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Lighting control network based on KNX protocol, for the reduction of energy consumption

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span>This article presents the development of a lighting control network to reduce the energy consumption of a commercial building, using the KNX protocol; because of the high rates of electricity consumption, the same that are reflected in the payment of the electricity supply. For this, the design of the network architecture is carried out, the tree type quality and it has KNX, DALI components and LED luminaires, which are interconnected by means of an Ethernet type BUS; The KNX protocol configuration is then performed using the ETS version 5 software; carries out the implementation of KNX technology, determines the reduction of energy consumption by 82.33%. Likewise, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main gases involved in climate change, were reduced by 85%. With these results we obtain economic and environmental benefits; Reason why it is proposed to perform the same procedure for the control of air conditioning systems, since their operation represents 32.8% of the energy consumption of an establishment.</span
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Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Vol. 19, No. 3, September 2020, pp. 1186~1193
ISSN: 2502-4752, DOI: 10.11591/ijeecs.v19.i3.pp1186-1193 1186
Journal homepage: http://ijeecs.iaescore.com
Lighting control network based on KNX protocol,
for the reduction of energy consumption
Omar Chamorro-Atalaya1, Angel Quesquen-Porras2, Dora Arce-Santillan3
1,3Facultad de Ingeniería y Gestión (FIG), Universidad Nacional Tecnológica de Lima Sur (UNTELS), Perú
2Bticino Legrand Perú, Perú
Article Info
ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received Jan 13, 2020
Revised May 15, 2020
Accepted Apr 1, 2020
This article presents the development of a lighting control network to reduce
the energy consumption of a commercial building, using the KNX protocol;
because of the high rates of electricity consumption, the same that are
reflected in the payment of the electricity supply. For this, the design of the
network architecture is carried out, the tree type quality and it has KNX,
DALI components and LED luminaires, which are interconnected by means
of an Ethernet type BUS; The KNX protocol configuration is then performed
using the ETS version 5 software; carries out the implementation of KNX
technology, determines the reduction of energy consumption by 82.33%.
Likewise, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the main gases involved
in climate change, were reduced by 85%. With these results we obtain
economic and environmental benefits; Reason why it is proposed to perform
the same procedure for the control of air conditioning systems, since their
operation represents 32.8% of the energy consumption of an establishment.
Keywords:
Control
Energy consumption
KNX protocol
Lighting
Network
Copyright © 2020 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science.
All rights reserved.
Corresponding Author:
Omar Chamorro-Atalaya,
Facultad de Ingeniería y Gestión (FIG),
Universidad Nacional Tecnológica de Lima Sur (UNTELS), Perú.
Email: omar_chamorro1@hotmail.com
1. INTRODUCTION
Companies to produce necessary resources, such as energy, raw materials, equipment, technology
and information [1]. Many of these institutions constantly use these resources and not always responsibly;
generating high emissions of pollutants, due to excessive inefficient consumption levels of lighting and air
conditioning equipment [2]. The refrigeration and air conditioning market represents 32.8% of the total
consumption of electrical energy, in addition to its fluids, substances and refrigerants that pollute the environment
[3]. While lighting consumption represents 24% of electric energy billing [4].
As a solution to this, intelligent technology will become one of the necessary facilities for human life [5],
the aim of this is to minimize energy consumption and maximize comfort. [6] Ensuring adequate lighting, striving
for energy efficiency, as well as increasing comfort and interior design are the reasons for the development of
many light sources using various radiation phenomena. Controlling these sources requires the proper selection of
controllers that allow for proper connection of sources and smooth adjustment of lighting parameters [7].
The efficient control of energy carriers in smart buildings requires communication protocols that specify
the exchange of information between devices and the general monitoring of the property [8]. As stated, today
automation systems are widely used in buildings to create smart applications [9]. Therefore there are many
automation protocols such as BACnet, C-Bus, CC-link, DALI and KNX [10]. For this, the KNX standard was
developed for the design of home automation applications [11]. In addition, the demand for wireless technology
has increased due to several advantages, such as reduced installation costs, easy placement, easy extension,
aesthetic benefits and connectivity of mobile devices [12]. In many real-life scenarios, KNX-enabled devices
(sensors and actuators) are controlled with a multifunctional controller or touchpad [13].
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
Lighting control network based on KNX protocol, for the reduction of energy… (Omar Chamorro-Atalaya)
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The special characteristics of the KNX standard compared to other field buses is, above all,
its modernity and its home automation applications [14]. This protocol meets all the requirements to comply
with the energy performance classification, that is, the KNX protocol is ideal to meet the adjustment needs of
energy consumption in companies and institutions [15], since they allow energy savings of up to 70% in
equipment air conditioning and 89% in lighting [16]. In that sense, the purpose of this article is to describe an
alternative of how to optimize the consumption of electric energy in a commercial building, using a luminaire
control network, using the KNX protocol. In order to develop this proposal. I initially present in this article
the design of the network architecture, establishing the type of topology and components to be used. The use
of KNX components, digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) controllers and LED luminaires, which
are interconnected by means of an Ethernet bus, is highlighted. This will also seek to quantify said reduction
in energy consumption that is achieved by using the KNX protocol and its partners associated with said technology.
