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Expedition report: Studying jaguars, pumas and their prey in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest - the jaguar corridor (October/November 2008)

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract Expeditions to the southern Atlantic forest of Brazil were conducted with local students in August 2008 and Biosphere Expeditions in November 2008, to the APA (Area of Environmental Protection of Guaratuba) in the Serra do Mar Mountain range. This was the third Biosphere Expeditions survey conducted in the area, and the fifth overall survey if local expeditions are counted. The primary aim of the surveys is to locate core habitats for jaguar and puma at their southern range in the Atlantic Broadleaf Forest, and develop conservation strategies based on information gained locally, as a means to produce guidelines for conservation of these species and their habitat. Sampling was conducted in the locality of Canasvieiras, in the municipality of Guaratuba and consisted of sign surveys and the deployment of 11 camera traps. Data collected included species richness, frequency, composition and observed occupancy. Frequency of puma (n=5) was higher than in the previous year, and jaguar was recorded once by tracks. This study corroborates previous findings that the area may be considered of importance as habitat for jaguars due to the recurrent presence of species that have become rare elsewhere in southern Brazil, such as the tapir Tapirus terrestris and peccaries Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu, the surveillance of the area by private rangers, and also due to the good general aspect of the forest, including widespread presence of adult stands of palm hearts Euterpes edulis, which have also become rare elsewhere. Resumo Expedições para a Floresta Atlântica no sul do Brasil foram conduzidas com estudantes em Agosto de 2008 e Biosphere Expeditions em Novembro 2008, particularmente para a APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental de Guaratuba) localizada na cadeia de montanhas da Serra do Mar. Este foi o terceiro levantamento da Biosphere Expeditions na área de estudo, e o quinto ao todo, contando com a participação de expedições locais. O objetivo principal do projeto é encontrar núcleos de habitat para a onça-pintada e o puma em sua área de distribuição na porção sul da Floresta Atlântica, e desenvolver estratégias de conservação baseadas em informações obtidas localmente, a fim de produzir diretrizes para conservação destas espécies e de seu habitat. A amostragem foi conduzida na localidade de Canasvieiras, município de Guaratuba, e consistiu em levantamento de vestígios e uso de 11 armadilhas-fotográficas. Dados coletados consistiram de riqueza de espécies, freqüência, composição, e ocupação observada. Freqüência de puma (n=5) foi maior do que nos anos anteriores, e a onça-pintada foi registrada uma vez por rastros. Este estudo corrobora os resultados prévios de que a área de estudo pode ser considerada como habitat de importância para a onça-pintada em razão da recorrente presença de espécies que tem tornado-se raras em outras regiões do sul do Brasil, dentre elas anta Tapirus terrestris e porcos-do-mato Tayassu pecari e Pecari tajacu, a presença de patrulheiros, e também pelo bom aspecto geral da floresta, incluindo a presença generalizada de plantas adultas de palmito Euterpes edulis, o qual tem também tornado-se muito raro.
EXPEDITION REPORT
Expedition dates: 26
October
7 November
200
8
Report published:
D
ecember
Studying jaguars, pumas and their
prey in Brazil’s Atlantic
rainforest:
the jaguar corridor.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
1
EXPEDITION REPORT
Studying jaguars, pumas and their
prey in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest
:
t
he jaguar corridor.
Expedition dates:
26
October
7 November
200
8
Report pu
blished:
D
ecember
2008
Authors:
Marcelo Mazzolli
Projeto Puma
Matthias Hammer (editor)
Biosphere Expeditions
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
2
Abstract
Expeditions to the southern Atlantic forest of Brazil were conducted with local students in
August
200
8
and Biosphere Expeditions in Nove
mber 200
8
,
to the APA (Area of
Environmental Protection of Guaratuba) in the Serra do Mar Mountain range
.
This was the
third Biosphere Expedition
s
survey
conducted in
the area, and the fifth overall survey if
local expeditions are
counted
.
The primary aim
of the
surveys
is
to
locate
core habitats for
jaguar and puma at their southern range
in the Atlantic Broadleaf Forest
,
and develop
conservation strategies based on information
gained
locally,
as a mean
s
to produce
guidelines for conservation of these spec
ies and their habitat
.
Sampling was conducted in the locality of Canasvieiras,
in the municipality of
Guaratuba
and consisted of sign survey
s
and
the de
ployment of 1
1
camera trap
s
.
Data collected
included
species r
ichness, frequency, composition
and obser
ved occupancy
.
Frequency of
puma (n=
5
) was
higher
than in
the previous year
,
and
jaguar was
recorded
once by tracks
.
This study
corroborate
s
previous findings that t
he area may be considered of importance
as
habitat for jaguars due to
the recurrent prese
nce of
species that have become rare
els
e
where in southern Brazil,
such as
the
t
apir
Tapirus terrestris
and
peccaries
Tayassu
pecari
and
Pecari tajacu
,
the
surveillance
of the area by
private rangers
,
and
also
due to
the goo
d general aspect of the forest
,
including
widespread presence of adult
stands of
palm hearts
Euterpes edulis
, which have
also
become rare
elsewhere
.
Resumo
Expediç
ões para a Floresta Atlântica no sul do Brasil foram conduzidas com estudantes
em Agosto de 2008
e Biosphere Expeditions e
m Novembro 200
8
, particularmente para a
APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental de Guaratuba) localizada na cadeia de montanhas da
Serra do Mar.
Este foi o terceiro levantamento da Biosphere Expeditions na área de
estudo, e o quinto ao todo, contando com a partici
pação de expedições locais
.
O objetivo
principal do projeto é encontrar núcleos de habitat para a onça
-
pintada e o puma em sua
área de distribuição na porção sul da Floresta Atl
ântica
, e desenvolver estratégias de
conservação baseadas em informações obtida
s localmente, a fim de
produzir
diretrizes
para conservação destas espécies e de seu habitat
.
A amostragem foi conduzida na localidade de Canasvieiras,
município de Guaratuba, e
consistiu em levantamento de vestígios e uso de 1
1
armadilhas
-
fotográficas.
Dados
coletados consistiram de riqueza de espécies, freqüência, composição, e ocupação
observada.
Freqüência de puma (n=
5
) foi
maior do que nos anos anteriores
,
e
a onça
-
pintada foi registrada
uma vez por rastros
.
