Technical ReportPDF Available

Equisetum palustre, IEA 2020

Authors:
  • International Equisetological Association
Technical Report

Equisetum palustre, IEA 2020

Abstract

Radoslaw Walkowiak. 2020. Equisetum palustre. IEA Collection of Equisetum 2020 [Editor: Beth Zawada] (Open Access)
Presentation
Presentation &
& Botanical
Botanical Report
Report
Equisetum
Equisetum palustre
palustre
L.
L.
©
©IEA
IEA Collection
Collection of
of Equisetum
Equisetum 2020
2020
Radoslaw
Radoslaw Janusz
Janusz Walkowiak
Walkowiak
Przemysl
Przemysl, Poland, IEA Full Member
, Poland, IEA Full Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [title: radek]
[title: radek]
Editor
Editor:
: Beth
Beth Zawada
Zawada
USA, IEA
USA, IEA Full
Full Member
Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [
[title
title:
: beth
beth]
]
This is an
This is an Open Access
Open Access paper distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attri
paper distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
bution
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which perm
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
its unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is pr
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
operly cited.
Cite this article as:
Cite this article as:
Radoslaw
Radoslaw Walkowiak
Walkowiak.
. 2020. Equisetum
2020. Equisetum palustre
palustre.
. IEA Collection of Equisetum 2020
IEA Collection of Equisetum 2020
C
Compiled
ompiled on the basis of
on the basis of:
:
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J., Equisetum
R. J., Equisetum palustre
palustre L., IEA Collection of Equisetum 2019
L., IEA Collection of Equisetum 2019
Special thanks to: Beth
Special thanks to: Beth Zawada
Zawada
INTERNATIONAL EQUISETOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
INTERNATIONAL EQUISETOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
EQUISETUM, EQUISETACEAE
EQUISETUM, EQUISETACEAE
Equisetum is the single surviving genus of a class of ancient va
Equisetum is the single surviving genus of a class of ancient vascular plants that
scular plants that
dates back to the mid
dates back to the mid-
-Devonian period (350 + million years ago). Species (no
Devonian period (350 + million years ago). Species (no
hybrids): 15 (18), nearly worldwide. Plants with jointed stems a
hybrids): 15 (18), nearly worldwide. Plants with jointed stems and distinct nodes.
nd distinct nodes.
Leaves small, fused into sheaths, tips remaining free,
Leaves small, fused into sheaths, tips remaining free, toothlike
toothlike. Sporangia borne
. Sporangia borne
on
on peltate
peltate sporophylls
sporophylls aggregated in cones
aggregated in cones.
. Spores green, rather white in hybrids.
Spores green, rather white in hybrids.
Gametophytes green, terrestrial, unisexual, male gametophytes sm
Gametophytes green, terrestrial, unisexual, male gametophytes smaller than
aller than
female.
female.
Equisetum palustre Linnaeus
Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
Plants
Plants 20
20-
-50(
50(-
-60,80) cm
60,80) cm tall
tall,
, internodes
internodes 2
2-
-4
4 cm
cm.
. Main
Main stem
stem 4
4-
-7
7-
-ridged;
ridged; ridges
ridges arc
arc-
-shaped
shaped abaxially
abaxially
and
and glabrous
glabrous or
or with
with small
small cross
cross grains
grains;
; sheath
sheath tubes
tubes long
long,
, narrow
narrow,
, lower
lower portion
portion grayish
grayish green
green,
,
upper
upper portion
portion light
light brown
brown;
; back
back of
of sheath
sheath with
with a
a shallow
shallow groove
groove;
; sheath
sheath teeth
teeth 4
4-
-7,
7, blackish
blackish brown
brown,
,
lanceolate
lanceolate,
, membranous
membranous at
at margin
margin,
, acuminate
acuminate at
at apex
apex,
, persistent
persistent.
. Lateral
Lateral branches
branches robust
robust,
, up
up to 20
to 20
cm, 4
cm, 4-
-6
6-
-ridged,
ridged, glabrous
glabrous or
or with
with small
small pale
pale cross
cross grains
grains;
; sheath
sheath teeth
teeth 4
4-
-6,
6, grayish
grayish green
green,
, lanceolate
lanceolate,
,
thinly
thinly leathery
leathery,
, persistent
persistent.