2. PROCEDURE
Initially a flow chart is made, in which we will indicate the steps for the procedure to be adopted in
relation to the design Figure 1. As indicated in the flowchart of Figure 1, the KNX protocol analysis will
initially be performed. The KNX protocol has an independent system. Through the KNX transmission
medium (twisted pair, radio frequency, force line or IP/Ethernet), on which all the devices are connected,
the communication is exchanged.
Figure 1. Flowchart of the procedure (own elaboration)
The indications that the control system wiring has are the following:
a) The KNX bus must be powered with a voltage of 29V.
b) The data is transmitted in serial mode (9600bits/s).
c) Use of a one pair cable (2x0.8mm).
d) Maximum distance between two products: 700m.
e) Maximum distance between a product and the KNX power supply, 350m.
f) Maximum BUS length: 1000m.
Once the design is described, we will determine the architecture of the lighting control system, using
the KNX protocol. For this we will identify the components that are part of this system are shown in Table 1.
As shown in the following table, the components are part of the KNX and DALI protocol, it should be noted
that, DALI is an international standard defined by the international electrotechnical commission (IEC) in
the IEC 62386 standard.
One of the main advantages of working with DALI protocol it is that it allows planning a lighting
installation or system in a more conceptual than physical way with the possibility of easily modifying groups
or scenes at the last moment without having great implications at the operational level (wiring) as happens
with other types of systems. In addition, it is a very flexible system because of the possibility of changing
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groups. A second point would include cost reduction. On the one hand, lower cost in control systems by
being able to integrate different products from different manufacturers within the same system. On the other
hand, it allows individual control with the consequent energy savings [17]. In this case, the network
architecture presents DALI controllers, for the activation of the luminaires. Once the components of the KNX
protocol have been identified, the control architecture is shown below. It should be noted that the design is
being made for a three-story commercial building.
Table 1. Symbology of the components of a KNX network
Representation
As seen in Figure 2. The network architecture has the following characteristics:
a) The system is independent but integrated to the other levels through the line couplers.
b) Each environment has a main KNX power supply, a DALI controller with 8 outputs and an ON-OFF
controller with 04 outputs, 3 PIR Motion sensors, 3 LED Downlight and 3 LED Spot, which are
connected to the stage commands and simple command; through KNX couplers, by means of a KNX
BUS cable.
c) These devices are connected to a general power supply and a Gateway, for integration into the Ethernet network.
d) A USB interface is used to allow the configuration of KNX devices from a PC with ETS software version 5.
e) The wiring of the KNX system can be configured as that of the power line, in this case, it is a tree type.
f) Buses, control consumer devices, are available for DIN rail mounting. The bus components can always
be installed where it is best suited within the installation, so they are always guaranteed to be optimally used.
g) In this way, it is possible to evaluate or vary the main aspects of the system according to the way of
placing the components.
Next, the ETS software configuration is done; The steps for configuring the control system are as follows:
Step 1: The project is created in the ETS V5 Software.
Step 2: Project levels are determined.
Step 3: Choose the product to be configured from the catalog and drag it to the main board.
Step 4: The device configuration is determined.
Step 5: The configuration is loaded, for this purpose it is sent through the “program” function, and a USB
type cable is connected-from the PC to the USB interface in Figure 3. This procedure is observed.
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
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Figure 2. KNX control system architecture
Figure 3. Load device configuration (ETS V5)
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3. RESEARCH METHOD
3.1. Research level
The investigation will be descriptive; since, we will analyze the results of electric power consumption,
after the implementation of the luminaire control system, based on the KNX protocol. That is, they only intend
to measure or collect information independently or jointly and draw a conclusion from it [18].
3.2. Population and sample
The population in this investigation is represented by the luminaire system of the offices of
the commercial building, which has 3 floors. The analysis of the light calculation will be carried out on each
of the floors, since it has independent electrical panels. Also, the sample will be the same as the population;
since, if the population is less than fifty (50), the population is equal to the sample [19].
3.3. Data collection
The instrument used is the measurement data sheet, in which the results of the electric power
consumption of the year 2019 have been collected.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Results
Once the lighting control system based on the KNX protocol has been implemented, and
the measurement data has been collected, the analysis of the electric power consumption will be carried out.