Este estudo corrobora os resultados prév
ios de que a área de estudo pode ser
considerada como habitat de importância para a onça
-
pintada em razão da
recorrente
presença de
espécies que tem tornado
-
se raras em outras regiões do sul do Brasil, dentre
elas
anta
Tapirus terrestris
e porcos
-
do
-
mato
T
ayassu pecari
e
Pecari tajacu
, a presença
de patrulheiros, e também pelo bom aspecto geral da floresta, incluindo a presença
generalizada de plantas adultas de palmito
Euterpes edulis
, o qual tem
também
tornado
-
se
muito raro.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
3
Contents
Abstract
/
Resumo
2
Contents
3
1. Expedition Review
4
1.1. Background
4
1.2. Research Area
5
1.3. Dates
7
1.4. Local Conditions & Support
7
1.5. Expedition Scientist
8
1.6. Expedition Leader
9
1.7. Expedition Team
9
1.8. Expedition Budget
1
0
1.9. Ack
nowledgments
1
1
1.10. Further Information & Enquiries
11
2. Puma & Jaguar Survey
1
2
2.1. Introduction
12
2.
2
. Methods
1
5
2.
3
. Results
17
2.4
. Discussion & Conclusions
2
2
Appendix 1
:
Bird list
2
4
Appendix 2
: Expedition
diary
2
5
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
4
Please note: Each expedition report is written as a stand
-
alone document that can be read
without having to refer back to previous reports. As such, much of this section, which
remains valid and relevant, is a repetition from previous reports,
copied here to provide the
reader with an uninterrupted flow of argument and rational
e
.
1.
Expedition Review
Matthias Hammer
Biosphere Expeditions
1.1.
Background
Biosphere Expeditions runs wildlife conservation research expeditions to all corners of
the
Earth. Projects are not tours, photographic safaris or excursions, but genuine research
expeditions placing ordinary people with no research experience alongside scientists who
are at the forefront of conservation work. Expeditions are open to all and
there are no
special skills (biological or otherwise) required to join. Expedition team members are
people from all walks of life and of all ages, looking for an adventure with a conscience
and a sense of purpose. More information about Biosphere Expeditio
ns and its research
expeditions can be found at
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
.
This expedition
report deals with an expedition to the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil, which
aimed to
initiate
the first
-
ev
er
concerted c
onservation project
of
Atlantic forest jaguar and
puma populations and their prey
in
unstudied
rainforest
. The
expedition’s
study site in the
APA (Area of Environmental Protection
) of Guaratuba,
in the Serra do Mar Mountain
range
,
is
known
fo
r
its
outstanding beauty, with
densely forested mountain ranges
and
mangrove lowlands
reach
ing
the
Atlantic
Ocean
. It harbours
one of the few jaguar
populations
surviving
in
broad
-
leaved Atlantic
rainforest
.
Data collected by the expedition
will
form the b
asis
for
the
man
agement and protection of jaguars and pumas
and their
habitats
within a
highly
threatened ecosystem.
Nobody
knows how many jaguars and pumas there are
in the
APA
of Guaratuba,
an
important refuge where these two cat species
probably still
survive
in numbers. It is vital
that this southernmost population of jaguars in the broad
-
leaved Atlantic rainforest is
protected, as it contains the source population
from
which
jaguar numbers could be re
-
established
at
an important area of its historica
l range
.
Biosphere Expeditions assist
ed
local conservation efforts
by initiating research in this
unstudied
area of forest, gathering
key information vital for the protection of this highly endangered habitat and its resident
species.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
5
1.2.
Research Area
Brazil is located on the Atlantic coast of South America and is the larges
t country on the
continent. Two
-
thirds of Brazilian territory is located within the Amazon basin. In addition to
the Amazon, the Atlantic rainforest extends for about 3,500 kilometre
s along the coast with
an area of over one million square kilometres. The Atlantic forest ecosystem is recognised
as one of the most unique habitats on Earth, with numerous endemic species. It is one of
the so
-
called world “hotspots” of biodiversity, with
over 400 vascular plants per hectare,
50% of which are endemic. Animal diversity is also high: 215 species of mammals have
been recorded, 73 of which are endemic; and out of a total of 183 species of amphibians,
91.8 % are endemic. Although biodiversity is
very high, the status of many individual
species is precarious. A recent estimate showed that 171 out of 202 species of vulnerable
animals from Brazil are from the Atlantic forest.
Flag and location of
Brazil
and study site.
An overview of Biosphe
re Expeditions’
research sites, assembly points, base camp
and office locations is at
Google Maps
.
The study area is situated
in the
APA
of Guaratuba, although much of the Serra do Mar
mountain Range in the State of Paraná, as well as its bays, are of interest to this project.
The Serra do Mar mountain range
harbours
the largest
cont
inuous
patches of Atlantic
Broadleaf
Rain
forest of Brazil.
Atlantic rainforest of Brazil is
one of the most endangered ecosystems on Earth.
It is
hard to
over
state the importance of this ecosystem in terms of conservation.
Declared a
UNESCO World Heri
tage Site in 1999, m
ost scientist
s
rank the Atlantic forest as one of
the top three priorities for global conservation efforts. Very little of the Atlantic
f
orest
remains, and what does is highly fragmented. Despite this, it still maintains extremely high
le
vels of diversity and endemism.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
6
Map of the Atlantic forest showing estimated extent around 1500 (grey) and extent in 1990 (black).
The forest, which once spread along the Atlantic coast and much of southern Brazil, is now
reduced to fewer than 8% of i
ts original extent because of intensive human occupation,
beginning with sugar cane plantation in the 1500s and later coffee plantations.
To address this lack of information, the expedition’s research work also assessed which
human occupation strategies
are most compatible with the concurrent survival of large
mammals, with special emphasis on the habitat quality for the jaguar and puma. Few
areas are left, which have remained untouched and these are of high importance for their
intrinsic value as a sourc
e of species, and as a model for recovering disturbed areas.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
7
1.3. D
ates
The expedition ran over a period of two weeks from
26
October
to
7
November
2008
and
was composed of a team of international research assistants, guides, support personnel
and an expedition leader
(see below for team details)
.
1.4.
Local Conditions & Support
Expedition base
& transport
The expedition assembly point was Curitiba, where expedition team members were met by
the expedition lea
der and by the local scientist to be taken directly to base camp (see map
below) using two
Land Rover Defender
s
kindly provided by Land Rover Brazil.