. Strobilus
Strobilus ellipsoid
ellipsoid 0.6
0.6-
-2.5 cm, 4
2.5 cm, 4-
-6 mm
6 mm in
in diam
diam.,
., apex
apex blunt
blunt;
; stalk
stalk prolonged
prolonged
when
when mature
mature, 0.8
, 0.8-
-1.2
1.2 cm
cm. 2n = 216. 0
. 2n = 216. 0-
-200
200-
-1500
1500-
-4000 m.
4000 m.
Widespread in humid habitats in the Northern Hemisphere in tempe
Widespread in humid habitats in the Northern Hemisphere in temperate and
rate and
subpolar
subpolar climate zones. It is commonly found. It is very morphologically
climate zones. It is commonly found. It is very morphologically variable
variable
and has a wide ecological amplitude. It is distinguished by the
and has a wide ecological amplitude. It is distinguished by the greatest toxicity
greatest toxicity
among horsetails. It is a significant threat to animals, especia
among horsetails. It is a significant threat to animals, especially to horses. Is a
lly to horses. Is a
species extremely difficult to fight. It develops very similar s
species extremely difficult to fight. It develops very similar shoots (
hoots (monomorphic
monomorphic),
),
vegetative and generative, growing simultaneously from long unde
vegetative and generative, growing simultaneously from long underground
rground
rhizomes (permanent, wintering, growing in the upper part of the
rhizomes (permanent, wintering, growing in the upper part of the soil vertically,
soil vertically,
and at large depths usually up to 2 meters below ground level, s
and at large depths usually up to 2 meters below ground level, sometimes up to 5
ometimes up to 5
m, growing horizontally).
m, growing horizontally).
Habitat,
Habitat, E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Przemysl
Przemysl,
, Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
Habitat,
Habitat, E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Przemysl
Przemysl,
, Poland
Poland
It contains the largest amounts of alkaloids among all horsetail
It contains the largest amounts of alkaloids among all horsetail species: from 0.02 to 0.3% in dry
species: from 0.02 to 0.3% in dry
matter. Identified in it include poisonous compounds such as
matter. Identified in it include poisonous compounds such as palustrine
palustrine (the most abundant alkaloid),
(the most abundant alkaloid),
palustridine
palustridine,
, palmitic
palmitic and
and aconitic
aconitic acid, nicotine,
acid, nicotine, dimethylsulfone
dimethylsulfone,
, thiaminase
thiaminase. The plant poses a
. The plant poses a
threat to animals, mainly horses, less cattle and pigs, and shee
threat to animals, mainly horses, less cattle and pigs, and sheep and goats. However, animal
p and goats. However, animal
poisoning is incidental.
poisoning is incidental. The harmful effect is hay with a content of 1 to 13% horsetail a
The harmful effect is hay with a content of 1 to 13% horsetail and usually
nd usually
only after prolonged feeding. Harm is manifested mainly in vitam
only after prolonged feeding. Harm is manifested mainly in vitamin B1
in B1 avitaminosis
avitaminosis. According to
. According to
some researchers, in addition to the specific chemical compositi
some researchers, in addition to the specific chemical composition, in addition, also diatoms are a
on, in addition, also diatoms are a
relatively strong toxic effect of horsetail. They form a thin la
relatively strong toxic effect of horsetail. They form a thin layer on the surface of horsetail growing
yer on the surface of horsetail growing
in moist habitats and damage the mucosa of the digestive tract o
in moist habitats and damage the mucosa of the digestive tract of herbivores by facilitating the
f herbivores by facilitating the
absorption of toxic substances.
absorption of toxic substances.
This species is very sensitive to frost and above
This species is very sensitive to frost and above-
-ground shoots die in the fall as
ground shoots die in the fall as
the temperature decreases. After frosts in May, shoots grow back
the temperature decreases. After frosts in May, shoots grow back partially.
partially.
Shallow
Shallow-
-growing rhizomes can also freeze. Occurs on wet meadows, on the
growing rhizomes can also freeze. Occurs on wet meadows, on the banks
banks
of rivers and ditches, and often on anthropogenic habitats, e.g.
of rivers and ditches, and often on anthropogenic habitats, e.g. on railway
on railway
embankments. It grows on different types of soils. Is an indicat
embankments. It grows on different types of soils. Is an indicator species for soils
or species for soils
with poorly mobile ground water. It can also grow directly in wa
with poorly mobile ground water. It can also grow directly in water.
ter.
