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Libro Reptiles del Caribe/Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean

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Fauna ofídica es una pequeña guía de serpientes que contiene información básica sobre las especies de víboras presentes en el territorio colombiano (descripción, hábitat, distribución) junto con fotografías respectivas complementarias (fichas secundarias). Esta es una publicación independiente del grupo de Facebook Serpientes de Colombia / Fauna ofídica colombiana, construida a partir de registros de los participantes activos, administradores, moderadores y aliados del grupo. Este es un trabajo netamente divulgativo, elaborado como aporte a la conservación y conocimiento de las serpientes de la familia Viperidae distribuidas en Colombia para la comunidad allegada al grupo mencionado anteriormente, por lo cual se incluyen algunas especies(*) con discusiones taxonómicas actuales y se hace énfasis en la temática ilustrativa (fotografías). Todo el material fotográfico ha sido autorizado por los respectivos autores.
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Oreosaurus is one of the two genera extracted from the former Riama sensu lato, which was recently recognized as polyphyletic. Oreosaurus is a small clade (five named and two undescribed species) of montane gymnophthalmid lizards and exhibits an exceptional distributional pattern. Its nominal and undescribed species are discontinuously distributed on the Cordillera de la Costa of Venezuela, the tepuis from the Chimantá massif in Venezuela, the highlands of the island of Trinidad, and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia (SNSM). Herein, we describe the species of Oreosaurus that is endemic to the SNSM. Historically, this species associates with two names that are currently nomina nuda: Proctoporus serranus and P. specularis. Formal nomenclatural recognition of Oreosaurus serranus sp. n. renders specularis a permanently unavailable name for this taxon. Oreosaurus serranus sp. n. is the sister of all remaining congeners, and differs primarily from them in having only one pair of genial scales, as well as a unique pattern of scutellation. We provide an identification key to the species of Oreosaurus.
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Neotropical monkey lizards (Polychrus) are arboreal lizards with compressed bodies, partially fused eyelids and strikingly long, whip-like tails. The eight currently recognized species occur in the lowlands of South and Central America. Based on the largest taxon and character sampling to date, we analyze three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene using Bayesian methods to (1) infer the phylogeny of Polychrus under both concatenated-tree and species-tree methods; (2) identify lineages that could represent putative undescribed species; and (3) estimate divergence times. Our species tree places P. acutirostris as the sister taxon to all other species of Polychrus. While the phylogenetic position of P. gutturosus and P. peruvianus is poorly resolved, P. marmoratus and P. femoralis are strongly supported as sister to P. liogaster and P. jacquelinae, respectively. Recognition of P. auduboni and P. marmoratus sensu stricto as distinct species indicates that the populations of "P. marmoratus" from the Amazon and the Atlantic coast in Brazil represent separate species. Similarly, populations of P. femoralis from the Tumbes region might belong to a cryptic undescribed species. Relative divergence times and published age estimates suggest that the orogeny of the Andes did not play a significant role in the early evolution of Polychrus.
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Two new, possibly parapatric species of Phenacosaurus are described from the Sierra de Perija, Estado Zulia, Venezuela: P. tetarii, larger, at least 85 mm snout-vent length, with heterogeneous squamation on the flanks, closest to P. nicefori but larger in adult size, and P. euskalerriari, small, about 56 mm snout-vent length, with uniform flank squamation, closest to P. orcesi, but with larger flank scales and shorter interparietal.
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Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympat-ric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.
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We infer phylogenetic relationships within Teioidea, a superfamily of Nearctic and Neotropical lizards, using nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analyses relied on parsimony under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment, with length variation (i.e. gaps) treated as evidence and as absence of evidence, and maximum-likelihood under similarity-alignment with gaps as absence of evidence. All analyses produced almost completely resolved trees despite 86% of missing data. Tree-alignment produced the shortest trees, the strict consensus of which is more similar to the maximum-likelihood tree than to any of the other parsimony trees, in terms of both number of clades shared, parsimony cost and likelihood scores. Comparisons of tree costs suggest that the pattern of indels inferred by similarity-alignment drove parsimony analyses on similarity-aligned sequences away from more optimal solutions. All analyses agree in a majority of clades, although they differ from each other in unique ways, suggesting that neither the criterion of optimality, alignment nor treatment of indels alone can explain all differences. Parsimony rejects the monophyly of Gymnophthalmidae due to the position of Alopoglossinae relative to Teiidae, whereas support of Gymnophthalmidae by maximum-likelihood was low. We address various nomenclatural issues, including Gymnophthalmidae Fitzinger, 1826 being an older name than Teiidae Gray, 1827. We recognize three families in the arrangement Alopoglossidae + (Teiidae + Gymnophthalmidae). Within Gymnophthalmidae we recognize Cercosaurinae, Gymnophthalminae, Rhachisaurinae and Riolaminae in the relationship Cercosaurinae + (Rhachisaurinae + (Riolaminae + Gymnophthalminae)). Cercosaurinae is composed of three tribes—Bachiini, Cercosaurini and Ecpleopodini—and Gymnophthalminae is composed of three—Gymnophthalmini, Heterodactylini and Iphisini. Within Teiidae we retain the currently recognized three subfamilies in the arrangement: Callopistinae + (Tupinambinae + Teiinae). We also propose several genus-level changes to restore the monophyly of taxa.
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The arboreal boa Corallus hortulanus has a wide geographic and ecological distribution on the Neotropical mainland and several continental and oceanic islands. Through examination of over 600 specimens of C. hortulanus from throughout its range utilizing characters of scalation, size, color, and pattern, coupled with analysis of mtDNA sequences from several critical areas, it was determined that C. hortulanus is a complex of four species: Corallus hortulanus (Linnaeus) (the Guianas, throughout Amazonia, and into southeastern Brazil), C. ruschenbergerii (Cope) (southern Costa Rica, Panama and associated islands, northern Colombia, northern Venezuela including Isla Margarita, and Trinidad and Tobago), C. cooki Gray (St. Vincent), and C. grenadensis (Barbour) (Grenada Bank).
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A new species of the Anadia bitaeniata group is described. It is a montane (subparamo) counterpart of the lower montane A. pulchella, both of the Santa Marta Moutains, N Colombia, in a situation parallel to A. brevifrontalis (montane) and A. bitaeniata (lower montane) of the Andes of W Venezuela. -from Authors