Map showing
s
tudy area
including study bases,
main road network
, and major landmarks
.
© Google Earth.
Pr
ior to the
team members’
arrival, staff
prepared
base camp
from
2
0
November 2008
.
Th
e facility is owned by a
Mr. Simões
that
kindly provided
access to it
.
B
ase camp consisted of
ten
tents installed on
wooden platforms
, where the team slept,
and a house w
here meals where served
, equipment was stored
and other common
activities
were
conducted.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
8
Base camp with tents
installed on wooden platforms above the forest floor.
There
were
two
dedicated cook
s
to prepare
all
meals. Lunch often consisted of a snack
lu
nch pack
taken to the field. There was
a 110V
ele
ctricity supply at base
.
Field communications
There
was
no telephone
,
and mobile phones
did
not
work at base. The nearest landline
telephone
was
about
one hour
from base camp
.
Regular expedition diary upda
tes
were
uploaded to
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org/diaries
for friends & family to access.
Medical support & insurance
The expedition leader was a trained first aider, and the expedition carri
ed a
comprehensive medical kit. Further medical support
was
provided by hospitals in the
towns of Matinhos, Guaratuba
, Paranagua
and Curitiba. All team members were required
to be in possession of adequate travel insurance covering emergency medical evacua
tion
and repatriation. Safety and emergency procedures
were
in place.
There were no
serious
medical incidents
.
T
here w
as
a
sprain
ed
wrist
f
rom a fall,
which
w
as
dealt with at camp.
1.5
.
Ex
pedition Scientist
The expedition's local biologist
was
Marcelo Mazzolli. Born in Brazil, he graduated in
Biology in 1992, with a master’s degree
from
the University of Durham, UK
. His Ph.D.
in
ecology
, obtained in Brazil,
was
on the effects of human occu
pation on the extinction of
large mammals
. He has devoted his career to
the
study
of
large mammals,
particularly
the
puma
and jaguar
,
but has had many other outdoors experience
s
. H
e was a professional
jungle guide in the Amazon forest in 1986 at age 21.
He
h
as attended many national and
international workshops, and published relevant articles. His studies have made his work
well known, and
early in his career he was
invited to be
a
member of the
International
U
nion for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN)
Cat Spec
ialist Group
with one of his
projects
listed as
a
priority in
the World W
ide Cat Action Plan. He has travelled extensively, living in
the
United States and Peru, and
has surveyed l
ions in Botswana
and Arabian leopards in
Oman
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
9
1.6
.
Expedition Leader
Ron
ald Seipold graduated from the University of Berlin with a Masters Degree in Business
Administration and then spent several years working in different branches of industries
leading organisational and IT related projects. He then decided to go for a total
change of
career & lifestyle and focus on his passion for travelling, wildlife and the outdoors. After a
100 day intensive training course with COLT (Canadian Outdoor Leader Training) he
qualified as an outdoor leader, radio operator, sea kayak and canoein
g guide, backcountry
first
-
aider, etc.. Ronald then began leading and instructing groups in the outdoors primarily
in Scandinavia and Canada as well as working for outdoor camps and lodges. Ronald
joined Biosphere Expeditions in 2007
and participated as st
aff in the expeditions of Oman
and Azores
. His favourite activities are mountaineering, canoeing and climbing.
1.7
.
Expedition Team
The expedition team was recruited by Biosphere Expeditions and consisted of a mixture of
all ages, nationalities
and backg
rounds
.
From left to right and from back to f
ront: Reinhold Gahlnann
(Germany
),
Marcelo Mazzolli (
expedition scientist,
Projeto
Puma
, Brazil
),
Marianne Danielsen (
Denmark
), Marion Westphal
(Germany
),
Alistair Smith (South Africa),
Michael Paull
(
Australia
), Catharine
Muenzel (Germany
), Sheila Boughto
n (UK), Natalie Priest (UK), Nália Alves
(cook, Brazil
), Neuza
dos Santos
(cook, Brazil
),
Sandra Fischer (Germany
), Ronald Seipold (
expedition leader
,
Germany
).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
10
1.8
.
Expedition Budget
Each team member pai
d towards expedit
ion costs a contribution of £119
0 per two week
slot. The contribution covered accommodation and meals, supervision and induction, a
permit to access and work in the area, all maps and special non
-
personal equipment, all
transport from and
to the team assembly point. It did not cover excess luggage charges,
travel insurance, personal expenses like telephone bills, souvenirs, etc., as well as visa
and other travel expenses to and from the assembly point (e.g. international flights).
Details o
n how these contributions were spent are given below.
Income
£
Expedition contributions
13,866
Expenditure
Base camp and food
includes all meals, base camp equipment
2,036
Transport
includes fuel, vehicle maintenance
729
Equipment and hardware
includes
research materials, research gear
351
Biosphere Expeditions staff
includes salaries, travel and expenses to Novosibirsk
?
2,414
Local staff
includes salaries, travel and expenses, Biosphere Expedition tips, gifts
3,187
Administration
includes bribes, registratio
n fees, sundries, etc
540
Income
Expenditure
4609
Total percentage spent directly on project
6
6%
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
11
1.9
.
Acknowledgements
This study was conducted by Biosphere Expeditions which runs wildlife conservation
expeditions all over the globe. With
out our
expedition team members
(
who are listed
above
) who
provided an expedition contribution and gave up their spare time to work as
research assistants, none of this research would have been possib
le. The support team
and staff (also mentioned above)
were centr
al to making it all work on the ground. Thank
you to all of you, and the ones we have not managed to mention by name (you know who
you are) for making it all come true.
Biosphere Expeditions would also like to thank
members of the Friends of Biosphere Expe
ditions and donors, Land Rover
,
Cotswold
Outdoor and Motorola
for their sponsorship.
Projeto Puma, Biosphere Expeditions’ local partner for this project, and it
s
founder Dr.
Marcello Mazzolli were crucial to the success of the expedition. Thank you also t
o Daniel
Contrucci of
Projetcto Baggagem
who initiated the whole project by establishing contact
between Projeto Puma and Biosphere Expeditions
and still give
s
support to the expedition
from São Paulo.
1.
10
.
Further Information & Enquiries
More backgroun
d information on Biosphere Expeditions in general and on this expedition
in particular including pictures, diary excerpts and a copy of this report can be found on the
Biosphere Expeditions website
www.b
iosphere
-
expeditions.org
.
