the initial and end weight at a given week (7 days,
14 days, 21 days, 28 days, and 35days). Feed intake was
calculated basis as feed offered and remain. As basis
mortalities set calculated during experimental.
ADLI et al. Growth performance, and blood profile of kampong chicken fed
73
Table 1. Experimental diet
Feed nutrient
Starter
(1-28 days)
Finisher
(29-56 days)
Maize
57.11
69.66
Dehulled soybean meal
36.53
26.65
L-Lysine
0.1
0.1
DL-methionine
0.55
0.55
Dicalcium phosphate
1.67
1.55
Limestone
1.13
1.02
Salt
0.3
0.3
Soy oil
2.81
0.06
Vitamin premix*
0.05
0.05
Mineral premix**
0.05
0.05
Choline
0.1
0.1
100.4
100. 09
Dry matter (%)
87.00
87.00
ME (Kcal/kg)
3050
3150
Ash (%)
9.00
9.00
Crude protein (%)
22.00
18.00
Fat (%)
6.00
6.00
Crude fiber (%)
3.00
2.50
Ca
1.00%
0.95%
P
0.70%
0.75%
Copper (ppm)
30
50
Zinc (ppm)
120
120
Blood biochemistry
Blood data were taken at 21, 28, and 56 days of age.
The Blood non-EDTA tubes and allowed to clot for one
hour, at room temperature, Blood samples were
immediately centrifuged using the cryogenic centrifuge
(Hettich Universal 320R, Germany) for 15min at 3000 rpm
to obtain serum and further: glutamic oxaloacetic
transaminase; GPT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase; TP:
total protein, ALB: Albumin; GLB: globulin; A/G:
albumin/ globulin ratio; TGL: triglyceride; TCHOL: total
cholesterol; BUN: blood urea nitrogen; GLC: glucose
(Adli, et al. 2019).
Data analyses
Data were statistically analyzed using GLM procedure
of SAS University version 4.0 red hat (64-bit) with code
encryption algorithm
http://localhost:10080/SASStudio/38/index license owned
by Danung Adli and the differences among treatment
means (p<0.05) were determined using Duncan's multiple
range tests. Code algorithm in SAS as follows:
Data Q1;
Set pre.Q1;
Run;
Proc ANOVA data=Q1;
Title 'one-way anova with a Moringa oleifera on one
factor';
Class calib;
Mode shape_1shape_2 shape_3 shape 4= calib/nouni;
(Widiyawati 2020).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Growth performance
Data on comparation M. oleifera leave and liquid in
feed showed in Table 2. Giving Red M. oleifera leave and
liquid doesn't improve (p > 0.05) on FI, FCR, and BWG.
The feed intake increased may due correlating with body
weight and body weight gain, when both of thus variable
growth increase the feed intake will also increase.
Compared with Adli and Sjofjan (2020) who stated that the
used of MRF give significant difference (P < 0.05) on body
weight gain at 21 d and 35 d compared than control (877 g
(MRF 400 g/tonne (21 d); 50 g/tonne (35d)) vs 819 g
control). The result due to the rearing condition, the
kampong chicken will increase the body weight gain when
the environment (bedding is clean) (Adli and Sjofjan
2020). Explained that the bodyweight of poultry to be
determined would be determined by the consumption of
feed with a balanced energy and protein content. In the
past, the use of plants in monogastric diets was restricted
because of some negative aspects of feed intake and
nutrient utilization attributed to phytochemical composition
that varies greatly due to variety, location, and climate. The
mortality result in Table 2 showed the use of MRF
combination with probiotic liquid acidifier on treatment
(T2 and T3) gives no significant differences (P > 0.05)
reduces to 1.31% compared to control 3.94%. In earnest,
the effect on growth performance may not be consistent,
for instance, in a number of cases where plant extracts have
been used, FI and FCR were not changed, although a
positive effect on BW, BWG, organ weight, and/or energy
utilization was reported (Sjofjan et al. 2019).