Table 2 shows the total energy consumption before implementing the KNX protocol. As can be seen, before
implementing the KNX protocol, a total of 130,572,672KWh was consumed. If the KWh in Peru equals
0.1967, this means that the company spent S/.25,683.65. In addition to being a high economic expense, it also
represented 6,500 kg of CO2 emission. These reasons were the root to develop the proposed solution. Now in
Table 3, we will see the results of electric power consumption, once the KNX protocol system has been implemented.
Table 2. Energy consumption in the year 2018
without the protocol KNX
Dispositives
Potence
KW
Annual
consumption
hours
Total power
consumption
KWh
Dichroic
lamps
5.552
8,616
47,836.032
Fluorescents
9.576
82,736.64
8,640
130,572.672
Table 3. Energy consumption in the year 2019 with
the protocol KNX
Dispositives
Potence
KW
Annual
consumption
hours
Total power
consumption
KWh
Spot LED
1.2
6,980
8,376.00
Dowlight
LED
2.1
6,998
14,695.80
23,071.80
As can be seen, with the KNX protocol, the energy consumption is 23,071.80, equivalent to
S/4,538.22. Also, because the energy consumption of LED lamps is much lower than other luminaires,
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, one of the main gases involved in climate change, are reduced by 85% [20],
being the current value of CO2 of 5525Kg. To determine by what percentage the energy consumption has
been reduced as shown Figure 4, we will use the following formula; which consists in calculating the average
for each of the groups (without the KNX protocol and with the KNX protocol), the difference, will be
the percentage of reduction of the consumption of electrical energy.
Figure 4. Monthly electricity consumption 2018-2019
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
Lighting control network based on KNX protocol, for the reduction of energy… (Omar Chamorro-Atalaya)
1191
   
  (1)
where:
% reduction = Energy consumption reduction percentage
MSP = Media without protocol KNX
MCP = Media with protocol KNX
Once the energy consumption values of Tables 2 and 3 are obtained, we will calculate the average of
both values; obtaining as a result the following:
   
     (2)
As noted, the value of energy consumption has been reduced to 82.33; this value being very
beneficial for the company and for the environment. Finally, we will determine the level of significance of
the reduction result, using the T-Student test in Table 4. This test is used when the following requirements are
met [21].
a) When it is possible to calculate the mean and standard deviation from the sample.
b) The sample size must be less than 30.
Table 4. T-student test
Sig. (bilateral)
95% difference confidence interval
Lower
Upper
Energy consumption_2018
,000
10,48860
11,27340
Energy consumption_2019
,000
1,56208
2,28309
In the T-Student test, we will focus on the significance (bilateral), according to the theory so that it
has a highly significant value must be less than the alpha, that is [22].
a) If the probability obtained P-value (Sig. Bilateral) ≤α (0.05); the reduction is highly significant
b) If the probability obtained P-value (Sig. Bilateral) >α (0.05), the reduction is not significant
As can be seen in the result of Table 4 the (bilateral) significance of the reduction in energy
consumption is highly significant, because the (bilateral) significance obtained (0.000); It is less than α
(0.05). This statistical test corroborates the calculation of the formula (1), where it is obtained that the
reduction of the energy consumption (KWh) of the luminaires once the KNX protocol has been implemented,
has been reduced by 82.33%.
4.2. Discussions
In relation to the reduction of energy consumption, this supports the study carried out in Venezuela,
where the results indicate that the installation of a KNX programmable system (10,300 BUS devices
installed) allowed a saving of 122,045 euros [23]. Also, in the investigation carried out for a distribution
center of 4000m2 of area; it is concluded that the designed control system, under a strategy of light
compensation with natural light incidence, allows to improve the energy efficiency of the lighting system by
reducing energy consumption by 26%, which translates into savings in economic terms in addition, the KNX
protocol allows reducing the annual energy consumption cost associated with the lighting system,
from S/6,392.65 (20,391.24Kw/h) at S/4,730.56 (15,089.52Kw/h), generating savings of S/.1,662.09
(considering the cost of 1Kw/h in S/0.30) [24]. The results support the research entitled activation of
functions in intelligent buildings using voice commands from mobile devices; where it is pointed out that it
was possible to obtain a functional prototype of the home automation system, which serves as an interface
between users and devices connected to a KNX network, managing to execute voice commands within it.
The tests performed on access through the list of commands showed a system reliability of 99% [25].
Likewise, the research carried out at the José Francisco de Caldas District University, indicates that,
the home automation control system developed has the capacity to reduce the waste of electric energy
produced by the consumption habits of people living in a home, when carrying out the control and
management of your lighting system, with a saving of about 3.75% of the total consumption, which is a
significant value taking into account the variability of the consumption of previous months (sigma=6.83kWh) and the
typified unit of consumption with the home automation system (z=-1.93) [26]. The KNX protocol is 15% more
efficient than the CC-link protocol [27], KNX showed better results than C-Bus, this due to its multiple domotic
applications and specialization in energy efficiency [28].
