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Mulberry (Morus) belongs to the Moraceae plant family, native of China. The leaves of mulberry plant are the major food source for the silkworm. The leaf consists of minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre, amino acids, phytosterols, flavonoids and other functional components, mainly 1-DNJ (1-Deoxynojirimycin) which acts as an anti-diabetic drug. In countries like China, Korea and Japan the preparations from mulberry leaves are used as medicine for increasing the immunity of the human body, cough relief and to lower the blood sugar and blood pressure. The high nutritional value of leaves is used as a functional food, mostly in the form of herbal tea, smoothie, yoghurt, salads, nutritional masala biscuits, capsules, dry powder, oil, dietary supplement etc. This manuscript mainly focuses on the nutritional importance and health benefits of mulberry leaves extract. The leaves extract may help to lower blood sugar (diabetes), inflammation levels, cholesterol and fighting against heart disease.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2020; 9(5): 689-695
E-ISSN: 2278-4136
P-ISSN: 2349-8234
JPP 2020; 9(5): 689-695
Received: 25-06-2020
Accepted: 24-08-2020
Shubhajit Sarkhel
College of Agricultural
Engineering, University of
Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Dronachari Manvi
College of Agricultural
Engineering, University of
Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Ramachandra CT
College of Agricultural
Engineering, University of
Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Corresponding Author:
Shubhajit Sarkhel
College of Agricultural
Engineering, University of
Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Nutrition importance and health benefits of
mulberry leaf extract: A review
Shubhajit Sarkhel, Dronachari Manvi and Ramachandra CT
Mulberry (Morus) belongs to the Moraceae plant family, native of China. The leaves of mulberry plant
are the major food source for the silkworm. The leaf consists of minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre, amino
acids, phytosterols, flavonoids and other functional components, mainly 1-DNJ (1-Deoxynojirimycin)
which acts as an anti-diabetic drug. In countries like China, Korea and Japan the preparations from
mulberry leaves are used as medicine for increasing the immunity of the human body, cough relief and to
lower the blood sugar and blood pressure. The high nutritional value of leaves is used as a functional
food, mostly in the form of herbal tea, smoothie, yoghurt, salads, nutritional masala biscuits, capsules,
dry powder, oil, dietary supplement etc. This manuscript mainly focuses on the nutritional importance
and health benefits of mulberry leaves extract. The leaves extract may help to lower blood sugar
(diabetes), inflammation levels, cholesterol and fighting against heart disease.
Keywords: Antidiabetic, heart disease, herbal tea, nutritional value, silkworm
1. Introduction
The word “Mul” in mulberry came from a Latin “mor-us” which means oddly enough.
Ecologically the leaves of mulberry plant are the sole food source of silkworm, Bombyx mori
L. Apart from its luscious and a mouth-watering fruit, the leaf is intensively used in food,
pharmaceutical and also in cosmetics industries (Rohela et al. 2020) [52]. The mulberry leaf
(Morus alba L.) is used as a silkworm food, animal feed and medicine particularly in eastern
countries. For example, the active compounds in mulberry leaves are used to treat fever and to
protect the liver in Chinese diagnosis (Zhishen et al. 1999) [67]. In Japan and Korea, mulberry
leaves of a particular species are consumed as anti-hyperglycaemic nutraceutical foods for
diabetes mellitus patients (Kim et al. 2003) [29]. Dates back to almost 659 AD the utilization of
mulberry leaves in the medical field was introduced by the Chinese. Mulberry leaves were
illustrated as fruitful for mitigating coughs and also high blood pressure. When the leaves are
dried under the sun and brewed, the emanated tea is known as “The immortal mountain wizard
tea” (Radhakrishna 2013) [51].