Enquires should be addressed to Biosphere Expeditions at the address given below.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
12
Please note: Each expedition report is written as a stand
-
alone document that can be read
without having to refer back to previous reports. As
such, much of this section, which
remains valid and relevant, is a repetition from previous reports, copied here to provide the
reader with an uninterrupted flow of argument and rational
e
.
2.
Puma & Jaguar Survey
Marcelo Mazzolli
Projeto Puma
2.1.
Intr
oduction
Biosphere Expeditions started working in
Brazil
in 2006 with the first
expedition
running to
Guaratuba bay
with access by boat
only.
During
that
year,
fourteen species of mammals
were recorded
, including
jaguar
Panthera onca
and the puma
Puma con
color
(Mazzolli &
Hammer 2007).
The reduced presence of target sp
ecies, difficult access, swampy trails
and
state of
facilities
present in the area
encouraged us to change base camp site
for
the
2007
and 2008
expedition
s
.
In the 2007 expedition
,
collared
and white
-
lipped peccaries were
added to the list of
recorded species.
In August 2008,
a local expedition with students from Brazilian
universities surveyed the
vicinities of the Harbour Base,
the Quintilha
trail
by
the
Saint
Hilaire
/Lange
National Park (
P
NSH/L
)
, and a trail in the
Morro Alto
location connecting
PNSH/L to the neighbouring mountain ranges of Serra do Mar
(see map above in item
1.4)
.
Figure 2.1a
.
Harbor
base
at the southern tip of Saint Hilaire/Lange National Park.
This base was used duri
ng the local August
2008
expedition.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
13
During this survey,
a reduced number of signs of mammals were found,
although it is
worth mentioning the occurrence of tapirs and peccaries in the Morro Alto by the Limeira
road
. These
finding
s
corroborat
e
the previous
hypothesis
, based on low human
disturbance, that the area may provide the best wildlife connection
between
the Saint
Hilaire/Lange National Park and the western mountains of Guarica
na, Candongas, and
Canasvieiras, or
put
shortly, the
connection between the
general area of Biosphere
Expeditions’
base camp
in
2006 with those of 2007 and 2008.
Eight c
amera traps
were
installed
during the local August 2008 expedition,
remaining
in
the field for several months
. Although five of the cameras
were stolen
,
those
re
trieved
reveal
ed
the presence of several species, including marga
y,
tay
ra
, and paca
(see below),
all of
which had not been recorded
thus
far
(Fig. 2.1b)
.
Figure 2.1
b
.
Species
camera trap
ped
during the
August
200
8 survey with local teams near and in the
Saint Hilaire/Lange National Park. From top left
clockwise: red deer, tyara, paca, collared pecari and
margay. The dee
r was photographed by the harbour
base, the pecari and tayra
on
the Limeira road by
Morro Alto, and the paca and margay
near
the
Quintilha trail.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
14
Study area
The
area
sampled
during
November
2008 by Biosphere Expedition
s
was
the same
as that
surveyed in 2007, ex
c
ept that
the base camp location was not the same, and that the area
sampled
expanded a few
kilometres
northward
s
. It was
located
13 km
west
of
the PNSH/L
border
and was encompassed by the
APA
of Guaratuba
, a reserve of sustaina
ble use
,
where
productive
activities
of low impact
are allowed
.
The area
surveyed
comprised 11
contiguous cells 2
x
2 km in
size, consisting
mostly of large (over 5,000 ha
) private
(e.g.
Simões land)
and public properties
(e.g. Ambiental Reflorestadora, Co
pel)
, w
hich were
patrolled
by
guards hired to
protec
t
the areas against
encroachment by landless people
,
poaching
,
and illegal
harvest
ing
of palm
-
heart
Euterpe edulis
.
B
ase camp
was
located
12 km from the
federal road BR
-
277 connecting
the capital
Curitib
a to
the harbour town of
Paranaguá
.
It took
approximately
1.5 hours
using four
-
wheel drive vehicles
on
a
track
crossing s
everal wooden bridges and two
rivers
to reach
the expedition base
camp.
Although the surroundi
ng mountains reach
over 1,500 m in
altitu
de
, the area
sampled was between
150 to 450
m
in altitud
e
.
The v
egetation consisted
mostly of
montane and sub
-
montane
b
roadleaved Atlantic Forest
.
In addition to
covering
the area
around base camp
, two exploratory
Land Rover
-
based
surveys
were conducted t
o the Graciosa mountains to the north
(where jaguars had been
recorded prior to 1997)
, and
by
Land Rover
and boat
to an island of the Guaratuba Bay to
the
south of base camp
(where jaguars had been recorded in 2006)
(Figure 2.1b
).
Figure 2.1
b
. Boat
prep
aring to leave with team members
to survey an island by the
Guaratuba Bay
area where
a
jaguar ha
d
been recorded in 2006.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
15
2.2
.
Methods
Training
of team members
For
the first
two days
team members were given
talks
and practical lessons
,
learn
ing
the
use o
f GPS
(Global Position System)
and general
data collection and equipment
usage
procedures
.
The first
excursions
in
to the forest were done under the
supervision of
Biosphere
Expeditions
staff.
Afte
r
a
few days
,
team members were able
to navigat
e in
the
for
est, install
camera trap
s and record
tracks and signs
of mammals
in small groups
without direct supervision.
Figure 2.2
a
.
T
eam members
being briefed
on
the base camp varanda
about data entry and other study protocols.
Ecological sampling
Data on mam
malian presence
were
collected from field surveys in
continuous
quadrats
2
x
2 km each
coded by a combination of letters and numbers
.
Resampling of quadrats
were carried on when possible, taking into account that
mobile
species will be present in some in
stances and
absent
in others
, thus the presence or
absence of a species
from a certain area
can only be established with repeated sampling
(
Table 2.
2
a
).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
16
Table 2.2
a.
Quadrat resampling scheme showing quadrat codes. N
umbered columns marked with X represent
the
number of sampled occasions.
Number of times resampled
Quadrat
1
2
3
4
5
6
9i
X
X
X
X
9j
X
X
X
10h
X
X
10i
X
X
X
X
10j
X
X
X
X
10k
X
11h
X
X
X
11i
X
X
X
X
X
11j
X
Data collection procedures included camera
tra
pping and record
ing
of any mammal sign,
vocali
s
ation or sighting in the quadrats sampled.
