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Expedition report: Studying jaguars, pumas and their prey in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest - the jaguar corridor (May 2011)

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  • Biosphere Expeditions

Abstract and Figures

Abstract An expedition to the southern Atlantic forest of Brazil was conducted with Biosphere Expeditions in May 2011, to the APA (Area of Environmental Protection) of Guaratuba in the Serra do Mar mountain range. This was the fifth Biosphere Expeditions survey in the area and the seventh overall including local expeditions. The primary aim of the surveys is to locate core habitats for jaguar and puma at their southern range in the Atlantic broad-leaf rainforest, and develop conservation strategies and guidelines for these habitats and their resident species based on information gained locally. Sampling was conducted in the locality of Canasvieiras, in the municipality of Guaratuba and consisted of sign surveys and the deployment of ten camera traps. Data collected included species richness and observed occupancy. Jaguar was not recorded during this expedition, but several species important to the project objectives were. In terms of species predominance, tapir was most often recorded, followed by deer and ocelot. One surprise was the relatively high number of records of white-lipped peccaries, one of the jaguar’s main prey species, and geographically restricted as a result of overhunting. The fact that large cats are not recorded during short volunteer expeditions is normal, but results accumulated by surveys over several years show that the jaguar is rare in the region. Species richness of medium-sized and large mammals was high considering the short duration of the survey, (n=15 species). Animals are difficult to see in this region, but in spite of that, tapirs and the primates, howler-monkeys and capuchin monkeys were seen during surveys. Resumo Expedições ao sul da floresta Atlântica do Brasil foram efetuadas pela ‘Biosphere Expeditions’ em Maio de 2011, para a APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) de Guaratuba, localizada na cadeia de montanhas da Serra do Mar. Este foi o quinto levantamento da Biosphere Expeditions na área, e o sétimo levantamento total se expedições locais forem contabilizadas. O principal objetivo do projeto é localizar áreas de habitat principal para a onça-pintada e o puma no limite sul da distribuição da Floresta Atlântica costeira, e desenvolver estratégias de conservação baseadas em informações obtidas localmente, de maneira a produzir diretrizes para conservação destas espécies e de seu habitat. A amostragem foi conduzida na localidade de Canasvieiras, no município de Guaratuba e consistiu em levantamentos de vestígios de mamíferos e uso de dez armadilhas-fotográficas. Dados coletados incluíram riqueza de espécies e ocupação observada. A onça-pintada não foi registrada, mas várias espécies de importantes para o objetivo do projeto foram. Em termos de predominância não houve variação em relação aos outros anos, com a anta ocupando um primeiro lugar, e segundo lugar de veados e jaguatirica. Uma surpresa foi o registro relativamente alto de queixada, uma das principais presas da onça, e geograficamente restrito em razão de caça excessiva. O fato de grandes gatos estarem temporariamente ausentes por curtos períodos de tempo é normal, mas resultados acumulados ao longo dos anos mostram que a onça-pintada é rara na região. A riqueza de espécies de médio e grande tamanho foi alta para a curta duração do estudo, (n=15 species). Os animais são difíceis de visualizar na região, mas apesar disto a anta, e os primatas bugio e macaco-prego foram avistados durante o estudo.
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EXPEDITION REPORT
Expedition dates: 14
26 May 2011
Report publi
shed:
May 2013
Studying jaguars, pumas and their
prey in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest:
BEST
VOLUNTEERING
ORGANISATION
UK
BEST FOR
GREEN
-
MINDED
TRAVELLERS
UK
TOP
RESPONSIBLE
HOLIDAY
UK
BEST WILDLIFE
VOLUNTEERING
HOLIDAY
UK
BEST IN
SUSTAINABLE
TRAVEL
USA
T
OP HOLIDAY
FOR NATURE
Germany
ENVIRONMENT
AWARD
Germany
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
1
EXPEDITION REPORT
Studying jaguars, pumas and their
prey in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest
:
t
he jaguar corridor.
Expedition dates:
14
26 May 2011
Report published
:
May 2013
Authors:
Marcelo Mazzolli
Project coordinator
Projeto Puma
Valeska Oliveira
Field Scientist
Matthias Hammer (editor)
Biosphere Expeditions
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
2
Abstract
An expedition to the southern Atlantic forest of Brazil was conducted with Biosphere
Expe
ditions in May 2011, to the APA (Area of Environmental Protection) of Guaratuba in
the Serra do Mar mountain range. This was the fifth Biosphere Expeditions survey in the
area and the seventh overall including local expeditions. The primary aim of the surv
eys is
to locate core habitats for jaguar and puma at their southern range in the Atlantic broad
-
leaf rainforest, and develop conservation strategies and guidelines for these habitats and
their resident species based on information gained locally. Sampling
was conducted in the
locality of Canasvieiras, in the municipality of Guaratuba and consisted of sign surveys
and the deployment of ten camera traps. Data collected included species richness and
observed occupancy. Jaguar was not recorded duri
ng this expe
dition, but
several species
important to the project objectives were. In terms of
species
predominance
,
tapir
was most
often recorded, followed by
deer and ocelot. One surprise was
the relatively high number
of records of white
-
lipped peccaries, one of the
jaguar’s
main prey
species
, and
geographically restricted as a result of overhunting
.
The fact that large cats
are not
recorded during short volunteer expeditions
is normal, but results
accumulated
by surveys
over several years
show
that
the jaguar
is rar
e in
the region. S
pecies richness
of medium
-
sized and large mammals was high
considering
the
short
duration of the survey, (n
=15
species). Animals are
difficult to see in this region
, but in spite of that, tapirs and the
primates
,
howler
-
monkeys and capuch
in monkeys were seen during surveys.
Resumo
Expedições ao sul da floresta Atlântica do Brasil foram efetuadas pela ‘Biosphere
Expeditions’ em Maio de 2011, para a APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) de Guaratuba,
localizada na cadeia de montanhas da Serr
a do Mar. Este foi o quinto levantamento da
Biosphere Expeditions na área, e o sétimo levantamento total se expedições locais forem
contabilizadas. O principal objetivo do projeto é localizar áreas de habitat principal para a
onça
-
pintada e o puma no limit
e sul da distribuição da Floresta Atlântica costeira, e
desenvolver estratégias de conservação baseadas em informações obtidas localmente,
de maneira a produzir diretrizes para conservação destas espécies e de seu habitat. A
amostragem foi conduzida na loc
alidade de Canasvieiras, no município de Guaratuba e
consistiu em levantamentos de vestígios de mamíferos e uso de dez armadilhas
-
fotográficas. Dados coletados incluíram riqueza de espécies e ocupação observada.
A
onça
-
pintada não foi registrada,
mas vária
s espécies de importantes para o objetivo do
projeto foram. Em termos de predominância não houve variação em relação aos outros
anos, com a anta ocupando um primeiro lugar, e segundo lugar de veados
e jaguatirica
.
Uma surpresa foi o registro relativamente
alto de queixada, uma das principais presas da
onça, e geograficamente restrito em razão de caça excessiva.
O fato de grandes gatos
estarem temporariamente ausentes por curtos períodos de tempo é normal, mas
resultados acumulados ao longo dos anos mostram
que a onça
-
pintada é rara na região
.
A riqueza de esp
éci
es de médio e grande tamanho foi alta para a curta duração do
estudo
, (n=15 species).
Os animais são dif
íceis de visualizar na regi
ão, mas apesar disto
a anta, e os primatas bugio e macaco
-
prego foram
avistados durante o estudo
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
3
Contents
Abstract
/
Resumo
2
Contents
3
1. Expedition Review
4
1.1. Background
4
1.2. Research a
rea
5
1.3. Dates
7
1.4. Local conditions & s
upport
7
1.5. Expedition s
cientist
s
9
1.6. Expedition l
eader
9
1.7. Expedition t
eam
9
1.8. Expedition b
udget
1
0
1.9. Acknowledgments
1
1
1.10. Further information & e
nquiries
1
1
2. Puma &
j
aguar
s
urvey
1
2
2.1. Introduction
1
2
2.
2
. Methods
1
5
2.
3
. Results
2
0
2.4
. Discussion & c
onclusions
2
8
2.5
.
