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Fenghuang and Phoenix: Translation of Culture

AbstractFenghuang and phoenix from ancient myths are
both culture-loaded words that have unique features and
comprehensive historical developing routes. This paper focuses
on their translations to find out the reflected cultural issues and
power influences under the ideas of cultural identity and
language power. Classic literatures like The Analects and The
Tempest in bilingual versions are compared in terms of the
translation for both animals, as well as by searching the
different social backgrounds and timelines of those literatures.
The mixed usage of phoenix and fenghuang in both Chinese
(East) and English (West) culture makes confusions but also
enriches both languages and cultures.
Index TermsFenghuang, phoenix, translation, language,
cultural identity.
Translation as a social practice involves different cultural
identities [1]. There are many mythical animals in Chinese
culture being translated into some “equivalent” animals in
Western culture, such as [long], 凤凰 [fenghuang], and
[qilin] that are commonly seen being replaced by
“dragon”, “phoenix” and “unicorn” [2], [3], which are
regarded as culture-specific items existing only in Chinese
cultural phenomenon [4]. It has posed translational problems
due to the different values in different language cultures [5].
More researches and discussions are focused on and its
translation, “long” and “dragon” [6], [7]. Even suggested
alternative translation is given, as “loong” [8], [9].
Fenghuang, on the other hand, generally translated as
“phoenix”, is far more easily accepted with fewer opposing
voices. However, with its complex features and specialties
including gender connotation that fenghuang can be either
male, female or bigendered [10], using “phoenix” to
represent fenghuang is still limited.
In Chinese ancient documents, such as The Classic of
Mountains and Seas and Erh Ya, fenghuang is described to
have the head of a cock, the beak of a swallow, the neck of a
snake, the back of a tortoise, and the tail of a fish [11]-[13].
The divine creature composited with several variant animals
is of six-chi tall and having five colors for its plumages
including black, red, green, white, and yellow [14]-[16].
Fenghuang has its natural divinity of winds and social
divinity representing power and value [17] that five virtues
can be seen in fenghuang as uprightness, humanity, virtue,
honesty, and sincerity [16]. Fenghuang has faced historical
change of gender as from yang to yin (generally understood
as from male to female) in Chinese connotation. At
Manuscript received May 2, 2020; revised August 10, 2020.
L. Zhu is with The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (e-mail:
Confucius‟ time, fenghuang was mainly used to describe
virtuous man, such as shi and king, and it was in Han dynasty
that fenghuang‟s gender was gradually distinguished [18], as
the male feng with the female huang respectively, in
symbolizing everlasting love that representing the yin-yang
balance. After Ming-Qing period, fenghuang was major
symbolization for female that such transformation is
unavoidably related to the monarchal power of Chinese
empresses in indicating themselves by using
fenghuang-elements [16].
As for phoenix in the West, it has the totally different
origins and characteristics. Phoenix dies in its nest, and then
is reborn from its own burned ashes, with a duration of about
500 years [19]. Phoenix is said to be originated from
Egyptian solar myths of the sacred bird, benu, through
association with the self-renewing solar deity, Osiris [20].
Ancient Greek poet, Hesiod, made the first mentioning in the
West of phoenix, under the Greek name “phoinix”, while
later on, Greek historian, Herodotus gave the first description
of behavior as a sacred bird of Heliopolis, the famous
Egyptian city, being eagle-like and with bright red and gold
plumages [21], [22]. In 1633, one of the earliest Christian
writings outside the New Testament, The First Epistle of
Clement to the Corinthians, was published by Patrick Young
(1584-1652) that marked a critical moment for phoenix with
its first appearance in the document to be used by Christian,
as a pagan bird [23].