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
Extremely polymorphic species. In the past, numerous subspecies,
Extremely polymorphic species. In the past, numerous subspecies, varieties, forms were
varieties, forms were
distinguished. They were later questioned when three different f
distinguished. They were later questioned when three different forms emerged from the common
orms emerged from the common
rhizome. The more interesting varieties that were once described
rhizome. The more interesting varieties that were once described in the literature include, among
in the literature include, among
others,
others, ssp./var
ssp./var.
. polystachyum
polystachyum A. Br. ex
A. Br. ex Engelm
Engelm. (lateral branches ending generatively) and
. (lateral branches ending generatively) and ssp./var
ssp./var.
.
a
americanum
mericanum Victorin
Victorin (teeth at the leaf tips longer than typical up to 5 mm and more
(teeth at the leaf tips longer than typical up to 5 mm and more, geographical
, geographical
variety found in North America
variety found in North America)
).
.
Equisetum palustre
Equisetum palustre
L.
L.
Sp. Pl. 2:
Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753
1061. 1753
Hybrids:
Hybrids:
Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense ×
×Equisetum
Equisetum palustre
palustre
E.
E. ×
×rothmaleri
rothmaleri C.
C. N.
N. Page,
Page, Watsonia
Watsonia 9: 229, 1973,
9: 229, 1973, syn
syn. E.
. E. ×
×torgesianum
torgesianum Rothm
Rothm.
.
(known from various places from Europe)
(known from various places from Europe)
Equisetum
Equisetum fluviatile
fluviatile ×
×Equisetum
Equisetum palustre
palustre
E.
E. ×
×dycei
dycei C.
C. N.
N. Page, Fern
Page, Fern Gaz
Gaz. 12(3): 178, 1981 (found in England)
. 12(3): 178, 1981 (found in England)
Equisetum
Equisetum palustre
palustre ×
×Equisetum
Equisetum telmateia
telmateia
E.
E. ×
×font
font-
-queri
queri Rothm
Rothm. 1944
. 1944
(known in Central Europe from individual positions on the island
(known in Central Europe from individual positions on the island of
of R
Rü
ügen
gen and in southern Poland)
and in southern Poland)
Hybrids
Hybrids are
are very
very rare
rare.
.
Hybrids
Hybrids have
have atrophic
atrophic spores
spores.
.
Because of its harmful effects on animals, this species is an un
Because of its harmful effects on animals, this species is an undesirable plant in pastures and
desirable plant in pastures and
meadows. It is also a troublesome weed in arable fields in wette
meadows. It is also a troublesome weed in arable fields in wetter places. They can be destroyed with
r places. They can be destroyed with
herbicides. However, it is difficult to destroy underground shoo
herbicides. However, it is difficult to destroy underground shoots, especially those located deep, with
ts, especially those located deep, with
high regenerative capacity. Paradoxically, large doses of herbic
high regenerative capacity. Paradoxically, large doses of herbicides are often less effective than
ides are often less effective than
smaller ones, which is explained by the fact that the rapid deat
smaller ones, which is explained by the fact that the rapid death of aerial parts reduces the
h of aerial parts reduces the
penetration of preparations deep into underground shoots, which
penetration of preparations deep into underground shoots, which in effect survive and reborn.
in effect survive and reborn.
It is widespread in cooler regions of
It is widespread in cooler regions of Eurasi
Eurasia
a and
and North America
North America.
.
Himalayas, China, Korea, Japan
Himalayas, China, Korea, Japan
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L. 2020
2020
Przemysl
Przemysl,
, Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.
L.
Poland
Poland
species similar to E.
species similar to E. palustre
palustre L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense L
L.,
.,
similar to E.
similar to E. palustre
palustre L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
Equisetum fluviatile L. em. Ehrh.
Equisetum fluviatile L. em. Ehrh.,
,
similar to E.
similar to E. palustre
palustre L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
Equisetum ramosissimum
Equisetum ramosissimum Desf.