Re
ferences
3
1
Appendix 1
: Expedition diary
3
2
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
4
Please note: Each expedition report is written as a stand
-
alone document that can be read
without having to refer back to previous reports. As such, much of this section, which
remains valid and relevant,
is a repetition from previous reports, copied here to provide the
reader with an uninterrupted flow of argument and rational
e
.
1.
Expedition Review
Matthias Hammer
Biosphere Expeditions
1.1.
Background
Biosphere Expeditions runs wildlife conservation
research expeditions to all corners of the
Earth. Projects are not tours, photographic safaris or excursions, but genuine research
expeditions placing ordinary people with no research experience alongside scientists who
are at the forefront of conservatio
n work. Expeditions are open to all and there are no
special skills (biological or otherwise) required to join. Expedition team members are
people from all walks of life and of all ages, looking for an adventure with a conscience
and a sense of purpose. Mo
re information about Biosphere Expeditions and its research
expeditions can be found at
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
.
This expedition report deals with an expedition to the Atlantic rainforest of Braz
il, which
aim
s
to
continue the only jaguar and puma conservation
project
in the
Atlantic
broad
-
leaved rain
forest. The expedition’s study site in the
APA (Area of Environmental
Protection
) of Guaratuba,
in the Serra do Mar Mountain range
,
is known for its o
utstanding
beauty, with densely forested mountain ranges and mangrove lowlands reaching the
Atlantic Ocean. It harbours one of the few jaguar populations surviving in
b
road
-
leaved
Atlantic
r
ainforest. Data collected by the expedition will form the basis fo
r the management
and protection of jaguars and pumas and their habitats within a highly threatened
ecosystem.
The
APA (Area of Environmental Protection
) of Guaratuba is
an
important refuge where
these two cat species probably still survive in numbers. It
is vital that this southernmost
population of jaguars in the
b
road
-
leaved Atlantic rainforest is protected, as it contains the
source population from which jaguar numbers could be re
-
established
in
an important area
of its historical range. Biosphere Expe
ditions assisted local conservation efforts by
initiating research in this unstudied area of forest, gathering key information vital for the
protection of this highly endangered habitat and its resident species.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
5
1.2.
Research a
rea
Brazil is located on t
he Atlantic coast of South America and is the larges
t country on the
continent. Two
-
thirds of Brazilian territory is located within the Amazon basin. In addition to
the Amazon, the Atlantic rainforest extends for about 3,500 kilometres along the coast with
an area of over one million square kilometres. The Atlantic forest ecosystem is recognised
as one of the most unique habitats on Earth, with numerous endemic species. It is one of
the so
-
called world “hotspots” of biodiversity, with over 400 vascular plan
ts per hectare,
50% of which are endemic. Animal diversity is also high: 215 species of mammals have
been recorded, 73 of which are endemic; and out of a total of 183 species of amphibians,
91.8 % are endemic. Although biodiversity is very high, the status
of many individual
species is precarious. A recent estimate showed that 171 out of 202 species of vulnerable
animals from Brazil are from the Atlantic forest.
Figure 1.2.a.
Flag and location of
Brazil
and study site.
An overview of Biosphere Expe
ditions’
research sites, assembly points, base camp
and office locations is at
Goo
gle Maps
.
The study area is situated
in the
APA (Area of Environmental Protection
) of Guaratuba,
although much of the Serra do Mar mountain Range in the State of Paraná, as well as its
bays, are of interest to this project. The Serra do Mar mountain ran
ge harbours the largest
continuous patches of Atlantic rainforest of Brazil.
The
Atlantic rainforest of Brazil is
one of the most endangered ecosystems on Earth. It is
hard to overstate the importance of this ecosystem in terms of conservation. Declared a
UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, most scientists rank the Atlantic forest as one of
the top three priorities for global conservation efforts. Very little of the Atlantic forest
remains, and what does is highly fragmented. Despite this, it still maintai
ns extremely high
levels of diversity and endemism.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
6
Figure 1.2b.
Map of the Atlantic forest showing estimated extent around 1500 (grey) and extent in 1990 (black).
The forest, which once spread along the Atlantic coast and much of southern Brazil, is no
w
reduced to fewer than 8% of its original extent because of intensive human occupation,
beginning with sugar cane plantation in the 1500s and later coffee plantations.
To address this lack of information, the expedition’s research work also assessed whi
ch
human occupation strategies are most compatible with the concurrent survival of large
mammals, with special emphasis on the habitat quality for the jaguar and puma. Few
areas are left, which have remained untouched and these are of high importance for t
heir
intrinsic value as a source of species, and as a model for recovering disturbed areas.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
7
1.3. D
ates
The expedition ran over a period of two weeks from
16 to 2
6
May 2011
and was
composed of a team of international research assistants, guides, support
personnel and
an expedition leader
(see below for team details)
.
1.4.
Local conditions & s
upport
Expedition base
& transport
The expedition assembly point was Curitiba, where expedition team members were met by
the expedition leader and by the local sc
ientist to be taken directly to bas
e camp (see map
below) using three
four
-
whee
l drive
Land Rover Defender
s
kindly provided by Land Rover
Brazil.
Figure 1.3a.
Map showing
s
tudy area
including study bases,
main road network
, and major landmarks
.
© Google
Earth.
Prior to the
team members’
arrival, staff
prepared
base camp
from
12
May 2011
. Th
e
facility is owned by a
Mr. Simões
who
kindly provided
access to it
.
The location of base
camp in 2011 was the same location as 2010, 2007 and 2008 (see above).
Base
camp consisted of
fourteen
tents installed on wooden platforms
and one jungle
hammock
, where the team slept, and a house where meals where served and other
communal
activities
were
conducted.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
8
Figure 1.3b.
Base camp with tents
installed on wooden platfor
ms above the forest floor.
There was
a
dedicated cook to prepare main meals. Lunch often consisted of a snack
taken to the field
, whereas dinner was the main meal
. There was
110V
electricity at
base.
Field communications
There
was
no telephone
,
and mobil
e phones
did
not
work at base. The nearest landline
telephone
was
about
one hour
from base camp
.
Regular expedition diary updates
were
uploaded to
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org/diaries
for frien
ds & family to access.
Medical support & insurance
The expedition leader was a trained first aider, and the expedition carried a
comprehensive medical kit. Further medical support
was
provided by hospitals in the
towns of Matinhos, Guaratuba
, Paranagua
a
nd Curitiba. All team members were required
to be in possession of adequate travel insurance covering emergency medical evacuation
and repatriation. Safety and emergency procedures
were
in place.
There were no serious medical incidents. There
were some s
ore muscles
and joints as
well as some cuts,
bruising
and minor insect bites
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
9
1.5
.
Expedition s
cientist
s
The expeditions field scientist was
Valeska Buchemi de Oliveira. Born in Belo Horizonte,
Brazil, Valeska is a Biological Sciences graduate of the C
atholic University of Minas
Gerais, specialising in research design and environm
ental impact studies of mammal
communities. In this capacity Valeska has worked in the Protected Areas and Priority
Conservation Areas in regions of the Cerrado, Atlantic Fores
t and the Amazon biomes.
Valeska has also worked in conservation through research with private reserves (RPPNs)
and with various research and conservation institutions.
The expedition's
chief
scientist
was
Dr. Marcelo Mazzolli. Born in Brazil, he graduate
d in
Biology in 1992, with a master’s degree from the University of Durham, UK. His Ph.D. in
ecology, obtained in Brazil, was on the effects of human occupation on the extinction of
large mammals. He has devoted his career to the study of large mammals, pa
rticularly the
puma and jaguar, but has had many other outdoors experiences. He was a professional
jungle guide in the Amazon forest in 1986 at age 21. He has attended many national and
international workshops, and published relevant articles. His studies
have made his work
well known, and early in his career he was invited to be a member of the International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Cat Specialist Group with one of his projects
listed as a priority in the World Wide Cat Action Plan. He has t
ravelled extensively, living in
the United States, England, and Peru, and has surveyed lions in Botswana. Marcelo has
been working with Biosphere Expeditions since 2006 as scientist in Brazil, and has also
participated as a Biosphere Expeditions consultant
scientist on the Peru expedition and as
a scientist on the Oman expedition.
1.6
.