Though benu and phoenix have close relations, fenghuang
and phoenix, in the East and West culture, are actually totally
different things in considering their appearances, origins and
historical descriptions. Nigg [16] states that the currently
widely linking association of Western phoenix and Chinese
fenghuang can be dated back to the translations of
nineteenth-century scholars, though the translation that
connects identically worshiped but individual birds from
separated parts of the globe is not universally admitted by
scholars that the “phoenix” is identified as the “miscalling”
of fenghuang [24]. Besides, the greatest difference between
fenghuang and phoenix as distinct in two cultures is that one
never dies, but the other is periodically reborn from the
burned ashes. Further, the gender of the fenghuang is
importantly mentioned in Chinese culture, even with the
association of yin and yang, but the phoenix is not concerned
with such differentiation [25]. Even though with a huge
difference between fenghuang and phoenix, the Chinese
mythical bird is still more frequently translated as phoenix for
both Chinese and Western translators. Even, the forthcoming
Disney movie, “Mulan”, has also used phoenix to represent
fenghuang [26]. This paper focuses on the translation of
fenghuang, and to see how the translation reflects the cultural
issues and what the relation of power influences on the
Fenghuang and Phoenix: Translation of Culture
Lyujie Zhu
International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2020
doi: 10.18178/ijlll.2020.6.3.263
Translation is a social-oriented activity that alters the
challenging of power relations [27]. As power is important in
translation studies after cultural turn [28], [29], translation is
unavoidably involving the interaction of different cultures
and powers that ethical and political choices are under
consideration for translators and researchers [30]. Hence,
translation is of cultural, social and political determination
[31], [32]. Chinese culture in the understanding of Western
discourses center-oriented people is “fictional”, which
includes Chinese culture in the Western power centered
discourse [33] that Chinese identity is filtered to accustom the
Western norms. The phenomenon of linguistic code vacancy
is unavoidable in translation [34]. The text contains cultural
characteristics, and translation is the exchange of texts but
also the communication of different cultures [35]. Apart from
transference of words from languages, culture-related aspects
should also be concerned [36]. Culture, as a multifaceted
concept [37], is significant in forming the thoughts,
behaviors and perceptions [38] that culture-specific items are
important in carrying traditions, ideologies, values and
common consensus [39] for members in the same cultural
Translation is not only the transferring of language code,
but also the cultural substitution of ideological
transformation [40] that unequalled language and power
relations are involved in intercultural communication [41].
Cultural awareness and ethnic diversity have become staple
terms of academy [42]. Culturally-oriented translation
studies are currently under popular studying [43]. Culture
provides identity, purpose, and direction [44]. Language and
culture are remarkably interfaced [45]. Through
reaffirmation, cultural identity, as a critical portrayal of
distinguishing groups [46] sharing identical values
respectively, should be redefined in its own image [47] via
language reorganization. Culture shapes the way that
language being used [46]. Positive language attitude
generates a positive cultural identity [45], which contributes
to the development and advancement of the language [48].
Inappropriate reading, interpretation and translation might
exist for foreign cultural existence of mixing connotation
This paper searches relative Chinese and English
translations about fenghuang and phoenix to find the factors
behind that why translators chose which way of translation.
Especially, classic literatures in both languages and their
translations are compared. Different social background and
timeline for the translation are also searched for analysis.
Further, the relation between translation and cultural identity
is studied via the analysis of fenghuang‟s translation. Issues
on translation and power are also considered by checking the
current academic analysis on the interaction between
fenghuang and phoenix.
According to Nigg [16], James Legge (1815-1897), the
pioneering and preeminent translator of the sacred Chinese
books, in his translation of The Annals of the Bamboo Books
[50], was one of the earliest to introduce the image of
fenghuang to the Western world with European language, as
the text writes, “phoenixes, male and female, arrived”. Then,
the choice of the name of the Western phoenix became an
influential beginning in translating the texts telling the
Chinese bird. However, “Fang” also becomes the male
element of the fenghuang in Legge‟s translation [16].
Literatures in different dynasties that mentioning fenghuang
are randomly selected to compare the bird‟s translations. The
translation of The Analects by Legge, Arthur Waley
(1888-1966) and Ku Hung-Ming (1857-1928) are first
selected. Different choices for translating fenghuang can be
Legge: The Master said, “The Fang bird does not come; the
river sends forth no map it is all over with me!” [52]
Waley: The Master said, “The phoenix does not come; the
river gives forth no chart. It is all over with me!” [53]
Legge: O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue
degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the
future may still be provided against. Give up your vain
pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who
now engage in affairs of government. [52]
Ku: O Phoenix bird! O Phoenix bird,
Where is the glory of your prime?
The past, —‟t is useless now to change,
Care for the future yet is time.
Renounce! Give up your chase in vain;
For those who serve in Court and State
Dire peril follows in their train. [54]
Since the Chinese only mentioned feng that Legge intends
to make distinct genders available in the translation, as
“Fang” is used. However, fenghuang in these sayings has no
clear clue on the gender, even it is used to describe those
noble officials and scholars who are mainly men, as feng can
be abbreviation of fenghuang, which is common way in
classic Chinese writings. Waley and Ku might find the fact
behind, so that they are not intentionally differ feng and
huang, but they both use “phoenix” to simply replace
fenghuang. Linguistic variation and cultural heterogeneity
influences the translation activities [49]. Chinese language
variation might be difficult to fully accustomed with, so that
misunderstandings occur. Further, these people‟s translations
might be affected by the cultural hegemony. Waley, as a
Westerner, used the conventional idea to replace fenghuang
as phoenix for easier reading and association to the readers.