Statistical analysis of the meat quality presented in
Table 3. Shows M. oleifera leave and liquid in feed on the
on serum blood biochemistry were not significantly
different (P > 0.05) but the results on Glutamic oxaloacetic
transaminase (GOT) at 21 days began to reduce. The
treatment better compared to control (219.20 (T1), 200.10
(T2), and 215.30 (T3) vs. 243.30 U/L). Melesse et al.,
(2017) stated the criteria GOT were at the number less than
40 U/L. The result of the GOT may due to M. oleifera
content. Ogbe and Affiku (2020) stated M. oleifera may
reduce content of anti-stress of substances. The dietary
treatment of feed additive depends on dose, frequency, and
time rearing of in vivo (Adli and Sjofjan 2020).
Based on Table 3, the use of M. oleifera was not
significantly different (p > 0.05) on total protein. At the
beginning hard to reduce but more stable compared to
control. Moreki and Gabanakgosi (2014) stated M. oleifera
can’t help to reduce total protein in short time period of
animals but in the longest time it will help.
The result may be due to the treatment that cannot help
to reduce the amount of blood content on the heart. The
serum of blood biochemistry were indicator of positive or
negative result of treatment. (Sjofjan et al. 2019). Factors
that affect heart weight are broiler body weight, age, broiler
activity, and gender. Banjo (2012) stated the high fiber of
M. oleifera made the additive stay more in intestinal of
chicken. To reduce crude fiber it needs to be reduced in the
fiber with liquid content of substances (Sjofjan et al. 2019).
AS IA N JOURN AL OF AG RI CUL TURE
4 (2): 72-75, December 2020
74
Table 2. Effect of Moringa oleifera on the body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed/gain, and mortality of kampong chicken
Day
T0
T1
T2
T3
SEM
Bodyweight, g/bird
1
33.12
33.15
33.15
33.08
0.11
28
421.33
412.13
404.39
405.12
17.40
48
888.11
825.11
720.2
713.102
17.40
56
889.12
883.12
812.11
715.15
10.40
Bodyweight gain, g/bird
1-21
674.64
670.05
671.98
668.98
42.55
1-28
1001.12b
1138.73a
1128.63a
1192.09a
47.70
28-48
1525.10
1537.10
1574.70
1486.90
65.20
1-56
1856.90
1842.70
1878.40
1786.60
167.20
Feed intake, g/bird
1-21
909.80
979.10
855.40
807.30
21.06
1-28
1874.60
2018.40
1822.90
1727.80
53.70
28-48
2264.70
2414.40
2273.40
2102.00
70.00
1-56
2668.60
2810.80
2690.10
2499.00
76.80
Feed/gain, g/bird
1-21
1.33
1.49
1.22
1.22
0.09
1-28
1.73
1.72
1.54
1.44
0.23
28-48
1.52
1.58
1.54
1.49
0.37
1-56
1.48
1.54
1.50
1.44
0.14
Mortality, (%)
1-56
5.94
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
Note: Mean values not sharing the same superscripts in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)
Table 3. Effect of Moringa oleifera on the serum blood biochemistry kampong chicken at 56 days of age
Item
Treatments1
T0
T1
T2
T3
SEM
GOT (U/L)
219.20
200.10
215.30
243.30
121.1
GPT (U/L)
3.00
1.75
2.00
2.75
0.97
TP (g/dL)
2.97
2.97
2.92
2.95
0.29
ALB (g/dL)
1.27
1.27
1.17
1.22
0.16
GLB (g/dL)
1.70
1.70
1.77
1.70
0.18
(A/G)
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.72
0.11
TGL (mg/dL)
32.25
30.25
30.50
29.00
5.66
TCHOL (mg/dL)
128.50
128.75
114.50
123.50
12.38
BUN (mg/dL)
0.97
0.47
0.62
0.47
0.32
GLC (mg/dL)
251.00
205.00
213.75
227.00
29.10
Note: Mean values not sharing the same superscripts in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)
Based on Table 4 the used M. oleifera as not
significantly different (p > 0.05) on total cholesterol, blood
urea nitrogen, and glucose. Compared to control TCHOL
was at 114.50 (T2) and 123.50 (T3) with SEM 12.38. The
total cholesterol was at the same time lower with glucose
due to surface are of M. oleifera. The key absorption was
spread to blood area of body (Sjofjan et al. 2020).