1.1. Mulberry varieties
The native red mulberry (Morus rubra), the east Asian white mulberry (Morus Alba) and the
south western Asian black mulberry (Morus Nigra) are the three prime types of mulberry trees
(Yigit et al. 2010) [63]. In India, the major mulberry cultivation areas are in the tropical
(Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu) and sub-tropical (West Bengal, Himachal
Pradesh and the North-Eastern) zone and some parts of the temperate region. Perhaps, Morus
indicia is the most cultivated species of Morus. The most cultivated varieties are Kanva-2, S-
54, S-36, V-1, DD, S-34, S-13, MR-2, S-1, Goshoerami, G-4 etc. These varieties are generally
across the South Indian states, Eastern, North East region as well as Jammu & Kashmir both
under Irrigated and Rain-fed condition (Datta 2000) [10]. In China, major cultivated varieties of
mulberry are Tong Xiang Qing, Hong Cang Sang, Hu Sang 197, Hu Sang 199, Nong Sang 8,
Yu 2, Xiao Guan Sang, Da Hua Sang, Hei You Sang, etc. Mostly cultivated across the North,
North West, Yellow river and Yangtze river regions (Huo 2000) [22].
1.2. Production, Utilization and Export of mulberry in India
Bhat et al. (2019) [4] reported that the traditional states like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and
West Bengal are the major shareholders for the production of the mulberry in India. During the
silkworm rearing period the mulberry is utilised as a fodder, fertilizer and fuel. The left over
branches and leaves are used as a fuel wood.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Generally, from 10000 square metre of mulberry garden
yields 12100 kilogram of mulberry sticks and generated
around 116440.72 kilojoule of energy. In central and north-
east India, the mulberry fruits and woods are used for juice,
jam, liquor preparation and furniture making. Sometimes, M.
serrata species of mulberry plants are used for manufacturing
of agricultural implements, carving and sports goods (Datta
2000) [10]. Mote et al. (2014) [39] reported that the raw silk
production in India is around 14.91per cent of the global
production. During 1998-99 to year 2006-07 the export
earnings of the raw silk was increased but after that the export
earing was decreased.
2. Nutrition importance of mulberry extract
The consumption of mulberry leaf extract (125 and 250
milligram) resulted in significant reduction in blood sugar
level (Lown et al. 2017) [36]. About 23 people with high
cholesterol were treated with 280 milligram of mulberry leaf
supplements thrice a day. After 12 weeks, the low-density
lipoprotein (bad) cholesterol was dropped by 5.6 per cent,
while the high-density lipoprotein (good) cholesterol was
increased by 19.7 per cent (Aramwit et al. 2011) [1]. Research
studies have proven that mulberry leaf extract also combat
inflammation and oxidative stress. Additional health benefits
of mulberry leaves include anti-carcinogenic effect, reduction
of liver inflammation as well as reduction of patches of dark
skin were also reported (Naowaratwattana et al. 2010; Lim et
al. 2019 and Freitas et al. 2016) [42, 34, 35, 16]. But after the
consumption of mulberry leaf tablet, there were some mild
side effects in some people were shown by Aramwit et al.
(2011) [1]. According to the report the side effects were mild
diarrhea (26 per cent), dizziness (8.7 per cent), bloating, and
constipation (4.3 per cent). Although, Li et al. (2018) [31]
examined the toxicological profile of mulberry leaves extract
and certified it as a safe food for consumption. The nutritional
components and their quantity present in mulberry leaves are
summarized in Table 1.
Table 1: Nutritional composition of mulberry leaves
Nutritional Components and
Total phenolic (TP)
8.7620.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g dry weight (dw)
(Yu et al. 2018) [65]
Total flavonoid content (TF)
21.3656.41 mg rutin equivalents (RE) per g dry weight (dw)
(Yu et al. 2018) [65]
Total soluble sugars (TSS)
58.71150.31 mg per g dry weight (dw)
(Yu et al. 2018) [65]
1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ)
0.20-3.88 mg per g
(Ji et al. 2016) [24]
Total phenols
12.81-15.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g dry weight (dw)
(Sanchez et al. 2015) [54]
Caffeoylquinic acids
6.78-8.48 mg per g dry weight (dw)
(Sanchez et al. 2015) [54]
10.6-13.15 mg Trolox per g dry weight (dw)
(Sanchez et al. 2015) [54]
10.62-12.64 mg Trolox per g dry weight (dw)
(Sanchez et al. 2015) [54]
Total soluble carbohydrates
3.1 g per 100 g fresh weight (fw)
(Dimitrova et al. 2015) [11]
Reducing sugars
1.5 g per 100 g fresh weight (fw)
(Dimitrova et al. 2015) [11]
Fructose and glucose
0.3 g per 100 g fresh weight (fw)
(Dimitrova et al. 2015) [11]
1.1 g per 100 g fresh weight (fw)
(Dimitrova et al. 2015) [11]
Crude proteins
15.31-30.91 per cent
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Crude fat
2.09-7.92 per cent
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Crude fibre
9.9-13.85 per cent
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Neutral dietary fibre
27.6-43.6 per cent
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Total ash
11.3-17.24 per cent
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Ascorbic acid
100-200 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
8.44-13.13 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
183 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
156 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Tannic acid
0.13-0.36 per cent
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Iron (Fe)
19-50 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Zinc (Zn)
0.72-3.65 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Calcium (Ca)
786.66-2,726.66 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Phosphorus (P)
970 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
Magnesium (Mg)
720 mg per 100 g
(Butt et al. 2008) [6]
3. Health benefits of mulberry leaf extract
The ability of mulberry leaf for peak-to-trough fluctuations in
blood glucose was significantly observed by Mudra et al.