Ku‟s translation actually also reflects his background that his
English was not his mother tone, so he might use some
existed, popularly accepted words to translate, rather than
creating new terms that are not familiar to the readers. It also
can be regarded as the reflection of Chinese translators‟
intention in that time in translational activities. Legge‟s
version exists some misunderstanding of Chinese culture, as
stated by Ku, he, then, intended to make a Chinese people‟s
translation [54]. In this case, Ku, who wanted to uphold
Chinese philosophy to foreigners as a non-native English
International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2020
speaker, on the other hand, used more understandable
expressions, as phoenix, which already exists in target
culture, to make the translation. The Chinese word,
fenghuang, is further searched in The Book of Songs (The
Book of Poetry) to compare the translation of Legge and
Wang Rongpei (1942-2017).
Legge: The male and female phoenix give out their notes,
On that lofty ridge.
The dryandras grow,
On those Eastern slopes.
They grow luxuriantly;
And harmoniously the notes resound. [56]
Wang: The phoenix sings a joyful air
On the lofty mount o‟er there.
The plane trees rise into the air,
On the southern slope o‟er there.
How luxuriant are the trees!
What pleasant songs in the breeze! [57]
Legge pays attention to the variation at diction level who
makes different adjustments to actually the same creature.
When feng and huang appear together, Legge used “male and
female phoenix” to translate, while “Fang” is used for feng.
Legge‟s intention is to differentiate feng and huang, in order
to emphasize the gender difference that he might also have
discovered, but his adaptation makes some misleading effects
to purposely separate the same kind of creature into two
totally different mythical systems, and even confuses the
image of fenghuang to English readers.
In 1840s, a cigarette brand called 龙凤香烟 was translated
into Loong Voong Cigarettes [7]. Originally, fenghuang can
be seen more frequently to have its own group of characters
to be referred, such as “fang” and “voong” [49]. Even with
some translators using “phoenix”, variation still exists. But in
relatively more recent translations, “phoenix” can be seen as
more popularly accepted and applied by translators in
translating “fenghuang”. In Chinese-English Dictionary of
Modern Usage edited by Lin Yutang (1895-1976),
fenghuang-related words are all translated by using the word
“phoenix” [58]. The currently famous translator in the
Chinese mainland, Xu Yuanchong (1921~ ), who has
translated plenty of Chinese classic poems, also uses
“phoenix” in the translation, such as Li Bai‟s “On Phoenix
Terrace At Jinling”.
On Phoenix Terrace once phoenixes came to sing;
The birds are gone, but still roll on the river‟s waves.
The ruined palace‟s buried ‟neath the weeds in spring;
The ancient sages in caps and gowns all lie in graves. [59]
“Phoenix” is also commonly accepted by Chinese
translators. Without notation or further explanation, they
could just mix the two creatures into one. Further, in the two
translations of 红楼梦, The Story of the Stones by David
Hawkes (1923-2009) and John Minford (1946~ ), and A
Dream of Red Mansions by Yang Hsien-yi (1915-2009) and
Gladys Yang (1919-1999), fenghuang is also being translated
into phoenix in both translation, as can be seen in the cited
Yangs: The prince turned to observe to Jia Zheng your son
is truly a dragon‟s colt or young phoenix.” [61]
Hawkes: The prince observed to Jia Zheng that the young
phoenix was worthy of his sire. [62]
At that period, phoenix is far more accustomed by
translators to be used in translating fenghuang. However,
compared with translators in translating Chinese literature,
more current scholars, especially Chinese scholars, prefer
“fenghuang” as the bird‟s English translation rather than
“phoenix” [25]-[64]. Behind the current change of word
preference, Chinese cultural identity and discourse power are
more considered by translators that will be further discussed
In translating phoenix into Chinese, there are mainly three
ways, as 菲尼克斯 [feinikesi] (translating the sound), 不死
[businiao] (translating the image by creating a new word)
and 凤凰 [fenghuang] (borrowing the existent word in
Chinese myth). 菲尼克斯 is mostly used in translating Greek
myths. In 1913, Qian Zhixiu had mentioned the “Greek bird”,
phoenix, as 菲尼克斯, with some general description about
the bird that published in The Eastern Miscellany.
[So, it is like phoenix can be reborn from ashes. (Phoenix is
the divine bird of Greece that after five hundred years‟ life,
burns itself to ashes, and resurrects from the ashes to live
for the next five hundred years‟ life in cycles and in
eternity,) just like the growth of Prussian power.]