Expedition l
eader
Malika Fettak is half Algerian, but was born and educated in Germany. She majored in
Marketing & Communication at the University of Frankfurt, which led
her to jobs in PR &
Communications. She has travelled widely, especially in Africa and Northern Europe. Her
love of nature and the outdoors, and taking part in a few Biosphere expeditions, persuaded
her that a change of career was in order and here she is
since 2008, leading expeditions
and desperately trying to make herself useful around the office :) Malika is a keen
sportswoman
-
triathlon, skiing, volleyball, etc. and enjoys the outdoors.
1.7
.
Expedition t
eam
The expedition team was recruited by Biosp
here Expeditions and consisted of a mixture of
all ages, nationalities
and backgrounds
.
15
-
27 May 2012:
Tamara Caddy (Australia, journalist), Miriam Cadney (UK), Sudheer
Koneru (USA), Sridhar Kotagir (India), Rod McGregor (UK), Irmtraut Schumann (UK),
Nic
ola West (Australia), Nicole Wrisley (USA).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
10
1.8
.
Expedition b
udget
Each team member paid towards expedit
ion costs a contribution of £1
,
19
0 per two week
slot. The contribution covered accommodation and meals, supervision and induction, a
permit to access
and work in the area, all maps and special non
-
personal equipment, all
transport from and to the team assembly point. It did not cover excess luggage charges,
travel insurance, personal expenses like telephone bills, souvenirs, etc., as well as visa
and o
ther travel expenses to and from the assembly point (e.g. international flights).
Details on how these contributions were spent are given below.
Income
£
Expedition contributions
11,310
Expenditure
Base camp and food
includes all meals,
rent, buil
ding materials,
base camp equipment
2,155
Transport
includes fuel, vehicle maintenance
, vehicle insurance, local travel
405
Equipment and hardware
includes research materials, research gear
1,237
S
taff
includes salaries, travel and expenses, Biosphere
Expedition tips, gifts
3,778
Administration
includes bribes, registration fees, sundries, etc
454
Team recruitment Brazil
as estimated % of PR costs for Biosphere Expeditions
2,980
Income
Expenditure
301
Total percentage spent directly on proje
ct
97%
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
11
1.9
.
Acknowledgements
This study was conducted by Biosphere Expeditions which runs wildlife conservation
expeditions all over the globe. Without our expedition team members, who are listed above
and who provided an expedition contribution and ga
ve up their spare time to work as
research assistants, none of this research would have been possible. The support team
and staff, also mentioned above, were central to making it all work on the ground. Thank
you to all of you and the ones we have not mana
ged to mention by name (you know who
you are) for making it all come true. Biosphere Expeditions would also like to thank Land
Rover,
Swarovski Optik,
Motorola, Cotswold Outdoor, Globetrotter Ausrüstung
, Snowgum
and Gerald Arnhold for their sponsorship.
P
rojeto Puma, Biosphere Expeditions’ local partner for this project, and its
founder Dr.
Marce
lo Mazzolli were crucial to the success of the expedition. Thank you also to Daniel
Contrucci of
Aoka
who initiated the whole project by establishing contact betwe
en Projeto
Puma and Biosphere Expeditions and still gives support to the expedition from São Paulo.
1.
10
.
Further information & e
nquiries
More background information on Biosphere Expeditions in general and on this expedition
in particular including pictu
res, diary excerpts and a copy of this report can be found on the
Biosphere Expeditions website
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
.
Enquires should be addressed to Biosphere Expeditions at the address given
below.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
1
2
Please note: Each expedition report is written as a stand
-
alone document that can be read
without having to refer back to previous reports. As such, much of this section, which
remains valid and relevant, is a repetition from previous reports, c
opied here to provide the
reader with an uninterrupted flow of argument and rational
e
.
2. Puma &
j
aguar
s
urvey
Marcelo Mazzolli
Projeto Puma
Valeska Oliveira
Field Assistant
2.1. Introduction
The Brazilian Atlantic Forest harbo
u
rs a high biodiversity
and it is one of the most
thre
atened ecosystems in the world (Myers et al. 2002)
. Less than 10% of this biome
remains and most of the area is fragmented (Ribeiro
et al
.
2009). In this scenario the Serra
do Mar region is the biggest patch of Atlantic Fores
t in Brazil, including the area where this
research was conducted.
The
jaguar is
highly
endangered i
n
the
Atlantic Forest,
with only about
200 individuals
left
(Leite and Galvão
2002), their distribution restricted to few and disconnected forest
patches (
Fig. 2.1a).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
13
The above map was based in the assumption that the largest patches of forest harbo
u
red
jaguars, when in fact our surveys have shown that the species is not present in many of
the apparently connected forest patches. The situation is worsened
by the fact that these
populations are isolated from
larger
continental populations
that
,
if connected, co
uld
provide source for recolonis
ations and increase in genetic diversity
.
It is also a fact that jaguars are disappearing at fast rates,
ha
ving los
t as much as 1
latitudi
nal degree of their historical distribution per decade,
as demonstrated
from data
obtained
at their southernmost range in the Atlantic Coast Forest
(Mazzolli
2009)
(Fig.
2.1b)
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
14
Expedition
s conducted since 2006 have
conducted
fi
ve surveys i
n the region,
recording
jaguars, pumas,
and
other mammals
, plus gaining knowledge on
habitat qua
lity
. The
project
focused
on the presence/absence of jaguars an
d its prey
,
defining
imp
ortant areas
to protect and
areas
critical
for jaguar surviva
l
. C
ore areas based on this sampling scheme
and on the frequency of rare and endangered species were
defined
. Also,
meaningful
m
eeting
s
with environmental agencies
(e.g.
national and state
environmental agencies
I
CMBio and IAP) were held
to provide informa
tion for habitat management
.
Other areas
close to
Canasvieiras
have been sampled
during previous expeditions, such
as the
Sai
nt Hilaire/Lange National Park and Guaratuba Bay.
In 2007 base camp first
moved
to
the
Canavieira
s region, and has been maintained
there since then
. Canasvieiras
was chosen
as the
base camp
location
to
increase the chance of recording
rare and
endangered species
that
serve
as indicators of habitat quality
and
to locate core
distribution
areas.
The area
has also a lower harvest pressu
re on
palm heart.
Figure
2.1c
: Land Rover
crossing river to reach the sampling areas.
The j
aguar was recorded i
n 2006, i
n Guaratuba Bay
, and
in
2008 in Canavieiras
, t
hrough
tracks and vocalis
ation
(see expedition reports on
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org/reports
)
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
15
Study area
The
study
area
,
in the locality of Canasvieiras,
encompassed private lands (Mr. Simões
land) and public and
corporate
lands (Ambiental Reflorestadora; Copel). It
is just 13
kilometers from
Sai
nt Hilaire/Lange
National Park, inside the Guaratuba Environmental
Protec
tion Area,
a reserve of sustainable use, where productive activities of low impact are
allowed.
Within
the area
,
14 contiguous cells were sampled.
B
ase
camp
was
12 kilometers from the
federal road BR
-
277
that leads
to Curitiba, the
Parana State capital.
The drive to base camp
along
a dirt road took a long 1.5 hours due
to bad road conditions
. From base camp,
it
was often necessary to drive even further to
reach sampling areas
(Fig. 2.1c
above
)
.
The sur
rounding mountains reach over 1,500 met
r
e
s in altitude, but the area sampled was
around 320
meters in altitude. The vegetation consisted mostly of montane and sub
-
montane broadleaved Atlantic Forest.
2.2.
Methods
Figure 2.2
a
.
Team members
being briefed at base camp on data entry and other study procedures.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
16
Training of team members
The team was trained to use GPS
to record coordinates of interest,
and to navigate in the
forest using
a
compass and map
s.
T
rack
identification and recording was facilitate by
laminated sheets with tracks in
life size
. The team was also trained on how to install
camera and track traps, and on animal identif
ication
(Fig. 2.2a)
.
Some excursions into the
forest were done under
the supervision
of Biosphere Expeditions staff
and other
excursions were ma
de
by
team members themselves
. Other studies have already detailed
the importance and validity of volunteer’s field data collection (
e.g.
Foster
-
Smith & Evans,
2003
).
Ecological
sampling
Data on mammalian presence was collected from field s
urveys in 14 different cells
of
approximately 4 km
2
each (2 x 2 km)
that were distributed over the study area (Fig. 2.2b)
.
T
he procedures
for identifying mammalian presence
included camera tra
pping and
recording of an
y mammal signs,
such as calls and
scats
1
, but mostly by tracks
.