(2007) [40]. The results revealed that mulberry leaf extract with
75-gram sucrose significantly reduced the increased blood
glucose within 120 minutes. The insulin inhibition ability of
fahomine in mulberry leaves is also a strategic purpose of
consumption. This can putatively reduce lipid peroxidation.
Moreover, there are some thoughtful health problems that can
be healed by consumption of mulberry leaf extract.
3.1. Antidiabetic properties of mulberry leaf
The problem in diabetic patients is lack of response or very
less production of insulin, which causes “hyperglycemia”, the
blood-glucose disease. Naowaboot et al. (2009) [41] reported
that the mulberry leaves extract consists of anti-
hyperglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-glycation activities and
can be an excellent beverage for the treatment of
“hyperglycemia”. Further, they also experimented with the
effect of antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antiglycation
activities of mulberry leaf extract on animal models and
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
observed a significant positive result against hyperglycemia.
Sharma et al. (2010) [55] reported the effect of red mulberry
leaves extract on rat’s health. The 1- Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)
played a key role in the reduction of the blood sugar. It acts as
an inhibitor of intestinal α-glucosidases which reduces the
blood sugar level (Hansawasdi et al. 2006) [18]. Furthermore,
Lown et al. (2017) [36] studied the improvement of the glucose
tolerance level by mulberry leaf extract. Results showed that
the extract of mulberry leaf considerably reduced total blood
glucose upsurge after ingestion of maltodextrin (Maize starch)
over 120 minutes.
The mulberry leave’s hybrid 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and a
polysaccharide aids in modulating the expression of the
hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, glucokinase, glucose 6-
phosphatse and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Li et al.
2011) [32]. The alpha-amylase is a key enzyme which catalyses
the initial steps for hydrolysis of starch into smaller
oligosaccharides. Usually, the mulberry leaves extract exhibit
significant alpha-amylase inhibitory activity as reported by
Sudha et al. (2011) [58]. In addition, Doi et al. (2000) [12]
reported that extracts of mulberry leaf were effective in
scavenging the DPPH radical and inhibiting the oxidative
modification of rabbit and human low-density lipoprotein
(LDL). Recently, Bajpai and Rao (2014) [3] pointed that the 1-
Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leaves have active
pharmaco-kinetic principles with the potential capability of
inhibiting hyperglycemia.
3.2. Anti-oxidative properties of mulberry leaf
The name “antioxidant” indicates the mitigation of oxidation
properties in the human body. The presence of different types
and the wide range of flavonoids in mulberry leaves gives a
good anti-oxidative property. Mulberry leaves contain a huge
amount of anti-oxidative properties, i.e., phenolics and
flavonoids, which were found to be excellent antioxidants.
Studies proved that the fractions of mulberry leaves extract
containing the higher values of phenolic and flavonoid
compounds exhibited the stronger anti-oxidative property
(Iqbal et al. 2012 and Flaczyk et al. 2013) [23, 15]. The
mulberry leaves extract has the highest antioxidant (DPPH
and Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging) properties
compared to petiole, ripe fruit, unripe fruit and stem (Lim et
al. 2019) [34, 35]. It was also reported that higher amount of
quercetin in the leaves of mulberry were responsible for the
reduction of oxidation process (Enkhmaa et al. 2005; Chen et
al. 2007; Katsube et al. 2010 and Iqbal et al. 2012) [13, 8, 27, 23].