Data
were
recorde
d
in pre
-
formatted
data
sheets taken to
the
field
and animal signs were photographed and
photos
brought to camp
for correct identification.
Team memb
ers carried GPS pre
-
loaded with
coded quadrat grids
,
which helped
them
to locate themselves and the areas where data had to be collected,
avoid
ing
aggregated sampling (
spatial
autocorrelation).
Every animal sign was recorded
along with the coordinate and q
uadrat code. This allowed for observed
species’ occupancy
(number of quadrats present or absent)
and
frequency
(also
referred
to
as
relative
abundance
in
the
literature
)
.
Most trails
were 3 km in length and
had sufficient mud
coverage to display
prints
of
animal
tracks
. This made
t
rack
recording
possible in most
circumstances
without the need for
track
traps
.
Track
traps were
set
in the few trail
s where tracks did not record naturally.
Two overnight surveys were carried
out
at the same location, each ti
me volunteers walked
a trail during the night for one
to
two hours, imitating a jaguar with a jaguar caller.
Camera
trapping
Eleven
cameras,
three
of which were digital, were placed in the study area
. Total
camera
trap
sampling effort was
63
camera trap
nights
(Table
2.2
b
)
in
four
quadrats.
Cameras were not set or removed all at once, so the period they stayed in the field varied.
As there was only one
expedition
slot
in 2008
,
the sampling period was
short.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
17
Table 2.2
b
.
Sampling history of individual
cameras
(ID column)
,
including date of installation
and
removal, quadrat
installed and working period.
ID
Date
installed
Date
removed
Quadrat
X
Y
Trap nights
D1
29/10/08
06/1108
11i
721784
7161840
7
A8
29/10/08
06/11/08
11i
721674
7161903
7
D2
28/10
/08
06/11/08
11i
None
None
8
A31
31/10/08
06/11/08
9i
717063
7161481
6
D3
31/10/08
05/11/08
9i
717002
7161674
5
A32
30/10/08
06/11/08
11h
720493
7163601
7
A
30
30/10/08
05/11/08
9/10i
717872
7161142
6
A21
02/11/08
06/11/08
i12?
721925
7161357
4
A06
02
/11/08
06/11/08
i11/12?
721683
7161376
4
A20
1/11/08
05/11/08
9j
717335
7159539
4
A40
31/10/08
05/11/08
9J
717961
7159757
5
Total trap
-
nights
63
2.3
.
Results
Training and performance
Training
the expedition team on navigation through the forest was
considered
very
successful. After
a
few days
groups consisting of two to four
team members
went for long
walks to perform their tasks by them
selves. Some of the groups
explored
new
trails that
had not been visited be
fore
. The fact that they were able to
re
turn in the scheduled time
was proof that their navigation skills were excellent.
C
amera trap
s installed by team
members performed well, indicating that installation was
good
. Data record
ing
and entry
was also
satisfactory
.
Species occurrence
During the
Biosphere Expeditions
survey
,
armadillo, brocket deer, capuchin monkey, crab
-
eating fox, collared peccary, jaguar, opossum,
p
uma,
racoon, and tapir
were recorde
d
.
As
in
2007
, t
apir was the species
recorded
most
, in number of quad
rats (n=
6
) and
in
frequenc
y
(n=
8
)
. Puma was the second most recorded species,
found
in three
quadrats
and
on
five occasions
(Table 2.3
a).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
18
Table 2.3
a.
Species recorded during the Biosphere Expedition
s
survey,
with inf
ormation on
quadrat number
and
type of
record (vestige, sighting,
vocalization
, camera
trap)
.
Species
Latin
name
Local name
Q
uadrats
Type of
record
Number
of records
Armadillo
Dasypus novemcinctus
Tatu
-
galinha
9j,
10i
Track
02
Brocket deer
Mazama sp.
(
likely
americana
)
Veado
-
mateiro
11h,
11i
Sighting,
c
amera trap
0
2*
Capuchin
monkey
Cebus nigritus
Macaco
-
prego
10k
Sighting
01
Crab
-
eating
fox
Cerdocyon thous
Graxaim
9i,
10i
Track
01
Collared
-
peccary
Pecari tajacu
Cateto
9h
Hair
0
1
Jaguar
Panthera onca
Onça
-
pintada
9j
Track
01
Opossum
Mon
odelphis
marsupialis
Gambá
10
i
Sighting,
track
02
Puma
Puma concolor
Onça
-
vermelha
,
leão
9i,
10j, 10k
Track,
camera trap
0
5
Racoon
Procyon cancrivorous
Mão
-
pelada
9i, 10i
Track
0
3
Tapir
Tapirus terrestris
Anta
9i, 10i, 10j, 10k, 11i,
11h
Track,
camera trap
0
8
* Additional to those
recordings there were numerous other of (undentified species of) deer.
Only t
wo
species,
deer and
tayra
were record
ed with camera traps
, the remaining species
were recorded by their tracks. Results in
species composition from 2008
differed from
2007
by th
e recording of
jaguar,
capuchin
monkey
,
opossum, and the absence of ocelot
and agouti.
Jaguars did not reply
to
the jaguar caller during overnight camps
, and
were
thus only
recorded by tracks
.
Jaguar and puma tracks are difficult to distinguish in some in
stances,
particularly
when puma tracks expand in deep mud, as it was possible to observe during
this expedition.
To avoid
misinterpretations
,
and confirm that the track found was
unquestionably that of a jaguar, puma and jaguar tracks
were
digitalized and
scaled to
natural size (Fig. 2.3a).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
19
Figure 2.3a
.
Jaguar (top) and puma prints in the mud highlighting differences in size and shape.
Actual sizes
, ruler in
cen
time
ters.
The only jaguar print was found
on the “d
onkey trail
, revealing that the animal
he
aded
downhill. Puma
tracks were found
on
five
occasions.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
20
GIS mapping
Two maps were produced. T
he first
was
limited to the
200
8
base
and surroundings,
included
quadrat coding
and
contained the trails and camera
trap locations
.
It was
extracted
from
Geopro
maps
produced
by Pró
-
Atlântica
in the background and overlaid
with
data
obtained in the field and transferred
using
the
software TrackMaker
(
www.gpstm.com
).
Figure 2.3
b
.
Map of the study area.