Track
identification is the
most reliable
and
quick
method to identify species
in the study area
,
but not for all species
.
Trac
k
s of lesser cats
were
not distinguished
among the different
species
,
neither were those
of deer.
For occupancy information, a species was recorded only once in each coded cell per day,
whereas frequency information was collected of all records of a species on a given day.
The team walked t
he trails looking for signs and taking photos of tracks together with their
coordinates, and recording information in
field data sheets.
Locations of camera
-
traps
were also recorded (Fig. 2.2c).
All the data were transferred
on
to
his
tory/capture sheets at
base camp. That is where coordinates obtained with GPS were converted to cell codes
using MapSource software
.
The t
rails had different lengths, and the main
information collected was th
e presence of a
species record i
n the cell visited. This allowed for
observed specie
s occupancy (number of
cells
p
resent or absent) and frequency
.
Resampling of cells
is desirable in animal studies, as mobile species will be present in
some instances and absent in others, thus the presence or absence of a species from a
ce
rtain area can only be established with repeated sampling. The
aim was to sample each
cell
at least three times, but in reality some were sampled more than others, mainly due to
repeated
surveys in the proximity of base camp
(Table 2.2a).
1
Only those that are
identified
ma
croscopically
wild felids in Brazil are not identifiable even m
icroscopically with
precision (Vanstreels
2010
)
and the same applies to other scats
This should be stressed as many researcher identify
species
indiscriminately
by guesswork based on scats fou
nd, and some scientific journals will accept and publish such
studies. DNA analysis of scats
has also shown that visual identification of scats has very high error rates (Davidson et al.
2002).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
17
Figure 2.2b.
General map of the sample area displaying base camp and main trails,
and with the coded grid cells overlayed.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
18
Figure
2.2
c.
Team i
n
the
field
, installing camera traps and setting a track trap on
main road.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
19
Table 2.2a.
Cell
resampl
ing scheme showing cell
codes.
Numbered columns
marked with X represent the number of sampled o
ccasions. These represent
cells
where data
were
actually recorded.
Number of times resampled
Cell
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
H10
X
X
H11
X
X
X
X
H12
X
I10
X
X
X
X
I11
X
X
X
X
X
I12
X
I9
X
X
J10
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
J11
X
X
X
J9
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
K10
X
X
X
K9
X
X
X
X
L10
X
Analysis
Analysis included the estimation of relative abundance/frequency of reco
rds and occupied
cells, beside the estimation
of species richness (SR) using
EstimateS software
(ver.
7.5.1
)
(
Colwell
2005
).
Correlation and regression analysis were performed
with
BioEstat
3.0
to
check the relation
ship
between the sample effort on the cells (number of visits) and the
species richness,
and between observed records per cell
(observed occupancy)
with
frequency. A
Qui
-
square
test was also performed to check for differences on spe
cies
richness between them (Zar
1996).
Camera trapping
Ten digital camera traps we
re placed in the study area along
trails
. Tot
al sampling effort
amounted
to 63 camera traps
-
nights (
T
able
2.2b
). Me
mory cards and batteries were firs
t
installed into the cameras at base c
amp under the supervision of the expedition leader and
the field scientist. Cameras were not set or removed all at once, so the period they stayed
in the field varied
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
20
Table 2.2b.
S
ampling period and results
of individual cameras (ID column), including date of installation
and
removal,
cell
installed and working period.
ID
Date
installed
Cell
X
Y
Date
removed
S
pecies
Total trap
nights
2
18/05/2011
H11
720377
7162190
Stolen
-
0
3
22/05/2011
I9
717796
7161036
26/05/2011
-
4
4
18/05/2011
J9
717829
7159798
25/05/2011
-
7
5
22/05/2011
K10
718551
7156966
25/05/2011
-
3
6
22/05/2011
K10
718248
7156151
25/05/2011
-
3
10
19/05/2011
K9
717970
7157706
25/05/2011
White
-
lipped
-
peccary
6
1
1
10/05/2011
I11
721091
7161959
16/05/2011
-
6
15
19/05/2011
J9
717697
7158157
25/05/2011
-
6
20
17/05/2011
I10
718742
7160765
22/05/2011
-
5
16
16/05/2011
I11
721494
7161516
26/05/2011
-
10
11
17/05/2011
J11
720848
7159658
26/05/2011
-
9
20
22/05/2
011
I10
718758
7160838
26/05/2011
-
4
Total
camera
trap
-
nights
63
2.3.
Results
Training and performance
Team members gained enough knowledge on trail navigation to
orientate
themselves
without assistance after
few days
of training and getting used
to
t
he methods
. They
return
ed
at
the scheduled time, checked and retrieved camera
-
traps in the field
. Each
person
showed different abilities to different tasks,
and
had a good overall
performance
(Fig. 2.3a
to 2.3c
).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
21
Figure 2.3a
.
Two actio
n snapshots of the 2011
expedition:
track identification,
and
data entry with
camera installation
.
Figure
2.3
b.
Team at base c
amp
completing the
data
sheets.
Figure
2.3
c.
T
eam crossing rivers
and walking on the main road
to
reach sampling areas.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
22
Species occurrence
During the two weeks of
the
expedition, nine days were
dedicated to sampling
. One
additional day
with
jou
rnalists was added to the sampling
effort. Dur
ing ten days of field
survey
ing
,
a total number (frequency)
of
90 records of 15
specie
s were obtained. When
considering
only
record
s
by cell (thus excluding repeated species in the same cell)
,
67
records were made.
As in 2007 and 20
0
8, tapir was the
species
most re
c
orded
,
by
number of cells
occupied
(n=10
). Deer
was the second most recorded species
(or group, as it
is
not possible to tell
apart tracks of different species with precision)
. Deer was recorded
in
seven
cells
and
ocelot
was
recorded in four cells
(Table 2.3
a
).
Most records were made from tracks (Fig.
2.3d)
, and only one species was recorded with camera
-
traps (Fig. 2.3e)
.
Table 2.3
a
.
Species recorded during the Biosphere Expeditions survey
i
n May 2011
, with information on cell code
and
type of record (vestige, sight
ing, vocalization, camera trap), and f
requency.
Species
Latin name
Cells
Type of
record
Overall
frequency
Brown howler
monkey
Alouatta guariba
J9
Sighting
1
Capuchin
monkey
Cebus nigritus
J9/K10
Sighting,
v
ocalis
ation
2
Crab
-
eating
fox
Cerdocyon thous
I10/I11/J10/K10
Tracks
4
Paca
Cunicu
lus paca
I9/J10/K10
Tracks
5
Nine
-
banded
armadillo
Dasypus novemcinctus
H10/I10/J9
Tracks
3
Opossum
Didelphis aurita
I10
Tracks
1
Tayra
Eira barbara
J10
Tracks
1
Ocelot
Leopardus pardalis
I10/I11/J10/L10
Tracks
5
Lesser
cat
(undefined)
Leopardus
sp
.
I10
Tracks
2
River otter
Lontra longicaudis
J10
Tracks
1
Deer
Mazama
sp
.
H10/H11/I10/I11/J9
/J10/J11
Tracks
14
Raccoon
Procyon cancrivorus
H10/I10/J10
Tracks
3
Puma
Puma concolor
K10
Tracks
1
Tapir
Tapirus terrestris
H10/H11/I10/I11/I9/
J10/J11/J9/K10/L
9
Tracks,
scats
23
W
h
ite
-
lipped
peccary
Tayassu pecari
K9
Tracks
, c
amera
1
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
23
Figure
2.3
d.
Sample of t
racks recorded during
in
May 2011
,
clockwise
from top left
: puma, paca, tayra and tapir.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
24
Figure
2.3
e.
Camera trap pictures
of
Tayassu pecari
(white
-
lipped
-
peccary).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
25
One of the aims of the project
was
to
verify
habitat quality, which is done through
identifi
c
ation of clustering of species and community composition in different areas
of the
study site. To do that, both p
r
esence
and frequency
measurements
were
obtained
and
compared
.
The
re was a visible
and statistical
ly significant
relationship between the records by cell and
frequency
;
the species with more records were also most
widespread
species (rS=0.9552;
n=15; p=0.0000)
,
that is, the
species
most often recorded wa
s
also the species
most
widely spread
(Fig. 2.3f
, Table 2.3b
)
.