The ethanolicas and aqueous extract of mulberry leaves,
contains oxyresveratrol and 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-
methylether. Basically, it helps to scavenge superoxide and
have antioxidant potential (Oh et al. 2002) [45]. Samuel et al.
(2016) [53] studied mulberry leaves aqueous extract of four
varieties (S-146, AR-14, BR-2 and S-1) and the results had
shown highly significant anti-oxidant activity by attenuating
both malondialdehyde (50.49 per cent, 36.14 per cent, 41.36
per cent, 37.13 per cent) and superoxide dismutase (54.01per
cent, 40.18 per cent, 34.82 per cent, 29.74 per cent) levels in
the brain of experimented animals. Iqbal et al. (2012) [23]
suggested the pre-eminence of M. Nigra over the other
species of mulberry concerning their disease preventive
potential. The existence of phenolics, DPPH radical and
ABTS radical cations scavenging potential provides M. Nigra
an edge over other species. Commonly, the DPPH and ABTS
radicals scavenging activity are the two measures for the
determination of anti-oxidant properties in mulberry leaves.
Yigit et al. (2008) [64] also determined DPPH radical
scavenging ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of
mulberry leaves and expressed that there was a statistically
significant correlation between DPPH radical scavenging and
total phenolic compounds.
3.3. Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular disease commonly known as CVD is a disease
related to heart or blood vessels (Mendis et al. 2011) [38].
Kadam et al. (2019) [25] reported that the mulberry leaves
contain high amount of iron (Fe) and this helps for better
distribution of oxygen by boosting the production of red
blood cells. Another important flavonoid present in mulberry
leaves is resveratrol, which directly helps to remove
constriction in blood vessel which significantly reduces the
chance of heart failure and also increases the production of
nitric oxide, which is a vasodilator. This means that it relaxes
blood vessels and reduces chances of blood clot formation
and subsequent heart issues like strokes or heart attacks. Doi
et al. (2000) [12] and Oh et al. (2007) [46] reported that the leaf
extracts of the mulberry (Morus Alba and Morus bombycis)
shown to reduce hypertension in rodents, decreases serum
cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis. Consequently, Ma et
al. (2019) [37] also reported that the 1-Deoxynojirimycin
(DNJ) in mulberry leaves improved the stable angina pectoris
(SAP) of coronary heart disease (CHD) and blood stasis
syndrome (BSS) patients by elevating their antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory capacities.
3.4. Anticancer effects
Cancer or the abnormal growth of cells in the human body is a
curse. The abnormal cell growth has a potential to spread
through other parts of our body and can cause death (WHO
2018 and National Cancer Institute 2007) [43]. Although there
is no proper treatment for cancer, due to presence of excellent
anti-oxidant and other beneficial properties the mulberry
leaves can be a great option to mitigate or reduce the
probability of cancer. The ethanol extract of mulberry leaf can
eliminate neuroblastoma stem cell-like population, which is a
key reason behind this deadly disease (Park et al. 2012) [49].
Around 10-40 microgram per millilitre of mulberry leaf
extract efficiently improved differentiation by elongating
neurites, reducing clonogenicity and sphere formation. This
was shown by the decreased expression of stem cell markers
and increased expression of differentiation markers. Yang et
al. (2012) [62] reported that the cell proliferation, invasion and
metastasis of tumours can be inhibited by polyphenols
presence in mulberry leaves. Also, cell death of hepatocellular
carcinoma cells can be performed by mulberry leaf
polyphenols extract. Another interesting fact is mulberry leaf
extract attack the proliferation signal pathway of the
inflammatory response of adipocytes in hepato celluar
carcinoma (HCC) and able to prevent obesity-mediated liver
cancer (Chang et al. 2017) [7]. Similarly, Fallah et al. (2018)
[14] reported that an Iranian mulberry leaves deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA) can be used as an anti-cancer drug. Experimental
results showed that mulberry extracted oxidative flavonoids
were very effective for increasing the life span of a tumour
3.5. Anti-inflammatory effects
Inflammation is a biological process or responds to remove
some harmful or irritating effects in parts of our body or in
other way body trying to heal itself. The anti-inflammatory
properties are mostly present in barks and roots of mulberry
tree, but the leaf contain a very few amounts of this property.