In that period, Chinese translators can still clearly
differentiate phoenix and fenghuang. For more recently, in
writing academic papers on talking about the translation of
fenghuang, Chinese scholars also tend to use the sound to
translate phoenix [64]. It is said that it was Guo Moruo
(1892-1978) who first linked phoenix with fenghuang in the
Chinese context [66] in his poem 凤凰涅槃 [Nirvana of
Phoenix], which was first published in 1920 [67]. Guo first
used the sound of phoenix, as 菲尼克司, and gave the
original characteristics of the self-burning bird, then made it
to be linked to the Chinese fenghuang.
[In ancient Arabia, there was a divine bird named
“phoenix”. At its five hundred years‟ age, it would collect
International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2020
incense woods to burn itself, and to be reborn from the dead
ashes that it would be extraordinarily beautiful, and would
not die again. This bird is actually the so-called feng-huang in
China: the male feng and female huang.]
Guo‟s poem, or the “translation” of phoenix, is borrowing
the concept of “rebirth” of phoenix to encourage and urge
Chinese people to fight for their freedoms and rights, after the
May Fourth Movement [13]. It is currently recorded the
earliest mixing of te concepts of phoenix and fenghuang in
Chinese contexts. Fenghuang is then having more
connotations that are originated from the Western phoenix
and Buddhist philosophy in modern Chinese language. Then,
afterwards, more examples can be seen in the translations of
phoenix as fenghuang, such as Shakespeare‟s The Tempest in
Act III, Scene iii, translated by Liang Shiqiu (1903-1987) and
Zhu Shenghao (1912-1944). Both translators have translated
phoenix into fenghuang. As for Liang‟s transaltion, he had
not used qilin to translate unicorn, but interestingly used
fenghuang to translate phoenix. Liang‟s translation might
have been influenced from the convention of Chinese
translators or even normal Chinese readers, as phoenix and
fenghuang are more popularly accepted to be linked together.
Zhu‟s translation is mainly for theater play that word limits
and acceptance of audience might be considered. As the word
leaves the page and turns into vocal and gesture expressions,
more specific intentions on translation should be considered
[68]. Hence, except conventional translation, word length
could also be one of the possible factors to make Zhu
translating phoenix into fenghuang, so that the play can be
more economical and of easier understanding and accepting
for audiences.
Now I will believe that there are unicorns; that in Arabia
there is one tree, the phoenix‟ throne, one phoenix at this
hour reigning there. [69]
Liang: 我现在可以相信世上真有独角兽;在阿拉伯真有
Zhu: 一幅活动的傀儡戏?现在我才相信世上有独角的
As for 不死鸟, it also has its own translational logics and
routes. Since fenghuang is more applied in translation,
phoenix as 不死鸟 is not that popular, but still, it has its own
language circle in Chinese context, especially with recent
years‟ academic researches on differentiating phoenix and
fenghuang. Then, other than fenghuang, and sound
transliteration, the “secular bird” becomes more and more
acknowledged in translation process. Zhuang Ke, in his novel,
directly uses bilingual title, to identify phoenix as 不死鸟
[72]. Hong Kangqi has also written 不死鸟的传说 [The
Legend of Phoenix] [73]. For more recent translations, Liu
Qing [74] has translated Roderick Stewart and Sharon
Stewart‟s book Phoenix: The Life of Norman Bethune [75] by
using 不死鸟 to translate phoenix. With the development of
discourse power of China as well as the Chinese language,
more scholars are aware of emphasizing Chinese cultural
identity. Translators in mainland China could be more eager
to differ fenghuang, as an inclination to uphold cultural
uniqueness and Chinese identity. So, fenghuang and phoenix
are more intentionally differed by some scholars and
translators who prefer the supplement translation 不死鸟 for
referring to phoenix [63]-[66].
According to Toury [31] and Chi [32], translation being
historically determined can make huge difference to the
language, culture and even the society. Though Guo Moruo‟s
poem confuses phoenix and fenghuang [76], his creation
through the translation in literature has huge influence in
modern Chinese language. Guo‟s creation combines
Buddhist nirvana, Chinese traditional fenghuang and
Western phoenix. It was also one of the typical phenomena of
China in the first half of the twentieth century [77] that
various cultures, religions and ideologies were combined
together by Chinese people to find or create a “Chinese way”
of independence from empirical colonization. Such kind of
globalization of culture that importing features from
privileged cultures to unprivileged cultures in the beginning
of the last century has made a variety of social, cultural and
political influence [78] that produces the interconnectedness
of the three cultures. Guo‟s usage of phoenix focuses on the
specialty of rebirth through which Guo‟s intention is to
convey the ideology of breaking against the feudalism and
even reaching communism [13]-[66]. Political factors can be
seen from these birds‟ translations.