Figure 2.3f
:
Visual relationship between f
requency and number of records per cell
.
Table
2.3b
:
Raw data with total frequency and occupation per
cell
.
Cells
H10
H11
H12
I10
I11
I12
I9
J10
J11
J9
K10
K9
L10
L9
Records
5
4
0
13
6
0
2
18
2
9
5
1
1
1
Species
4
2
0
8
4
0
2
8
2
5
5
1
1
1
Visits
2
4
1
4
5
1
2
8
3
7
3
4
1
1
A frequent c
oncern of scientists
is the
reliability of inferences from data
collected. Aside
from correct identification of species, how much
can
our data can really say
about
differen
ces of community composition or
number of species (
species richness
)
per area?
One step towards answering
that question is to verify
whether
the num
ber
of
species or
records are due to better habitat quality or simply a biased byproduct of
sampling one
location (or cell
) more often
than others
.
There was a visual relationship between both recorded variables (frequency and
occupancy) with number of re
visitations to each cell
. The cell with
the highest
frequency of
records was J10
(
Fig. 2.3g).
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
26
Figure 2.3g
:
V
isual relationship between both recorded variables (frequency and occupancy)
with number of revis
itations to each cell
.
.
Because of the relati
onship effort
-
result,
cell
J10 (the most visited cell)
also
had the
highest
number of species (n=10), and this
effect
also applied to overall results:
t
he most
visited cells were the cells with more species re
corded
(r
S
=0.7574; n=14; p=0.0017
)
, also
shown
through regression analysis
, having almost 50
% on the species richness explai
ned
trough sampling effort (F=13
.
7332; df=13; p=0.0032
).
Although there was an apparent variation in number of species recorded per cell, number
of species in each cell (species
richness) did not
vary
significantly between
cells
(
2
=8.0640; df=13; p=0.8394)
.
According to a
species accumulation curve generated on EstimateS software,
not all
species of medium
-
sized and large mammals
in the study site
were
recorded
, but
their
actu
al number is
not supposed t
o be much higher, reaching
2
3
species i
n the area
(species richness estimated: 20
.4 species, with standard deviation +/
-
3.6).
This expedition had the second highest number of species recorded (n=12) of all
Biosphere Expedition
s to the area, the otter, paca, and otter being recorded for the fist
time.
In total 1
8 mammals species have been
recorded
in the study area during B
iosph
ere
Expeditions
. The jaguar was
not recorded this year, being last recorded in
2008
, while
puma was re
corded only once
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
27
Species Acumulation Curve
0
5
10
15
20
25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Days
Species
Figure 2.3h
: Species curve displaying the number of species recorded
increasing and
almost stabili
s
ing
with
sampling time.
Table
2.3
c.
Species recorded during five
Bio
sphere Expeditions in the study site
.
Species
Common name
2006
2007
2008
2010
2011
Alouatta guariba
Brown howler monkey
x
x
Cebus nigritus
Capuchin monkey
x
x
x
Cerdocyon thous
Crab
-
eating fox
x
x
x
x
x
Cuniculus paca
Paca
x
Dasyprocta azarae
Agouti
x
x
Dasypus novemcinctus
Nine
-
banded armadillo
x
x
x
x
x
Eira barbara
Tayra
x
x
Hydrochaerus hydrochaerys
Capybara
x
Leopardus pardalis
Ocelot
x
x
x
x
Lontra longicaudis
River otter
x
Mazama americana
Red brocket deer
x
x
x
x
Mazama gouazoubira
Gray brocket deer
x
Panthera onca
J
aguar
x
x
Pecari tajacu
White
-
collared peccary
x
x
Procyon cancrivorus
Raccoon
x
x
x
x
x
Puma concolor
Puma
x
x
x
x
Tapirus terrestris
Tapir
x
x
x
x
x
Tayassu pecari
W
hite
-
lipped peccary
x
x
Total: 18
spp
.
13
9
10
7
1
2
© Biosphere Expeditions
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-
expeditions.org
28
2.4.
Discussion
& c
onclusions
Species presence and habitat integrity
The relationship found in sampling effort and the two recorded variables (species’
frequency and
observed
occupancy)
,
together
with lack of statistical difference in number
of species among cells, preclud
e any inference
s
of better quality of environment related to
number of species per cell.
That is the reason why the general method employed in the
Jaguar Corridor
to detect
habitat integrity is not based on number of species per h
abitat (species richnes
s), but o
n
species composition. Some species are more vulnerable to human interference, and are
thus found only in more preserved areas.
The fact that species richness does not always
relate to habitat quality has been previously
demonstrated during our ex
peditions
(
Mazzolli
and Hammer
2008
a
).
Species such as jaguar and white
-
lipped peccary, for instance, are only found, or found
more often in the inner
cells of the study area, within
core area
s of the
study site.
The
current study site may it
self be consi
dered a core area.
Outlying areas do not have tapirs
as easy to detect as in t
he study site. The 2006 expedition in the Guaratuba B
ay
area
, with
the
highest species richness of all expeditions,
yielded
just one record of tapir and none of
white
-
lipped pecc
aries.
Studies that monitor
species
over
many
years are uncommon, as most lack
the
ability to
find funding for
prolonged
periods. With continuous monitoring, we are able to detect
change in species composition and occupancy.
Data accumulated during the ye
ars have
shown that tapirs seem to have become more common and widespread. The 2011
expedition was the first to record countless tapir
tracks
near to base camp
, and in 2010
puma tracks
recorded during local surveys
were found
on a trail behind base camp an
d o
n
the main road. Monitoring
has
also demonstrated
the continued
rarity of some species
(such as whi
te
-
lipped peccaries) and jaguar
.
Track recording was the most efficient method of
species
detection and yielded
representatives from all species sampled
. There was a significant photo record of whit
e
-
lipped peccary, confirming the species (it is difficult to confirm
exact
species occurrence
trough t
racks
). The species accumulation curve indi
cates that more species are
expected
to occur on the area
.
The
high
species
richness found in the area
in
only ten days of surveying is a good result,
pointing
to
the im
portance of the area to mammal
conservation. Beside this, it was
possible to record endangered and rare species that have already disappeared from mos
t
places in the country. Species
such as
white
-
lipped
-
peccary,
collared
-
peccary and tapir
are
very
scarce
in Brazil nowadays and
throughout their original geographical range
.
The
species
most recorded were ta
pir (23
records
),
deer (
14
records), ocelot
an
d
paca
(five records each).
It
is not unreasonable
to say that there was
a high number of tapir
records,
because its tracks
were
easy to see and recognize
.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
29
Despite
the
fact that the
team used
life size
tr
ack drawings for comparison with what was
found o
n trails
,
deer
tracks could not be related to a cert
ain species,
so
the
record
were
all
lumped int
o
a general
“deer”
category
.
Records about peccaries showed the same
problem, and the tracks were related to “peccaries”, without specifying the species.
T
h
e jaguar has
once again
proved to be an uncommon species in the study area. Since
Biosphere Expeditions surveys began in 2006
,
it has been recorded only three times by
Biosphere Expeditions and Project Puma, with an additional record made by the staff of
t
he NGO SPVS in the Cachoeira reserve. In addition, enquiries mad
e
at
the environmental
police at
Morretes regarding presence of jaguar or jaguar depredation on livestock yielded
no addition records, nor did enquiries
at a land owner
of an area in the Graci
osa
mountains
,
where jaguars had been recorded prior to 1997.
As pointed
out in previous expedition
reports
(available via
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org/reports
)
,
the ab
sence of jaguar
during
sampling
does not mean that it is
extinct on
the area, as the species
has
been sporadic
al
ly recorded, but
it does mean
that it
is
rare. I
nitiatives to guarantee its persistenc
e i
n the area should be pursued
(see
management recommendations below)
. The Serra
do Mar m
ountain range is able to
harbour
a jaguar
population if
spatial connections and corridors
can be maintained and
enhanced,
and poaching
reduced
.
Finally, i
t is important to highlight the hunting pressure on the region.
Although some
degree of pro
tection is provided by
private rangers
and
the
illegality of any form of hunting
,
local people have
told us
that hunting for subsistence and
commercial purposes
is
widespread.
Management
recommendations
Other reports have emphasis
ed that the good condit
ion of the study area (relative to the
surrounding areas) is due to the frequent patrolling by rangers of several local landowners.