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Due to diaphoretic and emollient effects present in mulberry
leaf extract it can be helpful for making a decoction that can
be used as a gargle and significantly reduced throat
Lim et al. (2013) [33] studied some anti-inflammatory effect of
mulberry leaf extract with a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
After 12 weeks without any liver toxicity this treatment
reduced protein levels of oxidative stress markers (manganese
superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory markers (inducible
nitric oxide synthase) in adipose tissue and liver.
Additionally, the mulberry leaves contain inducible nitric
oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory properties (70 per cent with
10 micro grams per millilitre) which are very effective for
inflammation (Hong et al. 2002) [20]. Park et al. (2013) [50]
reported the use of mulberry leaves as an anti-inflammatory
agent to inhibit nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of
activated B cells or NF-kB-mediated inflammatory response,
the activities of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines
can be applied to ameliorate the disease conditions.
3.6. Neurological disorders, skin diseases, gastrointestinal
Alzheimer is a kind of neurological disorder associated with
brain-plaque by amyloid beta peptides. Niidome et al. (2007)
[44] and Khaengkhan et al. (2009) [28] reported that mulberry
leaves contain kaempferol -3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol -3-
O-(6-malonyl) glucoside and its consumption help to avoid
peptide formation inside the brain. The methanol extract of
leaf has anti-dopaminergic effect which blocks the Dopamine
(D2) receptors (Yadav et al. 2008) [61]. Kang et al. (2006) [26]
showed that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) present
into the extract has ability to provide protection from various
free hydroxyl radical and protect the PC12 (model for neural
differentiation) cells. Shih et al. (2010) [56] also mentioned
about the role of anti-oxidant in defence and improving the
defence system in human body. The oxyresveratrol
(tyrosinase inhibitor) present in mulberry leaf extract act as a
neuroprotective component (Zhang and Shi 2012) [66] and it is
an impending medicine to cure acute ischemic stroke (Horn et
al. 2003) [21]. Breuer et al. (2006) [5] showed that the
oxyresveratrol was capable to cross the blood-brain barrier for
the direct protection of the brain.
Apart from the consumption as a tea, mulberry leaves extract
can also be used as a natural skin care product. The leaf has a
great anti-aging effects and beneficial for acne-prone skin or
pimples (Cheng 2016) [9]. It reduces inflammation and skin oil
secretions. Due to the presence of anti-tyrosinase activity in
mulberry leaves, it is very effective for skin lightening and
glowing skin (Suisse 2017) [58]. An enzyme called tyrosinase
has an ability to control the production of melanin. Singh et
al. (2013) [57] examined the effects of mulberry, kiwi, and
Sophora angustifolia extracts on melanogenesis and melanin
transfer in human melanocytes and in cocultures with
phototype-matched normal adult epidermal keratinocytes.
Mulberry leaf extract gives a light skin tone by suppressing
tyrosinase activity.
The diseases related to the gastrointestinal tract are commonly
known as gastrointestinal disorders. Mulberry leaves have a
very good potential activity to improve digestion. In addition,
it contained excessive amount of dietary fibres which helps to
bulking of stool for digestion improvement (Kadam et al.
2019) [25]. Hogade et al. (2010) [19] explained the defensive
effect on liver (rats) by inoculating mulberry leaves extract
with carbon tetrachloride (induced). Mulberry leaves are also
high in mineral content and vitamin C, antioxidants and have
no anti-nutritional factors or toxic compounds. Hence, the
bio-active components of mulberry leaves are very
advantageous for boosting metabolism (Li et al. 2019) [30].
3.7. Antimicrobial effects
Antimicrobial means protection from microbial organism. It is
very useful for the production of antibiotics. This antibiotic
plays a crucial role in protection of human body from harmful
microorganism. The saponins, tannins, alkaloids and
flavonoids present in mulberry leaf extract shows admirable
antimicrobial effects. The microbes like E. coli, Salmonella
Typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermis, S. aureus, Candida
albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be prevented by
the mulberry leaves flavonoid extract (Paiva et al. 2010) [48].