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5. CONCLUSION
It is concluded that through the implementation of the KNX protocol, energy consumption was
reduced by 82.33%, with annual energy consumption being 23,071.80, equivalent to S/.4,538.22. Likewise, carbon
dioxide (CO2) emissions, one of the main gases involved in climate change, are reduced by 85%, with the current
CO2 value of 5525 Kg. It is concluded that the network architecture of the lighting control system was
designed, using the KNX protocol, whose topology is of tree type and among its devices it has 4 KNX feeder,
1 KNX-IP gateway, line couplers, On-Off controllers, DALI with 4 and 8 outputs respectively, LED panel,
LED downlight, LED spot and PIR motion detectors.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to recognize and thank to the company Bticino Legrand Peru, for their support of
this investigation
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BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS
Omar Freddy Chamorro Atalaya is Electronic engineer, school and enabled with master's
degree in systems engineering, with more than 15 years of continuous experience in the
university chair, in public and private university. Master teacher in the industrial automation
course. Professional experience in industrial network automation projects in drinking water
systems. Author of several scientific articles in journals indexed in Scopus, in different areas,
such as: Supervision and Process Control, Industrial Automation, Solar Panels, Automation of
Fire Systems, implementation of Base Stations of Communications 4G-LTE and Behavioral
Sciences.
Dora Yvonne Arce Santillan is graduated electrician mechanical engineer at the Universidad
Nacional de Lima Sur, colleged and enabled. With studies of Master in Electrical Engineering
with mention in Project Management. Author of several scientific articles in journals indexed in
Scopus, in different areas, such as: Supervision and Process Control, Industrial Automation,
Solar Panels, Automation of Fire Systems and Behavioral Sciences.
Ángel Hernan Quesquen Porras, Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering, specialist
in lighting control systems with KNX technology; He currently works at the company Bticino
Legrand Peru, which proposes solutions for the distribution of energy, for communication,
as well as for the control of light, sound, climate and safety.
... Thus, at the beginning of the path to automation, the first simple machines substituted one form of effort in another form that was managed by the human being [21]. It is important to highlight that through this type of technology it is not only possible to improve productivity but also competitiveness, since an organization achieves competitive advantages to the extent that an organization manages to use available resources in an optimal way [22], [23]. ...
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There are many different ways of managing the lighting. The usage of appropriately selected controlling algorithms allows to increase the functionality, improve the comfort of using and introduces measurable benefits in the form of power consumption savings. In order to precisely apply the proper lighting control algorithms, it is important to know the distribution of light intensity in the room. This article is aimed at comparing different ways of lighting control and contains a control idea based on the KNX system, which is a popular building automation system. It is very useful for the implementation of lighting control criteria.
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Nowadays is very common for homes or buildings in general to have some kind of automation system for the efficient use of energy and for common comfort matters like illumination and blinds & shutters controlling, among others. It can easily add to these systems differentkind of sensors for different uses like: monitoring building structure health, monitoring elder people behavior, etc... In this work we havedeveloped a system that access data from connected KNX sensor devicesand sends it remotely to a MySQL server using IP packets.
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Nowadays, automation systems have a wide use in buildings to make smart applications. Hence, many automation protocols such as 1‐wire, BACnet, C‐Bus, CC‐link, DALI, and KNX are developed. Among these protocols, the KNX protocol is preferred thanks to its some specifications such as easy and fast installation, user‐friendly software, and adaptation to the existing system. With increasing demand to construct KNX‐based smart home systems, developing the KNX‐based automation system simulator for the training of engineering students is required. A KNX simulator should be modular and user‐friendly. In addition, this simulator should have an expansion slot to use it together with different devices compatible with KNX protocol. In this study, a KNX simulator for engineering students training on smart home systems is designed and installed. The modules of simulator and KNX software programming tool ETS are explained. Besides, sample scenarios for engineering students to enhance and realize their projects are given.
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The article presents the test results of the electromagnetic resistance of an intelligent, stationary installation model to pulse interference. The installation model tested was based on the automatic devices of an intelligent building, manufactured by Hager. © 2016, Wydawnictwo SIGMA - N O T Sp. z o.o. All Rights Reserved.
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To transfer control of all data management components of buildings require a system components communicate through a common language. The control system is called KNX. Through the transmission media (twisted pair, radio frequency, power line or IP / Ethernet) KNX, communicate with various devices, both sensors and actuators, to control building management equipment for all applications: lighting, blinds, security systems, energy management, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, signaling and monitoring systems, interfaces to services and building control systems, remote control, measurement, audio / video, etc. All these functions can be controlled, monitored and signaled via a uniform system without the need for additional control centers.