Desf.,
,
similar to E.
similar to E. palustre
palustre L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
LITERATURE :
LITERATURE :
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J.,
R. J., Equisetum
Equisetum palustre
palustre L., IEA
L., IEA Collection
Collection of
of Equisetum
Equisetum 2019
2019
Husby
Husby Ch
Ch. E.,
. E., Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J.,
R. J., An
An Introduction
Introduction to
to the
the Genus
Genus Equisetum
Equisetum (
(Horsetail
Horsetail)
) and
and the
the Class
Class
Equisetopsida
Equisetopsida (
(Sphenopsida
Sphenopsida) as a
) as a whole
whole, IEA
, IEA Paper
Paper 2012
2012
Hauke
Hauke, R. L. 1978, A
, R. L. 1978, A taxonomic
taxonomic monograph
monograph of
of Equisetum
Equisetum subgenus
subgenus Equisetum
Equisetum, Nova
, Nova Hedwigia
Hedwigia
30: 385
30: 385
455
455
Maarten
Maarten J M
J M Christenhusz
Christenhusz,
, Lois
Lois Bangiolo
Bangiolo,
, Mark
Mark W
W Chase
Chase,
, Michael
Michael F
F Fay
Fay,
, Chad
Chad Husby
Husby,
, Marika
Marika
Witkus
Witkus, Juan
, Juan Viruel
Viruel,
, Phylogenetics
Phylogenetics,
, classification
classification and
and typification
typification of
of extant
extant horsetails
horsetails (
(Equisetum
Equisetum,
,
Equisetaceae
Equisetaceae),
), Botanical
Botanical Journal
Journal of
of the
the Linnean
Linnean Society
Society,
, Volume
Volume 189,
189, Issue
Issue 4,
4, April
April 2019,
2019, Pages
Pages
311
311
352
352
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J., A
R. J., A Taxonomic
Taxonomic Study
Study of
of the
the Genus
Genus Equisetum
Equisetum (
(Horsetail
Horsetail), IEA
), IEA Paper
Paper 2011
2011
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J.,
R. J., Equisetum
Equisetum Taxonomy
Taxonomy, IEA
, IEA Paper
Paper 2008,
2008, Version
Version of
of 2008
2008-
-10
10-
-04,
04, Retrieved
Retrieved 2011
2011-
-
11
11-
-07
07
LINKS :
LINKS :
https://internationalequisetologicalassociation.yolasite.com/
https://internationalequisetologicalassociation.yolasite.com/
https://equisetum
https://equisetum-
-iea.wixsite.com/equisetum/
iea.wixsite.com/equisetum/
https://internationalequisetologicalassociation.yolasite.com/tax
https://internationalequisetologicalassociation.yolasite.com/taxonomy.php/
onomy.php/
https://internationalequisetologicalassociation.yolasite.com/lin
https://internationalequisetologicalassociation.yolasite.com/links.php/
ks.php/
Radoslaw
Radoslaw Janusz
Janusz Walkowiak
Walkowiak
master
master
s
sdegree
degree in
in biology
biology and
and honorary
honorary doctor
doctor in
in botany
botany
Przemysl
Przemysl,
, Poland
Poland, IEA
, IEA Full
Full Member
Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [
[title
title: radek]
: radek]
Editor: Beth
Editor: Beth Zawada
Zawada
MSc
MSc,
, Biology
Biology,
, USA, IEA Full Member
USA, IEA Full Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [title:
[title: beth
beth]
]
Equisetum
Equisetum palustre
palustre L.
L. ©
©Rados
Radosl
la
aw Janusz
w Janusz Walkowiak
Walkowiak
©
©IEA 20
IEA 2020
20
Presentation & Botanical Report
Presentation & Botanical Report
Contact
Contact ©
©IEA 2020
IEA 2020
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com
International
International Equisetological
Equisetological Association, Equisetum,
Association, Equisetum, Equisetaceae
Equisetaceae
(c) IEA is a non profit membership organization founded in 2008
(c) IEA is a non profit membership organization founded in 2008 and dedicated to the public
and dedicated to the public
engagement in scientific research and education of Equisetum Bio
engagement in scientific research and education of Equisetum Biology (
logy (Equisetology
Equisetology)
)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.