Guo‟s recreation creates a hybrid new fenghuang culture
in Chinese language by the incorporation of the translated
concepts of phoenix‟s resurrection [36]. The May Fourth
literary language, in this case, Guo‟s “nirvana of phoenix”,
has ensured the deep foundation for the future development
of Chinese literature [79]. The enlargement and innovation of
the existed vocabulary and meaning [13] have also made
huge promotion to the development of languages. By
searching the word entry 凤凰涅槃 in one of the biggest
database in China, CNKI (China National Knowledge
Infrastructure) for word frequency in last twenty years, more
than two thousand results including newspapers, journals and
conferences can be found. Further, by checking the existing
translations for Guo‟s poem, there are majoring of two kinds,
namely “The Resurrection of Feng-Huang” [80] and “The
Nirvana of the Feng and Huang” [81], [82]. It can be found
out that apart from phoenix in the Chinese sphere, even in the
English world, the connotation of fenghuang has also been
enriched with the extensive association to the phoenix.
By means of approaching values and beliefs, culture could
be explored and enhanced by its people [37]. With the growth
of Chinese nationalism, and with the enhancement of
national self-confidence and cultural awareness by
translators and scholars [83], more voices are calling for
translating 凤凰 into “fenghuang”. As the translation being
created should have its own specific moment of acceptance
International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2020
[43], its transmission to a new set of readers might cause new
differentiations and adjustments. The “existence” of the
fenghuang and phoenix in Chinese and Western cultures has
become the de facto basic for understanding each other‟s
culture [84], so that the connotation of fenghuang from an
alien culture is automatically transformed into the
self-understood existence of the resurrected phoenix.
However, the phoenix in the West is also the representation
and symbol of the Jesus Crist for the rebirth connotation of
the bird, while fenghuang should not include this kind of
religious meaning [63]. The religious association could raise
misunderstanding to Chinese fenghuang with inappropriate
Besides, ho-o in japan, firebird in Russia, benu in Egypt,
and yel in America all have their unique names in English
language that are confused with phoenix [16]-[63].
Fenghaung, however, is not the case. Since no
comprehensively equal notations during the cross-cultural
communication process can be detected, using an existed
phrase to rebuild the unique cultural features and values in
the target cultural context is difficult [85]. Chinese culture is
now being emphasized to be respected, and fenghuang is a
strong culture-loaded word to indicate Chinese traditional
culture. Translation can be an empowering activity that
resistant practices are deliberately opted [42] at a specific
historical time. In current age of globalization, Chinese
culture should also keep its unique identity, of which the idea
is applied to support the partition of fenghuang and phoenix.
Translation is argued to be instrumental to the ideological
intentions [86]. The translation of fenghuang as phoenix has
raised more concerns on the postcolonial issues that target
readers in confronting translated text come across a sense of
familiarity which is easier for reading and understanding, but
the language uniqueness and cultural features in the source
culture which is the unprivileged culture are also missed [87].
It is even criticized to be cultural hegemony in omitting the
special features of fenghuang during the translation [88] that
it has caused negative influence on Chinese cultural identity
and self-awareness [66]. Fenghuang has its shared meanings
in Chinese cultural community by means of the natural
language [89] that through weakening the heterogeneity of
fenghuang in “foreign culture” as using phoenix for
alternative [85], Chinese culture to some degrees is
underestimated in the translation. Fenghuang is more
emphasized on its own translation by using “fenghuang” to
replace “phoenix” [25], [63], [64]. This kind of resistance of
translation is a challenge to the Western culture [90], [91]
that Chinese scholars expect more focusing on Chinese
individuality in its own culture under the globalizing era.
Translation is unavoidably being influenced by the cultural
identity in different historical eras and affected by the rise
and fall of discourse power in the target cultures. The
intertwining combination of fenghuang and phoenix is under
great influence by Legge‟s translation and Guo Moruo‟s
poem in English and Chinese languages respectively. But
more affections can be seen to Chinese translators, as Guo‟s
poem leads to huger influence in the Chinese culture. Though
the translation has made some confusion to the language,
there still exists positive influences. Guo‟s creation of
combination of Buddhist, Chinese and Western mythical
connotations for both fenghuang and phoenix greatly
enriched the Chinese language after the May Fourth
Movement that this translation provides more possibilities of
Chinese culture as an inclusive culture. Translating
fenghuang into phoenix disambiguates the specialty and
uniqueness of the feature of fenghuang, but it also broadens
phoenix‟s connotation just as it was borrowing ideas from
Egyptian benu millenniums ago.