The Chalcomoracin which is a leaf phytoalexine of mulberry
shows tremendous anti-bacterial activity against
Stapalococcus aureus (Fukai et al. 2005) [17]. Similarly, the
ethanolic extract of mulberry leaves shows protection against
Artemia salina (L.), which cause oral toxicity to mice, was
reported by Oliveira et al. (2015) [67. Ayoola et al. (2011) [2]
worked on the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of M.
Alba leaves and showed that the Gram-negative bacteria such
as: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria
gonorrheae and gram-positive bacteria Proteus vulgaris,
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecium, and fungi
Aspergillus tamari, Aspergillus Niger, Fusarium oxysporum
and Penicillium oxalicum can be inhibited by using mulberry
leaves extract.
4. Conclusion
Several research studies have been reported on nutritional and
health benefits of mulberry leaf extract for consumers. This
manuscript compiles few nutritional aspects of mulberry
leaves extract. Research studies have elucidated the existence
of a number of active molecules in it and those compounds
has shown to be effective in the treatment of various diseases.
The active molecules such as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ),
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), phytosterol, quercetin,
flavonoids etc., helps to control blood sugar level, maintains
blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, prevent liver cancer,
prevent oxidation, respectively. Additionally, the vitamins
such as vitamin A, B1, B2, C offer healthy eyes, body
immunity, body tissue repairing and healthy skin. One
important benefit is that antioxidant activity of mulberry
leaves which could be used to combat free radical’s formation
which is the major reason for several diseases. Comparison of
natural and synthetic compounds will clearly show the
potential of these bio-compounds in pharmaceutical as well as
in food sectors. Thus, more research is essential to exploit the
potential capability of mulberry leaves extract to treat diverse
health problems in human beings. It is expected that, before
the end of 21st century the use of mulberry based products for
combating the health issues would increase tremendously.
5. Acknowledgments
This paper and the research behind it would not have been
possible without the exceptional support of College of
Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore. I am extremely thankful to Department of
Sericulture and Department of Processing and Food
engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
for providing information’s related with this article.
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... Chinese mulberries have higher flavonoid contents (0.0024 mg/kg) than Korean (0.0006 mg/kg) [18]. Quercetin 3-O-β-D-(6″-O-malonyl) glucoside is the most important flavonoid for delivering anti-oxidant properties in the fruit [28]. e kaempferol 3-O-glucoside content was observed in mulberry to be 3.55-47.80 ...
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Among different fruits, mulberry is the most highlighted natural gift in its superior nutritional and bioactive composition, indispensable for continuing a healthy life. It also acts as a hepatoprotective immunostimulator and improves vision, antimicrobial, anti-cancer agent, anti-stress activity, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective functions, and anti-obesity action. -e mulberry fruits also help reduce neurological disorders and mental illness. -e main reason for that is the therapeutic potentials present in the nutritional components of the mulberry fruit. -e available methods for assessing mulberry fruits are mainly chromatographic based, which are destructive and possess many limitations. However, recently some non-invasive techniques, including chlorophyll fluorescence, image processing, and hyperspectral imaging, were employed to detect various mulberry fruit attributes. The present review attempts to collect and explore available information regarding the nutritional and medicinal importance of mulberry fruit. Besides, non-destructive methods established for the fruit are also elaborated. -is work helps encourage many more research works to dug out more hidden information about the essential nutrition of mulberry that can be helpful to resolve many mental-illness-related issues.