Map i
ncludes position
of
camera trap
s,
river systems,
quad
rat coding
(letter and number)
and trails. Coordinates are in
UTM, d
atum SAD 69
.
The second map
was
produced by Projeto Puma displaying the
entire ‘Jaguar Corridor’
study
area
. It displays the locations of the 2008 exp
loratory surveys using
Land Rovers
to
the Graciosa Mountains and by boat to Guaratuba Bay
. It also summaris
es locations
where jaguars have been found prior to 1997 and from 2006
-
2008,
base camps
, main
roads,
and co
ntours of protected areas
(Fig.
2.3
c
).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
21
Figure 2.3
c
.
The entire jaguar corridor area, extending from the State of Santa Catarina to the State of Paraná.
This
map
was
generated
from GIS features kindly pr
ovided by several organizations
,
namely
the
Environment
Foundation (Fatma
-
Santa Catarina),
Paraná Institute of Environment (IAP), Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewed Reso
urces
(IBAMA)
and Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS).
Jaguar records prior to 1997
have
been mapped by
M.R. Leite (Leite M.Sc. thesis, 2
000).
Coordinates in UTM, datum SAD69.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
22
2.4
.
Discussion
& Conclusions
Species presence
and habitat integrity
The most remarkable finding during this years’ Biosphere Expedition
s survey
was, no
doubt, the jaguar track. The species was not found during 2
007, either by
Biosphere
Expeditions
or by local
teams
.
In spite of that, it was presumed that the species was
present due to the presence of species that are found to be rare elsewhere, such as the
tapir and peccaries, and the general good co
ndition of th
e environment. T
his
new
jaguar
r
ecord proves the assumption to have been correct.
Again, however, the jaguar has proved to be an uncommon species in the study area.
Since Biosphere Expeditions surveys began in 2006 it has been recorded only three times
by
Biosphere Expeditions and Projeto Puma, with an additional record made by the staff of
the NGO SPVS in the Cachoeira reserve. In addition, enquiries made to the environmental
police of Morretes during the current expedition regarding presence of jaguar or
jaguar
depredation on livestock yielded no addition records, nor did enquiries to a landkeeper of
an area in the Graciosa mountains (during the Land Rover survey) belonging to the
company Diana, where jaguars had been recorded prior to 1997. Only rumours
of the
presence of jaguar were obtained in the Graciosa mountains. Factual, recent evidence of
jaguars in the Graciosa mountains was absent
Other differences in presence of species from last year, such as the absence of agouti and
recording of capuchin mo
nkey and opossum, may only be taken as chance variations.
Ocelot absence during this year, on the other hand, may not be a result of random
variation. The species was recorded eight times in 2007 and not at all in 2008. In 2007 it
was recorded often on roa
ds that are now being frequently used by vehicles. In fact, traffic
of vehicles has increased at the far end of the road that leads to the Canasvieiras area,
due to increased use of the area by three private landowners, one for implementation of a
new palm
-
heart and ‘pupunha’ (amazonian palm
-
heart)
Bactris gasipae
plantation, one for
maintenance of an older plantation of the same species, and the third for ‘recreational’
purposes. The traffic may have interfered in the habits of ocelots, but the recurrent
p
resence of pumas, recorded more often than last year, may also have pushed the ocelot
to use other trails.
Tapir was found to be
relatively
common
still
in the area, and widespread over the
quadrats surveyed. This result is
positive, as the species is not
able to stand hunting
pressure at any level due to its slow reproductive rate. Any population crash would take
many generations to recover densities to the current level.
S
ampling and study design
Study design considerations should always take into acco
unt the relationship between the
amount of d
ata obtained and the effort
spent during the
survey.
Ideally a greater number of
quadrats should be surveyed
more frequently
. During the
2008
Biosphere E
xpedition
s
survey
, nine quadrats were covered in contrast w
ith
only four
in 2006 and twelve
in 2007
.
The drop in number of quadrats covered from 2007 to 2008 are
the
results of
rainy
weather during
2008
, which
made
cross
ing
the many rivers and creeks that
intersect
the
study area
difficult
.
Despite this
, sampling
and re
-
sampling of quadrats may be considered
satisfactory considering th
at
fewer
than two weeks were
available for sampling.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
23
Management implications
This year it was possible to expand the intensive survey near base camp northward,
exchange information
with the environmental police in Morretes, and involve other
stakeholders in our project. Stakeholders are willing to cooperate with our expeditions, and
their
involvement is key to reducing encroachment from landless people, hunting, and
other illegal act
ivities that may harm the local environment and fauna of the Canasvieiras
area. The jaguar track recorded this year provides renewed perspectives for the
continuation of the project in the area.
Management recommendations
As mentioned in the last report
, the good condition of the habitat in the study site are
largely due to frequent patrolling by stakeholders, some of them employees of companies
that are owned or partially owned by the government of Paraná, such as Copel and
Lavrama. Management of the ar
ea should therefore take that into account, providing
means to stakeholders to manage their properties in a sustainable manner.
A local stakeholder that participates as a member of the community
committee
of the APA
of Guaratuba stated that the municipa
lity of Guaratuba receives over one million
R
eais
(
approximately
US$ 500,000
) per year from the ‘ecological tax’, relative to the extent of
protected areas.
The ‘ecological tax’ is derived from the ‘Tax of Merchandise Exchange’ (ICMs). The ICM
tax is col
lected at state level and distributed to municipalities in accordance with a series
of
criteria. One of the criteria
that enables the municipality to receive a larger share of this
fund is to have large protected areas. The more protected areas the municip
ality has, the
more of this fund it is entitled to.
There is no information so far on how this funding is used,
but it is obvious that the areas
surveyed so far do not receive any direct benefit. It is recommended that application of this
fund should be
revised and means should be implemented so that it can go to payment of
rangers and incentive
s
for
sustainable use of forest products
, such as for
example
the
extraction of fruits of the palm heart to produce juice
,
rather than to cut
down
the tree
(which
is illegal and also
detrimental for
wildlife)
.
As also
mentioned in previous reports,
rough estimate
s show
that the fruit
and juice
production may be
up to
fo
u
rty
times more lucrative
,
than the extraction of
palm
heart
.
Priorities for next expedition
The 200
8
base camp area should be sampled
further
in 200
9
to guarantee that it will be
given further attention
,
due to its great potential as jaguar habitat.