Rangers by themselves cannot protect the entire forest. Instead it is necessary that the
community as a whole begins to prot
ect it, and this will only happen when the community
benefits from the forest in a sustainable way so that the forest has a value to the
community (the ‘what pays, stays’ principle). Habitat quality is lacking
in the study area
when compared to pristine ec
osystems
,
or if compared to its own past, historical condition.
Much has to be done to bring it back to its best condition, and this can be done by
involving local communities in best management practices of native resources. When
forest resources
have a
v
aluable and can be managed adequately, then there will be an
interest to protect them.
The 2008 report
(Mazzolli and Hammer 2008b)
also mentioned the ecological state tax
that goes to the municipality of Guaratuba, due to the fact that a large portion of
it is under
legal protection, but also the fact that nothing is converted into environmental
conservation. This is an issue that has to be solved, as these government funds are either
not used or used for purposes other than conservation. As mentioned duri
ng the 2008
expedition report, ‘It is recommended that application of this fund should be revised and
means should be implemented so that it can go towards payment of rangers and
incentives for sustainable use of forest products, such as for the extraction
of fruits of the
palm heart to produce juice, rather than to cut down the tree (which is illegal and also
detrimental for wildlife)’.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
30
Perhaps the best solution is the extension of Private Reserves of the Natural Patrimony
(RPPNs) that already
encompass
several smaller private properties. This type of reserve
is officially enshrined in Brazilian law, enabling the managers of such reserves to apply for
public funds for environmental protection and management. Owners of RPPNs are also
freed from the annual
tax on rural areas (ITR)
and may apply to an ecological fund from
the ‘Tax of Merchandise Exchange’ (ICMs). The ICM tax is collected at state level and
distributed to municipalities in accordance with a series
of criteria. One of the criteria
that
enable
s
the municipality to receive a larger share of this fund is to have protected areas.
The more protected areas the municipality has, the more of this fund it is entitled to.
Owners of RPPNs can increase the municipality’s ICMs share, and may therefore
nego
tiate to receive a percentage in turn to cover maintenance costs
.
The area already has an agroindustrial production unit, located in the Candongas district of
Morretes. It is a community project that enables local families to use its facilities to
process
their products, s
uch as jams, juices, etc., at a
semi
-
industrial scale. There is a potential to
include the processing of açaí juice at this facility. It is recommended
that an investment in
capacity
-
building be applied for with the collaboration of t
he local people to increase
sustainable management of the local environment. Hunting is not allowed by the Brazilian
environmental law, but that does not seem to have impaired poaching.
Priorities for
future
expedition
s
Future
expedition
s
should incorpo
rate other trails into the trail system to be surveyed and
these trails will have to go further into the forest. This can be achieved by signal
l
ing better
the
existing
trails so that more ground can be covered in less time. Other trails by the State
Park of Marumbi,
in Morretes
can be covered also to expand the study area and increase
the reliability of the jaguar and puma population study.
It is also desirable that other groups of species
be incorporated into the survey
;
species
that can be sampled near base camp
. This tackles two issues. First, to increase the scope
of the project and opportunistically investigate other biodiversity issues that may be
important for the conservation of the area. Second, it will provide a chance for team
members who find the long t
rails challenging to contribute to data collection through a less
strenuous activity.
Regarding involvement of the local community into conservation of the study area, team
members could help to start showcasing the sustainable use of the fruit of the pal
m heart,
which is a valuable market product and has been under
-
explored. This initiative may help
the community to give value to the forest, as this native species, the juçara palm
-
heart,
grows only in shaded areas and particularly in the forest.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
31
2.5. Ref
erences
Colwell, R.K. 2005. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared
species from samples. Version 7.5.2. Persistent URL <purl.oclc.org/estimates>.
Davison A., Birks J., Brookes R., Braithwaite T. and Messenger J. 2002. On the ori
gin of
faeces: morphological versus molecular methods for surveying rare carnivores from their
scats. Journal of the Zoological Society London 257: 141
-
143.
Fonseca, G.A.B. & Robinson, J.G.
Forest size and structure: competitive and predatory
effects on s
mall mammals communites.
Biological Conservation
, 53: 265
-
294, 1990.
Foster
-
Smith J. & Evans S.M
. 2003. The value of marine ecological data collected by
volunteers.
Biological Conservation
113: 199
213.
Leite, M.R.; Boulhosa, R.L.P.; Galvão, F.; Cullen
Jr., L. 2002. Conservación del jaguar em
las áreas protegidas del bosque atlántico de la costa de Brasil. In: Medellín, R.A.;
Equihua, C.; Chetkiewicz, C.L.B; Crawshaw Jr., P.G.; Rabinowitz, A.; Redford, K.H.;
Robinson, J.G.; Sanderson E.; Taber, A. (eds.)
. El jaguar en el nuevo milenio: una
evaluación de su condición actual, historia natural y prioridades para su conservación.
Prensa de la Universidad Nacional Autônoma de México / Wildlife Conservation, Mexico,
D.F, p. 25
-
42.
Mazzolli M
.
2009.
Loss of his
torical range of jaguars in southern Brazil. Biodiversity and
Conservation 18 (6): 1715
-
1717.
Mazzolli, M. & Hammer, M.L.A
.
2008
a
.
Qualidade de ambiente para a onça
-
pintada, puma
e jaguatirica na Baía de Guaratuba, estado do Paraná. Biotemas
(UFSC), 21: 1
05
-
117
.
Mazzolli, M. & Hammer, M.L.A
.
2008b.
Studying jaguars, pumas and their
prey in Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest:
the jaguar corridor.
Biosphere Expeditions. Expedition
report available via
w
ww.biosphere
-
expeditions.org/reports
.
Myers N., Mittermeyer R.A., Fonseca G.A.B., Kent J. 2000.
Biodiversity hotspots for
conservation priorities.
Nature
403: 853
-
858.
Palomares, F.; Gaona, P.; Ferreras, P.; Delibes, M.
Positive effects on game species
of
top predators by controlling smaller predator populations: an example with Lynx,
Mongooses and Rabbits.
Conservation Biology
, 9 (2): 295
-
305, 1995.
Ribeiro, M.C., Metzger, J.P., Martensen, A.C., Ponzoni, F.J. & Hirota, M.M. 2009. The
Brazilian Atlanti
c Forest: how much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed?
Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 142: 1144
-
1156.
Vanstreels, R.E.T., Ramalho, F.P., Adania, C.H., 2010. Microestrutura de pêlos
-
guarda de
felídeos brasileiros:
considerações para a identificação de espécies. Biota Neotropical 10
(1), 333
-
337.
Zar, J.H. 1996. Biostatistical
analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 929p.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
32
Appendix 1.
Expedi
tion diary by
Malika Fettak
3
May
Hello everyone and welcome to the first diary entry for Biosphere Expeditions’ Brazil 2011
expedition
. I am
Malika Fettak, Operations Manager of Biosphere Expeditions, and I will also be your expedition leader for
this pr
oject. Working with me will be Valeska Buchemi de Oliveira,
our
scientists on the expedition as well as
some more local helpers I will introduce you to in due course.
I am writing this from
Sao Paulo
, where I am at the moment
.
We’ve just had a great press
conference with
Land Rover here, telling the press about our project and taking delivery of three very new and very shiny
Defenders. It’s a shame that these shiny new cars will never look the same again, not just because we have
put Biosphere Expeditions
stickers on them (see
www.facebook.com/biosphere.expeditions1
), but especially
after they’ve been put through their paces on this expedition, in terrain they were after all made for ;)
This k
ind of press work in important for us and not to be underestimated in our efforts for jaguar, puma and
the Atlantic Rainforest as a whole. The more people know, the more likely they are to want to do something
to conserve it. So it’s great that Land Rover
has thrown its PR weight behind this and is supporting us with
the vehicles.
Our plan for the next
few
days is to do some last minute shopping as well as retrieving & reviewing
all
our
equipment stored in Sao Paulo.
W
ith me
to do this is Daniel, who is
k
indly guiding me through this
incredibly
big city. I'd be lost without him
-
he will be my eyes, my ears and my mouth for the next couple of days,
patiently driving me from shop to shop as well as translating my English in
to
Portuguese. Please be prepared
that only very few Brazilian
will speak English
.
One of my stops will be to get a Brazilian SIM card and once I have this, I will all let you have my number.