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An 8-week feeding trial with high-carbohydrate- and 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg mulberry leaf flavonoids (MLF)-supplemented diets (HCF1, HCF2 and HCF3, respectively) was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of MLF on oxidized high-carbohydrate-induced glucose metabolism disorder, liver oxidative damage and intestinal microbiota disturbance in Monopterus albus. The results showed that HC diets had significant negative effects on growth, glucose metabolism, liver antioxidant and immunity, as well as intestinal microbiota, in comparison to CON diets. However, WGR and SR in the HCF3 group dramatically increased compared to the HC group. With the increase of MLF in the HC diet, the activities of glycolysis and antioxidant enzymes in the liver tended to increase, while the changes of gluconeogenesis-related enzyme activities showed the opposite trend and significantly changed in the HCF3 group. Additionally, MLF supplementation dramatically increased the mRNA expression involved in glycolysis, antioxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines in comparison with the HC group. Furthermore, gluconeogenesis and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes’ expression dramatically decreased. Furthermore, the proportion of Clostridium and Rhodobacter in the HC group dramatically declined, and the proportion of Lactococcus dramatically increased, compared to the HC group. In addition, 300 mg/kg MLF supplementation significantly improved the species composition and homeostasis of intestinal microbiota. These results indicate that MLF can alleviate the negative effects of low growth performance, glucose metabolism disorder, liver oxidative damage and intestinal microbiota disturbance caused by HC diets, and the relief of MLF is dose-related.
Mulberry leaves (MLs) have been used traditionally to raise silkworms and as herbs and herbal drinks. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence of health benefits, mostly for ML extracts. ML extracts showed antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anticholesterol (affecting lipid metabolism), antiobesity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities, and so on. These might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, reduction of foam cell formation, inhibition of fat formation, decrease of NF-κB activity, and the promotion or induction of apoptosis. Phenolic constituents, especially flavonoids, phenolic acids and alkaloids, are likely to contribute to the reported effects. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of MLs confer the traditional and current uses as medicine, food, fodder, and cosmetics. This paper reviews the economic value, chemical composition and pharmacology of MLs to provide a reference for the development and utilization of MLs.
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Mulberry (Morus spp.) of Moraceae family has been regarded as a unique plant on this earth due to its broader geological distribution across the continents; ability to be cultivated in different forms; multiple uses of leaf foliage and its positive impact in environmental safety approach through ecorestoration of degraded lands, bioremediation of polluted sites, conservation of water, prevention of soil erosion and improving air quality by carbon sequestering. Mulberry is also used as a medicinal plant in improving and enhancing the life of human beings by utilizing the biologically active pharmacokinetic compounds found in leaf, stem and root parts. Further industrial exploitation of mulberry through preparation of various products in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and health care industries has gained the attention of industrialists. As mulberry is being exploited by sericulture, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and beverage industries along with its utilization in environmental safety approach; it is appropriate to call it as a most suitable plant for sustainable development. Through this review paper, all the important characteristics of mulberry were put together for considering it as an ideal plant in providing sustainable future.
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Sericulture is cottage based industry which combines both the features of agriculture and industry. India has tremendous potential for silk development but yet unexploited, however development is not far away. The current study is an attempt to analyse the share between traditional and non-traditional states and between the states on the basis of mulberry silk production and mulberry cultivation. Regression analysis, coefficient of variation, growth rate was used to attain the objectives of the study. It was found that the traditional states hold the maximum share both in mulberry cultivation during 2012-13 was (82.90%) as well as production of raw silk (96.49%). In which Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal contributes maximum production among traditional states, while as Maharashtra, Manipur and Madhya Pradesh are the leading contributing states among the non-traditional states in total raw silk production in India.
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Objective: Stable angina pectoris (SAP) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and blood stasis syndrome (BSS) is a potentially serious threat to public health. NF-κB signaling is associated with angina pectoris. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is a unique polyhydroxy alkaloid, is the main active component in mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves and may exhibit protective properties in the prevention of SAP in patients with CHD by affecting the NF-κB pathway. Methods: DNJ was purified from mulberry leaves by using a pretreated cation exchange chromatography column. A total of 144 SAP patients were randomly and evenly divided into experimental (DNJ treatment) and control (conventional treatment) groups. Echocardiography and ascending aortic elasticity were evaluated. The changes in inflammatory, oxidative, and antioxidant factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured before and after a 4-week treatment. Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores were compared between the two groups. The improvement in SAP score, associated symptoms, and BSS was also investigated. The levels of IkB kinase (IKK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inhibitor of kappa B α (IkBα) were measured by Western blot. Results: After the 4-week treatment, DNJ increased left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced left ventricular mass index, aortic distensibility, and atherosclerosis index (p < 0.05). DNJ intervention increased angina-free walking distance (p < 0.05). DNJ significantly reduced the levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-a, MDA, SAS, HAMD, AP, and BSS scores and increased SOD level (p < 0.05). The total effective rate was significantly increased (p < 0.05). The symptoms of angina attack frequency, nitroglycerin use, chest pain and tightness, shortness of breath, and emotional upset were also improved. DNJ reduced IKK and NF-κB levels and increased IkBα level (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The DNJ in mulberry leaves improved the SAP of patients with CHD and BSS by increasing their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities.