While the translation of fenghuang in English and
translation of phoenix in Chinese are found to have various
alternatives after searching and comparing of different
examples, the majority of those translations link fenghuang
and phoenix together in both cultures. However, in current
days, with the growth of China, the language, culture and soft
power of China are more considered by some Chinese and
foreign scholars in arguing for building up the Chinese
cultural identity. The development of nationalism in China
also leads to the increasing volume of voices in the
retranslation of fenghuang and other culture-specific items,
in the circle of Chinese translators. It is even criticized by
some scholars and officials to translate fenghuang into
phoenix as the cultural hegemony. Fenghuang is one of the
possibilities to enhance the Chinese existence in influencing
the Western languages and cultures, and also to indicate the
uniqueness and individuality of the traditional culture of
China. Besides, fenghuang‟s feature of gender is more
complex even in the Chinese context that its translation might
encounter more issues, which should be further studied in the
Translating fenghuang into English
1840s voong /
1861 fang Legge
1865 phoenix Legge
1898 phoenix Ku
1938 phoenix Waley
1972 phoenix Lin
1974 phoenix Hawkes
1978 phoenix Yangs
1987 phoenix Xu
2008 phoenix Wang
2009 fenghuang Zhang & Gong
2010 fenghuang Huang
2011 fenghuang Qian
2020 phoenix Mulan
Translating phoenix into Chinese
1913 菲尼克斯 Qian
1920 凤凰 Guo
1937 凤凰 Liang
1947 凤凰 Zhu
1988 不死鸟 Hong
2001 不死鸟 Zhuang
2013 不死鸟 Liu
International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2020
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Copyright © 2020 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
L. Zhu was born in Zhejiang, China in 1997. He got the
master degree in translation at The Chinese University of
Hong Kong, in 2020. And he obtained the bachelor degree
in arts in translation and interpretation at City University
of Hong Kong, in 2015.
His translation has “The Year,” Wenhsun, vol. 413, p.
150, Mar. 2020. His research interests are translation
studies and poetry translation.
Mr. Zhu has won the second prize for excellence award of 7th Global
Youth Chinese Literary Award (Literary Translation), 2020.
International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, September 2020
... Diény, qui fut directeur d'études à l'École Pratique des Hautes Études pour l'histoire et la philologie de la Chine classique (Diény 1989). Voir aussi dernièrement Walker 2010et Zhu 2020 Pour la culture arabe, ni Zakharia 2001 (cité par RH p. 796), ni Buendía 2011(voir infra le Complément bibliographique 2000 ne pensent que ces oiseaux fabuleux sont identiques au phénix. 7. « Im ägypt.-griech. ...
« À propos du phénix. Lecture critique d’un ouvrage récent », Kentron 37, 2022, p. 245-266. Compte rendu de Rainer Henke " Der Vogel Phönix Im Altertum : Mythos und Symbolik" , Aschendorff Verlag, 2020, suivi d’un Complément bibliographique sur le mythe du phénix de 2020 à 2022. En ligne sur English translation of the review available upon request.
İnsanlar yaşamın bir parçası olan hayvanlarla etkileşime geçtikçe onları gözlemlemiş ve hayvanların kendilerine özgü özellikleri ile alakalı olarak onlara bazı anlamlar yüklemişlerdir. Hayvanlara atfedilen bu anlamlar zaman içerisinde, insanların içinde yaşadığı coğrafyaya, kültürüne, inancına bağlı olarak sembolleşmiştir. Bu noktada insanlar yaşadıkları ortam ve olayların da etkisi altında kalarak, hayvanlara bazen yüce, bazen koruyucu, bazen güçlü, bazen de olumsuz anlamlar yüklemişlerdir. Hayvanlara atfedilen sembol ve anlamlar ilgili kültürün efsane, anlatı ve sanat eserlerinde yerini almıştır. Günümüzde yaygın bir biçimde kullanım alanı bulan hayvanların sembolik anlamları, Çin kültüründe önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Bu çalışmada veri toplamak amacıyla Çince, İngilizce ve Türkçe açık erişim kaynaklarından elde edilen bilgiler ve bu alanda yapılmış çalışmalar kullanılarak, hayvanların farklı kültürlerdeki anlam ve sembolleri ele alınmış, özellikle Çin kültüründe öne çıkan bazı hayvanlar ve ifade ettiği anlamlar incelenerek, hayvan sembollerinin Çin toplum ve kültüründeki anlamlarının ve dönüşümlerinin yorumlanması amaçlanmıştır. Çin kültüründe var olan hayvan sembollerinin oluşmasında Çinlilerin dini inançlarının ve diğer uluslar ile olan etkileşimi ile antik dönem insanlarının doğayı gözlemleyerek oluşturduğu efsanelerin etkili olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Makalede, her hayvanla ilgili sembolik anlamları ele almak mümkün olmadığından; okuyucuya altı örnek hayvan üzerinden Çin’deki hayvan sembolizmine dair genel bir bakış sunulmuştur.