My next diary entry should be from the Atlantic Rainforest with news of base camp.
Hope everyon
e's preparations
are going
well and I
look
forward to meeting you all soon!
Malika
Fettak
Expedition leader
P.S.
Excerpts of the diary are also on
www.facebook.com/biosphere.expeditions1
and
you don’t need a
Facebook account to see this
just click on the link and then on “Wall” on the left and you should be able to
see it.
4 May
We are ready & packed up here in Sao Paulo. Today will be spent driving down to Guaratuba and then up
into the
mountains of Serra do Mar, our study site and base for the next couple of weeks.
My Brazilian mobile number is +55 11 99220779, but please note that this number is for emergency only (i.e.
being late for assembly). There is very little mobile phone recept
ion around base camp and certainly no
internet, so won't hear from me for a week or so until I get back to "civilisation" with tales of getting the base
and our research tasks ready.
8 May
We have come back to Curitiba today to pick up a bunch of press p
eople for a two days visit to base. This
short press trip was organised in collaboration with Land Rover Brazil and should have some good effect for
the project and our efforts of educating the public. Back in the digital world for one night, here are some
updates from the field:.
Base camp is ready for your arrival and will be put through its paces by the press. Over the last few days, we
cleaned up the wooden cabin, built new platforms, set up the tents on them, etc.. Aparecido, our
housekeeper and neigh
bour down the road was a great help, as always, as was his wife Lucia.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
33
Not only does he know the cabin's water system, he also knows how to remove a wasps nest from our
veranda using banana leaves ;).
The whole area around Morretes has seen serious flood
ing during the last couple of months and the road up
to base has suffered a lot as a result.
Let's call it Land Rover terrain
-
it will certainly be an adventure to use it! The acai palms have decided to
take a break
-
this year they have no fruits, so unf
ortunately we won't be able to include the planned acai
activities into the expedition this year. The good news is that we have not seen any rain since our arrival, so
keep your fingers crossed that the dry period is holding on!
12 May
Back in Curitiba w
e've dropped ten tired but happy Brazilian journalists at their hotel. For most of them it was
their first wilderness experience including a night in a tent. The outcome of these two days of PR work will
include a TV trailer and articles in various magazin
es, all talking about jaguar conservation, which is a great
result for our public education efforts.
On our first survey walk yesterday we found different tracks pretty close to the cabin including ocelot, tapir &
raccoon and we can't wait to go out in th
e field with our first expeditioners due in a few days. We're now
heading back to basecamp. Safe travels & see you soon!
16 May
Rain, rain, rain. Wet conditions in the Brazilian Atlantic forest since Valeska and I left for Curitiba to meet the
team. Full
y packed on return, including ten expeditioners, both Land Rovers struggled hard on the muddy
road up to base camp, but finally made it. The team did well during the training session but had to cope with
pouring rain on the first survey walk.
Thanks to Ir
mtraud who brought an umbrella, (is that in our kit list?) the datasheets stayed relatively dry while
everything else taken today got wet, wet, wet.
21 May
We're in Matinhos on our day off today. Time for everyone to do some shopping, to enjoy the beach,
the bars
& restaurants. We had a great first week in basecamp and everyone was working hard to cover the survey
trails & set up camera traps. Unfortunately none of the electric showers are able to be used anymore due to
heavy rainfall a couple of days ago
. Since then, Neoza our great cook, has been heating up large amounts of
water in the afternoon for everyone's "bath". I remember it was Tamara asking everyone during dinner what
the first thing to do would be when back in civilisation. You'll guess everyo
ne's answer: A hot shower!
Unfortunately Sudheer & Sridhar have decided to leave the expedition today because of family duties. We
have to say goodbye as they will be making their own way back to Curitiba from here. Thanks to both, it's
been a great pleas
ure to meet you not only because you brought two alive & free range chickens from the
neighbour, for Neoza to cook!
24 May
We were blessed with dry & sunny weather since back at base from the day off in Matinhos. Two teams each
day covered many kilometer
s on their survey walks. Tracks of all study animals including puma were found
except from the elusive jaguar.
Nevertheless the study site habitat seems to be improving. More or less all jaguar prey is present in the area
and the level of human interferen
ce is decreasing. Along the main road up to camp we recognized quite a lot
of abundant houses and signs saying "vende se" (for sale). Similar to other urban areas young people are
moving away into the cities.
© Biosphere Expeditions
www.biosphere
-
expeditions.org
34
The GPSs have become our best friends, but the
y cannot replace our local field guide, Aparecido. Nicola,
Irmtraut & Miriam followed him on the pretty much unexplored South Trail. He led the group on a 11 km walk
including five "dry feet" river crossings! With his help Valeska, Shridar, Sudheer, Tamara
& Nicola also track
-
logged the Housekeper's Trail onto our GPSs
-
the most adventurous trail this year where the team had to
climb banks of mud and showed great team spirit by helping each other out. Proud & happy faces during the
daily review in the even
ing; Sudheer even stated this to be his lifetime adventure ;)
25 May
Visitors in basecamp yesterday evening. Aparecido and Lucia brought freshly cut palmheart and showed us
how to peel & prepare it for eating. Cut in small pieces and dressed with fresh l
emon juice (a lemon tree
grows behind the cabin)
-
delicious!
27 May
Goodbye Brazil expeditioners, Gooodbye Irmtraut, Nicola, Nicole, Miriam & Rod! Valeska and I are back at
basecamp (The Land Rovers made it up & through the muddy with the 2nd attempt ;)
). Hope you all have a
safe journey to your next destinations or back home.
30 May
My time in Brazil has come to an end. Back in Sao Paulo after a long drive yesterday, our equipment is now
safely stored and the Land Rovers are handed back. Tamara, Vales
ka & I will make our way to the airport in
the afternoon, each of us departing in different directions back home.
Thank you everyone for being a great research team, coping with pouring rain, mosquito bites, blisters, mud
& burning showers. The expedition
has been a great success and I want to thank everyone for their efforts
and contribution. More than 80 kilometers have been walked, 90 recordings of 18 different species were
made. We camera
-
trapped a group of seven white
-
lipped peccaries, another species
classified as critically
endangered. I hope we have shown you that your input is essential in this little
-
researched and important
area. The report will go into much more detail but for now, I think we can all be proud of what we have
achieved.
All the
best and we hope to see you again some day on one of our expeditions.
Malika
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Research
Full-text available
Abstract An expedition to the southern Atlantic forest of Brazil was conducted with Biosphere Expeditions in May 2010, to the APA (Area of Environmental Protection) of Guaratuba in the Serra do Mar mountain range. This was the fourth Biosphere Expeditions survey in the area and the sixth overall including local expeditions. The primary aim of the surveys is to locate core habitats for jaguar and puma at their southern range in the Atlantic broad-leaf rainforest, and develop conservation strategies and guidelines for these habitats and their resident species based on information gained locally. Sampling was conducted in the locality of Canasvieiras, in the municipality of Guaratuba and consisted of sign surveys and the deployment of 11 camera traps. Data collected included species richness and observed occupancy. Large cats (jaguar and puma) were not recorded during this expedition, whereas ocelot was recorded relatively often, as well as deer and tapir. Variations on the presence-absence of species are natural, and the fact that large cats were temporarily absent for a short period of time is perfectly normal. In the previous Biosphere Expedition to Brazil in 2008, ocelots, common during the 2010 expedition, were not recorded either. During this expedition it was possible to develop a strategy, together with local guides, to sample further into areas where jaguars are believed to be present more often. These areas will be surveyed by future expeditions. Resumo Expedições ao sul da foresta Atlântica do Brasil foram efetuadas pela ‘Biosphere Expeditions’ em Maio de 2010, para a APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) de Guaratuba, localizada na cadeia de montanhas da Serra do Mar. Esta foi o quarto levantamento da Biosphere Expeditions na área, e o sexto levantamento total se expedições locais forem contabilizadas. O principal objetivo do projeto é localizar áreas de habitat principal para a onça-pintada e o puma no limite sul da distribuição da Floresta Atlântica costeira, e desenvolver estratégias de conservação baseadas em informações obtidas localmente, de maneira a produzir diretrizes para conservação destas espécies e de seu habitat. A amostragem foi conduzida na localidade de Canasvieiras, no município de Guaratuba e consistiu em levantamentos de vestígios de mamíferos e uso de 11 armadilhas-fotográficas. Dados coletados incluíram riqueza de espécies e ocupação observada. Os grandes gatos (onça-pintada e puma) não foram registrados durante esta expedição, ao passo que a jaguatirica foi registrada de maneira relativamente freqüente, bem como veados e antas. Variações na presence e ausência de espécies são naturais, e o fato dos grandes gatos estarem temporariamente ausentes por um curto período de tempo é perfeitamente normal. Durante a expedição prévia (2008), as jaguatiricas, comuns durante a expedição de 2010, não foram registradas. Durante esta expedição foi possível delinear estratégias, com guias locais, para amostragem em áreas mais remotas onde acredita-se sejam mais frequentadas por onças-pintadas.