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Mulberry plants belonging to the Moraceae family have been grown for the purpose of being the nutrient source for silk worm and raw materials for the preparation of jams, marmalades, vinegars, juices, wines, and cosmetics. Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) is native to Southwestern Asia, and it has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for animals and humans. In this article, recent research progress on various biological and pharmacological properties of extracts, fractions, and isolated active constituents from different parts of M. nigra are reviewed. M. nigra exhibited a wide-spectrum of biological and pharmacological therapeutic effects including antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-melanogenic, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anticancer activities. M. nigra also showed protective effects against various human organs and systems, mainly based on its antioxidant capacity. These findings strongly suggest that M. nigra can be used as a promising nutraceutical resource to control and prevent various chronic diseases.
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Mulberry leaves had been used as material of medicine, drink, and functional foods in many countries, but the variety suitability for different applications is still not clear. In this study, the nutritional and phytochemical components of mulberry tender shoots from 19 varieties in China were investigated. Obvious genotypic diversity was observed in all the assessed components. The contents of crude protein (CP), total soluble sugars (TSS), crude fiber (CF), 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), total phenolic (TP), and total flavonoid content (TF) were 27.63–37.36 g/100 g dry weight (DW), 58.71–150.31 mg/g DW, 9.90–13.85 g/100 g DW, 0.08–1.12 mg/g DW, 8.76–20.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DW, and 21.36–56.41 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/g DW, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were considered to be mainly potential antioxidant compounds in mulberry leaves. According to the result of correlational analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the NS14 variety had high comprehensive healthy properties. GS8, D10, XS, TP2, and DHS could be appropriate materials for functional food or drink because of high content of phenolics or DNJ. Some varieties may have a potential application as protein-rich vegetables. The study suggests that some variety of mulberry could be selected and utilized rationally for their dietary properties.
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Epidemiological studies have revealed that obesity and being overweight are associated with increased cancer risk. Adipose tissue is regarded as an endocrine organ that secretes proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which are related to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells were induced and stained with Oil Red O, which revealed marked intracellular lipid accumulation. Adding 15% conditioned medium (CM) from adipogenic -differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, which contained adipocyte-derived factors, to a culture medium of HepG2 cells was discovered to promote cell proliferation by a factor of up to 1.3 compared with the control. Mulberry leaf extract (MLE), with major components including chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid, was revealed to inhibit CM-promoted HepG2 cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of MLE on the proliferation of the signal network was evaluated. Expression of the CM-activated IκB/NFκB, STAT3, and Akt/mTOR pathways were reduced when MLE was administered. Although adipocyte-derived factors are complex, administrating anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6 revealed that MLE blocks signal activation promoted by TNF-α and IL-6. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MLE targets the proliferation signal pathway of the inflammatory response of adipocytes in HCC and could be to prevent obesity-mediated liver cancer.
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High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p
The oxidative stress is an important cause of a number of diseases in humans, which can be prevented or reduced by timely intervention of anti-oxidants. Rotenone induced oxidative stress model of rat has been used to assess the anti-oxidant profile of nine freshly prepared aqueous extracts of mulberry leaf. The results suggest that pre-Treatment with four varieties S-146, AR-14, BR-2 and S-1 have shown highly significant anti-oxidant activity by attenuating both malondialdehyde (50.49%, 36.14%, 41.36%, 37.13%) and superoxide dismutase (54.01%, 40.18%, 34.82%, 29.74%) levels in the brain of experimental animals. The remaining extracts were relatively less active. The most significant ones AR-14 and S-146 are being tried in focal cerebral ischemia model of rat to assess their neuroprotective (anti-oxidant) activity. The potent mulberry extracts can be used as a dietary supplement to suppress the oxidative stress.