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This book is an original contribution to the field of multilingualism and cultural identity. It investigates the ramifications of multilingualism for language choice patterns and attitudes among Moroccans. It focuses on the impact of multilingualism on cultural identity and education. It includes a debate on education and language planning policies in Morocco since independence. It reveals the complexity of post-colonial Morocco characterized by contradictory attitudes toward the languages in contact and toward language policy and education. It is of interest to students and researchers of sociolinguistics, cultural studies, anthropology and gender studies as well as for specialists of education and language policy/planning. This book is unique in that it: is one of the few books published in English about language, culture and education in Morocco; is a thorough overview of the different views and studies of researchers; includes new data, new material and new interpretations of previous views and ideas; shows how postcolonial forces have endeavored to reconstruct the national identity of Morocco; assesses the roles played by linguistic and cultural factors in the development and evolution of Moroccan society. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., All rights reserved.
Translation is a difficult phenomenon because it is concerned not only with a pair of languages but also with the cultural aspects that languages are related to. One of these aspects consists of culture-specific items (CSIs)—material or spiritual concepts that are present in one culture and are absent in another. In the 21st century, because of globalization, people encounter CSIs on a daily basis. Therefore, it is very important to understand the concept of CSIs and the impact they have, along with the misunderstandings and problems they may cause. Thus, the object of this paper is CSIs and their translation in Lithuanian menus. The aim of the paper is to analyze translation of CSIs in the menus of Lithuanian restaurants. The analysis of CSIs is performed according to the translation strategies introduced by Davies (Trans 9(1):65–100, 2003). The results of the analysis demonstrate that strategies which tend to keep the content of the original CSI or neutralize/explain cultural references are often used to translate Lithuanian CSIs, whereas translation strategies that preserve the original form of CSIs or tend to replace one cultural reference with another are more often used to translate foreign CSIs. Since CSIs may not have equivalents in other languages, cases when few strategies are employed to translate the same CSI appeared as well as some mistakes in translation.
Culture and cross-cultural communication have become a topical area in the context of translation and localisation studies, and have received enhanced levels of interest from both academics and practising professionals of localisation and language industries. Culture, as a multifaceted phenomenon and concept, might be referred to and explored by means of approaching values, traditions, beliefs, attitudes, behavioural patterns and communication skills possessed by its members. The ability to communicate effectively has become of paramount importance and one of the key terms in the context of localisation that might be briefly defined as a process of modifying a product to fit linguistics, cultural and legal requirements of the target market. Addressing the significance of the issue of communication, the article focuses on the immediate communication of cultures as the factor that is critical to the successful implementation of the project of localisation. Following the idea of major/minor languages in terms of language dominance that has gained attention in translation studies (Venuti 1998, Cronin 2014) due to the usage and hegemony of English in a fast developing area of information technologies it becomes interesting to investigate and describe how languages and cultures interact with each other and how they change each other when computer software (a particular product) is Lithuanised and modified to the needs of the Lithuanian market.
This introductory chapter discusses the implications of self-translation in multilingual contexts in Europe, aiming at mapping out innovative perspectives to the study of power and, by so doing, empowering self-translation. We start by critically engaging with the ‘cultural’ and ‘power turns’ in translation studies, as a way of delineating what the particularities of self-translation are when practised by author-translators in multilingual spaces. Focusing on the European milieu, defined broadly in terms of its geographies, we then discuss multilingualism, cultural awareness and ethnic diversity as staple terms in both academic and political ideologies across Europe, emphasising that one of the aspects of multilingualism is precisely the power differentials between languages and cultures. We explore these unequal power relations and centre–periphery dichotomies of Europe’s ‘minorised’ languages, literatures and cultures, suggesting the usage of ‘minorised’ in preference to the others discussed, inasmuch as it highlights both hegemonic power hierarchies and also the continual resistance to them. This is followed by a brief overview of the emerging debates in the subdiscipline of self-translation in recent times. It is within them that we situate our contribution, arguing that the self-translators’ double affiliation as authors and translators turns them into powerful cultural and ideological mediators and places them in a privileged position to challenge (or submit to) power. Here another term, ‘self-censorship,’ is suggested as invaluable to self-translation studies where self-editing often occurs before translation is begun. Finally, the introduction presents the organisation of the book and the main ideas discussed by the 11 authors in their individual chapters.