Article
Full-text available
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p105 Duas expedições de um mês cada foram conduzidas à Baía de Guaratuba, na Floresta Atlântica do sul do Brasil, em 2006. Parâmetros calculados a partir de amostragem de vestígios e armadilhas-fotográficas foram riqueza de espécies de mamíferos (1kg) e proporção de área ocupada(PAO) por onça-pintada, puma, e oportunisticamente, por jaguatirica. Oito qua- drantes de 4km2 foram amostrados, em uma área de 130km2, resultando em uma estimativa de 14 espécies de mamíferos (CI(Nˆ)=14 a 14, CAPTURE). PAO resultou em 25% para puma, e 100% tanto para a onça-pintada como para a jaguatirica. Argumenta-se que o esperado seria uma probabilidade de captura da onça-pintada similar a do puma, já que ambos deixam sinais em trilhas abertas quando presentes. O resultado de PAO para a onça-pintada é, portanto, considerado um artefato derivado de uma baixa fi delidade espacial e/ou baixa densidade, mais do que um produto da baixa detectabilidade da espécie. Esta conjectura é substanciada pela reduzida presença de importantes espécies-presa.Os resultados não diminuem a importância da área para a conservação da onça-pintada, ao invés disto, estas observações objetivamente identificam a necessidade de restabelecimento de populações de espécies-presa na área.
Article
Full-text available
Loss of jaguar range in one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world is reported herein. Records of the last individuals shot reveal that the jaguar has suffered a loss of historical range at an estimated rate of one latitudinal degree every 10 years in its southern range in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil. The chronological order of the records show a definitive pattern of range loss from south to north, extending over three latitudinal degrees. Results stress that direct hunting may be a decisive factor acting behind local extinctions of jaguars when populations are severely reduced.
Article
Full-text available
Charismatic mammals remain a linchpin in attracting publicity and funds for the conservation of native habitats and organisms. Unfortunately, the same animals are frequently scarce and difficult to survey. For many, confirming their presence through faecal surveys is the only cost-effective approach. Here we show that, contrary to received opinion, expert naturalists fail reliably to distinguish pine marten Martes martes faeces (‘scats’) from those of foxes Vulpes vulpes. Moreover, their judgement fails completely when the animals and their scats are at their most scarce. This unexpected result from such a well-studied species has important implications for the monitoring of endangered mammals. We recommend that in the future, a multi-evidence approach should be adopted to monitor elusive mammals, involving DNA methods, cast hair identification, camera traps, and non-leading ‘sighting’ questionaires. For national surveys, it may soon become cost-effective to screen large numbers of samples using microarray technology.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how changes in forest fragment size and structure affect small mammal community structure in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Forest fragments were of three sizes (small: 60–80 ha; medium: 860 ha; large: approximately 36 000 ha) and two disturbance conditions, primary and secondary. Forests were subject to a 17-month capture/recapture program for small mammals ( < 1000 g). The total trapping effort was of 57 120 trap nights, 9520 at each of six forests. During the course of the study, 692 individuals, belonging to 19 small mammal species, were captured 1366 times.The highest number of species (14) and total number of individuals trapped (190) were obtained at the large secondary forest. Both the small and the large primary forests had fewer species (6) and fewer individuals (70 and 57, respectively). The medium-size forests and the small secondary forest had 9 species each.Discriminant analysis indicated that differences in species composition of small mammal communities were not adequately explained by microhabitat preferences, with two exceptions. Species interactions were also poor predictors of community structure and composition, with the noted exception of interactions between the common opossum Didelphis marsupialis and other species. Smallerforest plots, especially among secondary habitat, are dominated by D. marsupialis, which are apparently able to exclude other species from these small mammal communities. It is postulated here that the lack of predators in smaller forests is the factor responsible for the observed lower species richness and diversity of these communities.
Article
The analysis of cuticle and medulla hair microstructure is a simple and inexpensive technique to identify mammal species for a variety of applications. We studied the guard-hairs of 66 individuals of eight felid species occurring in Brazil (Leopardus colocolo, L.geoffroyi, L.pardalis, L.tigrinus, L.wiedii, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi), through hair samples collected from anesthetized zoo animals. The microstructure of the guard-hairs was analyzed and described through cuticle impressions and medulla preparations; a blind test was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of species identification. Although distinctive morphological characters could be identified for each species, the subtlety of these characters and the overlap of features among species resulted in a relatively poor accuracy (75%). The identification of pairs or trios of species whose hair has similar morphologies (Group A: L. pardalis, L. tigrinus, L. wiedii; Group B: L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, P. yagouaroundi; Group C: P. concolor, P. onca) significantly improved accuracy (91%). The identification of Brazilian felids through the microstructure of their hair is challenging and requires careful examination of subtle features, and should be complemented by more accurate techniques and/or be limited mostly to applications where high accuracy is not essential or where a broader taxonomic scale is being evaluated.
Article
Top predators have often been persecuted because of their supposed negative effects on species of economic concern on which they feed. In some cases, however, they may actually benefit their prey through intraguild predation on other smaller predators that share the prey. In each of two representative situations, in one of which lynx were present and in the other absent, we (1) estimated gross number of rabbits taken by lynx and Egyptian mongooses (smaller predators that are themselves preyed upon by lynx; (2) simulated size-structured rabbit populations of different densities, taking into account the reproductive value of the individuals taken by predators; and (3) estimated actual rabbit densities. Numbers of rabbits taken by predators during a year were found to be between 4.8 and 9.5 times greater when lynx were not present. After a year, rabbit population growth for an initial rabbit density of 15/ha was between 12% and 22% lower when lynx were not present. For lower initial rabbit densities, the positive effect of lynx presence on rabbits was greater. Actual rabbit densities in the areas used by lynx were 2–4 times higher than in areas not used by lynx, even though these areas were similar or identical in habitat composition. These results support the suggestion that removal of top predators may sometimes have a negative effect on prey populations of human economic concern.
Article
Volunteers are potentially a huge scientific resource but there is scepticism among some scientists about the reliability of data collected by inexperienced people. An assessment was therefore made of the ability of a group of 13 volunteers, recruited by the Earthwatch Institute, to collect valid data in a project that aimed to map the distribution and abundance of common littoral organisms on shores of the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland. The volunteers ranged considerably in age, educational background, knowledge and experience. They were capable of performing straight-forward tasks, such as learning to identify species, recording their occurrence on specific parts of the shore and making length measurements of samples of some gastropods. They made some recording errors during the fieldwork but similar errors were also made by experienced scientists and it is recommended therefore that all ecological studies should include quality control of data whether or not they involve volunteers. The assessment of abundance was problematic. Volunteers’ assessments for some species were inconsistent and there is evidence that individuals interpreted the scale in different ways. It is suggested that these problems stemmed from: (1) a lack of field experience in the volunteers; (2) inadequate guidelines on the use of the abundance scale; and (3) insufficient training before field surveys commenced. However, projects themselves may benefit in unexpected ways from the input of volunteers. They contributed taxonomic and computing skills to the current project. Members of the group also offered new insights by developing hypotheses relating to populations of gastropods during their fieldwork. These were tested and could have formed the basis of longer-term research programmes. There were also educational benefits for the volunteers who were involved in the project. These included increased knowledge of marine issues and clearer understanding of the ways in which scientific studies are undertaken.
Book
NOTE: This is not a book, contrary to what ResearchGate claims. This is a software application and User's Guide. The current version is Version 9. The citations here are incomplete, since each version has its own citations. EstimateS currently has more than 4000 citations in the peer-reviewed literature. For the full list, go to GoogleScholar: http://bit.ly/11YdUlg .