Additional from Abdulsalam et al. (2015) M. oleifera much
better to provide the antioxidant compared to other leaves.
In conclusion, addition of Moringa oleifera does not
impact on growth performance, and but can reduce amount
of glucose of kampong chicken.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to the local farmers to develop
the research on Cibubur, West Java, Indonesia and the
Ministry of Education for funding the PKM-P 2014. There
where no conflict of interest regarding this subject.
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... Moreover, if plants with such efficacy could be a part of diets, it could also be helpful in prevention of onset of such diseases as scientific studies have shown that a daily intake of five servings of plant-based foods ranging from 400-800 g/day could help in risk reduction for hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular, nootropic, antiulcer, etc., have been reported by several researchers (Bhattacharya et al. 2014;Amjad et al. 2015;Nfambi et al. 2015;Helmy et al. 2017;Martínez-González et al. 2017;Bhattacharya et al. 2018;Eremwanarue and Shittu 2018;Oboh et al. 2018;Islam et al. 2019;Patel and Lariya 2019;Xu et al. 2019;Kilany et al. 2020;Mabrouki et al. 2020;Padayachee and Baijnath 2020;Ali et al. 2021a; Barhoi et al. 2021;Kumolosasi et al. 2021;Palupi et al. 2021;). It is also recommended as poultry diet due to its high nutritional and protein content (Taufek et al. 2022) and can reduce amount of glucose in kampong chicken (Adli 2020). In view of its immense nutritional and pharmacological potential, its leaves and flowers were selected for evaluation of in vitro thrombolytic potential. ...
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... Hasil penelitian Adli dkk, (2020), daun kelor memiliki kandungan kalium, βkaroten, vitamin C, kalsium, protein, dan sumber antioksidan. penambahan tepung daun kelor dalam pakan dapat meningkatkan berat telur dan konsumsi ayam juga menurunkan nilai kolesterol kuning telur dan konversi pakan (Adli, 2020). Menurut Satria dkk (2016), Penambahan tepung daun kelor dalam pakan sebesar 2% dapat meningkatkan penampilan produksi, kualitas telur ayam petelur dan mampu menurunkan kandungan kolesterol pada kuning telur efek kandungan antioksidan. ...
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p> The research purpose was to determine nutrient content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB). The research method was used completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The data analysis was the analysis of variance (anova) and continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that treatments has significantly difference (P<0.01) on dry matter, crude protein, and ash. It could be concluded that dpw-umb contained sufficient levels of nutrients. it could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients. </p
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The research purpose was to determine nutrient content of dried of poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB). The research method was used completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments used for research were T1 (10% manure of laying chicken and 25% molasses), T2 (15% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses), and T3 (20% manure of laying chicken and 30% molasses). The data analysis was the analysis of variance (anova) and continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that treatments has significantly difference (P<0.01) on dry matter, crude protein, and ash. The result of nutrients will stimulate the process of rumination and rumen contractions, which in turn will improve the fermentation process the fiber feed. It could be concluded that DPW-UMB contained sufficient levels of nutrients. It could be used as feedstuff for ruminants for supplementation with the required nutrients. Kata kunci: Manure, DPW-UMB, Urea, Molasses Evaluasi Kandungan Nutrien Kotoran Ayam Kering Molasses Blok (Kamblok) Secara In-Vitro ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan nutrisi dari kotoran ayam kering molasses blok (KAMBLOK) secara in-vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah P1 (10% kotoran ayam kering dan 25% molasses), P2 (15% kotoran ayam kering dan 30% molasses), P3 (20 % kotoran ayam kering dan 30% molasses). Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil menunjukan perlakuan berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01) terhadap bahan kering, protein kasar, dan abu. Hasil daripada ini dapat menstimulasi dan meningkatkan proses ruminansi. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kamblok dapat digunakan sebagai pakan potensial untuk suplementasi