Land Rover
and boat
based
surveys
should be repeated to learn more about jaguar presence along t
he jaguar
corridor.
Efforts should be put into the project so that expeditions last longer and more
results can be accumulated.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
24
Appendix 1.
Bird list
There were no ornithologists, amateur or professional, on the current expedition team.
However, seve
ral birds were very conspicuous, and frequently caught our attention. Some
members of the team, particularly Catharine Muenzel, recorded these species in the small
list of birds below.
Common name
Latin name
MANTLED HAWK
Leucopterius polionota
EARED PI
GMY
-
TYRANT
Myiornis auricularis
CAATINGA BLACK
-
TYRANT (?)
Knipolegus franciscans
GLITTERING
-
BELLIED EMERALD
BLACK
-
JAKOBIN
Melanotrochilus f
usca
WHITE
-
RUMPED SWALLOW
Tachycineta leucorrhoa
DUSKY
-
LEGGED GUAN
Penelope obscura
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
25
Appendix
2
.
Expedition d
iary by
Ronald Seipold
15 October
The start of this year's Brazil expedition is looming and I, Ronald (your expedition leader), would like to tell
you about my first steps to get the show on the road.
Having prepared the long to
-
do
-
list, I have left for
Sao Paulo, where I will meet Daniel from Biosfera Brasil
(our local partner). During the next few days we will pick up our Land Rovers, get all the equipment together
and organise some additional supplies, finally to meet Dr. Marcelo Mazzolli (your expedi
tion scientist).
Together we will then set up our base camp, get everything in place, check all the technical equipment and
prepare the paperwork.
I’ll keep you updated on our progress and look forward to meeting you soon.
Ronald Seipold
Expedition Leade
r
23 October
I'm sending you this diary from Matinhos where we are picking up some supplies and food.
My experience over the last few days is that Brazil can beat even the Germans regarding procedures and
formal paperwork. You need to be very patient
and all the planning up front does not really help you in the
end. So, the delivery of our cars had to be postponed until today. In the meantime I travelled by bus to
Matinhos where I met our scientist Marcelo. Marcelo had already organized a pickup truck
and so we made
our way into the research area where we started setting up base camp. Besides a breakdown of our car in
the middle of nowhere that caused us some trouble, we managed to get things started and should be all
ready for you by the time you arri
ve (I hope!). Most of the platforms for our tents are done and, very
importantly, a cook
has also been hired, so you don
’t need to starve :). Step by step the house is getting into
shape. There are two days left to get everything ready and I have to admit
that we are glad ab
out it. Our
expedition is on it
s way!
You might also be interested in the weather. Describing it in one word: wet! It has been raining here for
several days without a break. The terrain is muddy and the rivers running high are a challe
nge in themselves
(we had to cross some of them with our Land Rovers). Two days ago it stopped raining and yesterday we
have even seen some sun in Matinhos! Note also that because of all this water and mud, we will bring for
you some pairs of rubber boots
to the assembly point.
Not having internet access (or even a signal for mobiles) there is no chance of sending you more information
before you will arrive. So, hopefully you will be getting ready too, bracing yourself for things to come! We are
looking f
orward to meeting you all at the assembly point Curitiba Holiday Inn, 07.00 on Sunday 26. Safe
travels.
28 October
The team arrived, but Marianne's luggage did not. But it doesn’t seem to be a big problem for her. All team
members are willing to help: s
ome socks here, a T
-
shirt from somebody else, a hammock with a cover and a
view to the sky
what else do you need in a rain forest :)
The weather changed at the right moment: it was sunny and warm for the first two days, giving us the chance
to do our tr
aining sessions outside on the veranda of our cabin (with this awesome view over the rainforest
towards a mountain range). After a pleasant first night we continued our training and we were out for our first
walks around base camp.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
26
Today the *rain*forest
made a comeback with heavy rain. Braving the weather, we practiced making a track
trap and we learned to install a camera trap as we found a very promising place with peccary tracks. In the
afternoon we split into two groups, studying trails in the area.
Tomorrow some team members will drive to Morretes to pick up the missing luggage, we hope, buy some
rubber boots and send this diary to you. The others are looking forward to staying a full day in the field: one
group is going on a reconnaissance mission
to explore one trail west of base camp leading up to a mountain
range and a second team will head for the Limeira road trail of last year’s expedition.
Besides all the work we have done so far it’s good to see that the team is gelling well, with a great
team
spirit. So nothing short of a great start for the expedition.
3 November
After some more training on data sheets and data entry we split in two groups. One of them left in the
afternoon for a reconnaissance trip west of our camp site. The rain had
washed out all tracks (except a tapir
one) and crossing a river had b
ecome impossible. After prepar
ing a track trap, we had to return earlier than
we had hoped. The other group explored the range behind our site, setting another camera trap. Back at the
c
amp and sitting on our veranda, I had a glimpse of a fox passing the road at the end of our front yard
was
it really a fox?
Wednesday turned out to be a good day even though we had heavy rain all day long. Those without rubber
boots went to Morretes to
buy some (Alistair having UK size 44 was successful as well!) and Marianne finally
got her luggage back. In the afternoon this group went out on another trail, setting two more camera traps. A
second group continued the trail walked the day before to final
ly cross the river. But they had to return after it
was not possible to find any access point to the promising mountain range. On their way back, Sandra
spotted a deer.
Katharina, Reinhold and I stayed out a whole day on the so
-
called Limeira Road Trail,
a trail that had been
worked on already last year. Very muddy terrain limited the distance we could do. Besides one a track,
possibly of an armadillo, we had to return without any clear sightings. Although everybody’s clothes are now
wet (and it’s difficul
t to get them dry in this humidity) the mood is still upbeat. All team members are enjoying
the cabin, the food and this awesome location.
The following day was unexpectedly dry and from time to time the sun got a chance of shining through the
roof of tre
es. One group headed towards a new trail located about 15 minutes by car north of our site. It
didn’t take long to find several tapir and other tracks that we couldn’t identify. So we installed a camera and a
track trap at this promising spot. Shortly afte
rwards a coral snake crossed our path. Further west on this
rarely used trail we were surprised to find an old banana plantation, located in the middle of nowhere. Some
cartridges, a fire place and some other signs of human disturbance were found. As we re
turned in the
evening, the second group was back already but without the second Land Rover. They had been heading up
Celso’s Trail when the car got stuck on one of the very rarely used bridges. Not being able to get the Land
Rover out they decided to conti
nue walking. During the day they explored several trails close to one of the
peaks and found a puma track! This finding gave everybody the extra lift they needed for a long walk back to
the house
even though the Land Rover could be manoeuvred from the br
idge, the car got stuck again on
the next bridge and had to be left behind over night.