Translation/interpretation is a special form of intercultural communication as it is mediated through the agency and subjectivity of the translator. Each work of translation, because of its (inter)textuality, is a site for the analysis of cultures in contact, confluence, conflict or contest. Each act of interpretation is also an instance of such interaction.
Seeing the restrictions of former studies in Comparative Literature and aiming to amend these deficiencies, the author of this book mainly discusses the major theoretical significance and academic value of the Variation Theory in the whole process of the development of Comparative Literature in the world. In China the seminal comparative study of literature among different cultures can be dated back to ancient China, while the founding of comparative literature as a distinct academic discipline has to be largely owing to the influence of the West. The modern Chinese study of comparative literature formed its uniqueness under Western influence. The direct influence of the translation of western theories into China is remarkable. However, in the course of translation and reception of Western theories, Chinese comparatists and intellectuals have been encountering various problems, and solving them with an alternative method accordingly different from the traditional methods proposed by the French School and the American School. Therefore, in this book, modern Chinese study of comparative literature is put in a historical context with regard to the theoretical issue of the discipline in China through the entire 20th century. At present, many scholars in China and in other countries agree that, with the influence study proposed by the French School and the study of analogy advocated by the American School, the entire theoretical system of Comparative Literature is well built. However, when the comparative study of literature between East and West is concerned, the theory of Comparative Literature is far from perfect. It is not only because many problems still exist, but there are significant defects in their theoretical bases respectively. Many researches have proven that even with the influence study and the study of analogy, we still can not solve many problems in the practice of studies in comparative literature. This does not mean that we have no respect for the contributions of the French School and the American School; we just want to attach importance to literary variations, which is a phenomenon that has long been neglected. The purpose of putting forward the Variation Theory in Comparative Literature is to provide new perspectives, new methods and new theory to the study of comparative literature, which may be a major breakthrough in the international arena of Comparative Literature. The neglect of literary variation is mainly because all the previous theories about comparative literature start off in search of similarities but not differences. Accordingly, in 1990s heterogeneity as a premise of comparability was put forward. And later, the variation theory was further advanced. It is not only the important phenomenon in literary communication, but also the most valuable research object in Comparative Literature. Still, it will be an important path to cultural innovation. The Variation Theory may make up the major flaws of theories by both French school and the American School since it focus on heterogeneity and variability in cross-cultural literary events, especially the ones of inter-civilization which will be a new course for comparative literature. Throughout the history of literature and the history of literary communication, collisions between different civilizations have always been producing new literary events which make the heterogeneity of different civilizations and variability traceable. The higher stage of literary communication may mean dialogue and blend between different cultures. The overarching concerns of this book include different levels of variation in literary communication and the studies of different objects. The introduction begins with a literature review of major achievements made by the French School and the American School with pointing out what they have neglected. The body of the book is divided into three parts. In the first part, Chapter 1 deals with the major contributions of influence study and its weaknesses. The origination of comparative literature in most of European countries is reviewed first, and then the major contributions of the French School are listed to point out its merits and weaknesses. The author discusses the relation between Influence Study and the Variation Theory and the importance of the French school in theoretical development of comparative literature is stressed too. Chapter 2 offers a critical introduction and reflection on the study of analogy. Both its major contributions and weaknesses are made clear to further illustrate the relationship between interpretation and the Variation Theory. And the discursive variation is discussed. Part II is a transitional part with only one chapter that gives a clear account of phenomenon of variation from international perspective. Part III consists of four chapters. Chapter 4 offers a detailed description of The Variation Theory in cross-languages context. Chapter 5 deals with cross-cultural variation in homogeneous circle of civilization. Chapter 6 discusses the variation among heterogeneous civilization. For a long period of time the theoretical study of comparative literature in China has largely been confined to the Chinese academic arena, thus has long been neglected. On one hand western comparatists have gradually realized the importance of a non-western perspective in the study of the discipline; on the other hand, few books are available to introduce the recent development of comparative literature study in China. Compared with the enthusiastic reception of the theories of the French School and the American School, the theories of Chinese comparatists receives relatively little attention in western countries. In this sense, the proposed book attempts to challenge the myth of monolithic theories of comparative literature, trying to construct an alternative theory of the discipline.
The concept of "communities of practice" (Lave and Wenger 1991, Wenger 1998) has become influential in education, management, and social sciences in recent years. This volume emphasizes the significance of language, power, and social context in understanding how communities of practice work. Domains of empirical research reported include schools, police stations, adult basic education, higher education and multilingual settings. The relationship between communities of practice and literacy studies, critical language studies, the ethnography of communication, socio-cultural activity theory, and sociological theories of risk is also evaluated.