Left with just one car, we had to face a new logistics issue. But despite this one group got a ride close to
Donkey Trail south
-
west of the camp, whilst the second
group prepared an overnighter at Celso’s.
The first challenge on the way to the Donkey Trail is a river. Loaded with our daypacks, carrying boots and
pants we balanced our way barefoot to the other side of the stream. The slippery, muddy trail up the hi
ll
needed physical and mental strength to conquer, but we were pretty soon rewarded by several types of
animal tracks such as tapir and opossum. So we decided to place a track trap and later on a camera trap.
Half an hour further up we couldn’t believe our
eyes: we clearly saw a big cat print. But no further prints could
be found anywhere around. The print seemed to be too big for a puma but what else could it be
a jaguar?
In the evening we met Marcelo, who picked us up behind the river, showing him our p
hotos. It took him a
while to ensure what he himself couldn’t believe: this must have been a jaguar.
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27
Meanwhile, our first overnight camp was established by Michael, Alistair, Nathalie and Marianne. It was
located next to two huts on the Celso Trail west o
f base camp close to the mountain range. After having
prepared all packs, they were driven in the Land Rover to the trail. After an hours hiking, they arrived at the
camp site. In the afternoon they installed two more cameras on a trail leading to a nearby
peak. After some
warm food and drinks prepared on a fire, they started to call the jaguar from the peak with a special sound
device. Each call lasts approx. 3 minutes with calls made at 15 minutes intervals. The rain and coldness
prevented them from conti
nuing all night long. Even after 6 calls and an additional one at 23:00 there was no
answer from a "real" jaguar. An animal passed quite close by but the extremely dark night didn’t allow them
to see the animal. Unexpectedly on the decent the following mor
ning (Saturday) three sets of puma prints
were observed within close proximity of one of the camera traps. Let’s hope we have a photo of a big cat
next week!
Half of our expeditions is already over
time is racing on. Everybody is still ambitious to go a
nd the spirit is
amazing. But most important to me is that none of the team members had to face any major problems
-
besides a competition about who is in the lead regarding mosquito and tick bites. The second week will bring
in more results
let’s see …
Sheila, Reinhold, Katharina, Marion and I returned the next day to the Donkey trail to install one camera trap
close to the jaguar print. Back from our “mission” we turned south to have a closer look at two trails that have
been studied already last year.
Unfortunately we couldn’t add any interesting sightings to our list.
While the rain returned, we worked Sunday on our data sheets and updated our data entry. Those who felt a
bit exhausted from the last day's walks went to Matinhos, whilst others explor
ed one more trail up the hill
behind the camp and to set up our last two cameras.
Monday started unexpectedly with almost clear skies and sunshine. No wonder that the first activity of the
day was to get all those wet clothes hanged out to dry. Some of u
s left the camp to walk the Southern Trail
as far as possible. We had to cross 6 main streams and several smaller brooks but we were rewarded by an
almost uncountable amount of tracks such as deer, tapir, peccaries and two crystal clear puma prints! We
saw
another coral snake and two capuchin monkeys jumping over our heads from one tree to another!
A second group accompanied Marcelo driving to a region approx. 20 km west of Morretos to interview locals.
Several years ago puma and jaguar sightings/tracks we
re registered there. Recent tracks, a sighting of a
black jaguar and a puma attack on horses just two weeks ago might make it worthwhile to integrate this area
too into future research plans.
11 November
We decided to have our “day off” on Tuesday. Inst
ead of just relaxing, we went down to Guaratuba Bay. A
boat took us out on a trip between the islands which are surrounded by mangroves. Behind the coastline, the
hilly landscape completed the beautiful scenery. For a better understanding of this more or l
ess “untouched”
nature we added a one hour walk through the jungle on one the islands.
Wednesday and Thursday we split into groups again to get all cameras back. Once more one group spent
the night at Celso’s. This time it was not as cold, wet and dark a
s last time and a lot of noises of animals
could be heard throughout the night. Katharine, Reinhold, Sheila, Marion and Marcelo took the chance to call
the jaguar again but no reply could be heard. Unfortunately one camera had technical problems so no
pict
ures were taken. The other analogue cameras indicated some shots were taken, but we have to be
patient until the films get developed. On their way back to camp the group discovered more tracks such as
raccoon, tapir, opossum, armadillo and, for the third t
ime in this area, very recent puma tracks. They are
around!
The camera trap on donkey trail, next to the jaguar print found last week, didn’t take any pictures. Everybody
was a bit disappointed, but the chance of getting a picture of a big cat within a fe
w days, in a range of
several meters is pretty small in reality. The track traps on our trails were more of a success: plenty of prints
of opossum, tapir, deer and peccary could be entered on our data sheets.
On our way back, between camp site and housek
eeper’s trail, Natalie and I spotted a hawk as it took off the
road behind a bend in front of our Land Rover. We could clearly see a snake in its claws.
© Biosphere Expeditions
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28
Thursday turned out to be the best day of our stay. The afternoon was used for data sheets, data entry
,
photo collection and starting to clear up equipment as well as personal stuff. All our work was rewarded by a
very pleasant evening on the veranda, including a stunningly picturesque sunset.
It was dry again on Friday morning and the sun helped us to t
ake down our tents dry. ith the assistance of all
team members we managed to pack up camp by early lunch time. Nobody could believe that the expedition
was already over
hadn’t we just made it up the muddy road to our home, sweet home a few days earlier?
Eventually everybody got back to Curitiba. Despite the great time we had in the jungle, I guess some of us
were looking forward to having a hot shower and a comfy bed …
Thanks to everybody to your contribution, great team spirit, patience, effort and fle
xibility. For Marcelo and
me it was a real pleasure working with you and we hope that there will be a lot of good memories that will
last for a long time. At least there will come the moment when you might hear a voice from the off yelling:
“this is not go
od for you!!!” or “why???”.
Please don’t forget to upload and share your pictures via
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org/pictureshare
.
Hope to see you again.
Cheers
Ronald
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.