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Short Note of Equisetum arvense

Authors:
  • International Equisetological Association
  • International Equisetological Association

Abstract

Radoslaw Walkowiak, Marek Nowicki. 2020. Short Note of Equisetum arvense. IEA PAPER 2020 [Editor: Beth Zawada]
Presentation
Presentation &
& Botanical
Botanical Report
Report
Short Note of Equisetum
Short Note of Equisetum arvense
arvense L.
L.
©
©IEA
IEA Collection
Collection of
of Equisetum
Equisetum 2020
2020
Radoslaw
Radoslaw Janusz
Janusz Walkowiak
Walkowiak *
*
Przemysl
Przemysl, Poland, IEA Full Member
, Poland, IEA Full Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [title: radek]
[title: radek]
Marek
Marek Nowicki
Nowicki
Prague
Prague, Czech
, Czech Republic
Republic, IEA
, IEA Full
Full Member
Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [
[title
title: marek]
: marek]
Editor
Editor:
: Beth
Beth Zawada
Zawada
USA, IEA
USA, IEA Full
Full Member
Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [
[title
title:
: beth
beth]
]
*
* Corresponding
Corresponding author
author
This is an
This is an Open Access
Open Access paper distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attri
paper distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
bution
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which perm
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution,
its unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is pr
and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
operly cited.
Cite this article as:
Cite this article as:
Radoslaw
Radoslaw Walkowiak
Walkowiak, Marek
, Marek Nowicki
Nowicki.
. 2020. Short Note
2020. Short Note of
of Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense.
.IEA
IEA PAPER 2020
PAPER 2020
Special thanks to: Beth
Special thanks to: Beth Zawada
Zawada
INTERNATIONAL EQUISETOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
INTERNATIONAL EQUISETOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
EQUISETUM, EQUISETACEAE
EQUISETUM, EQUISETACEAE
Equisetum is the single surviving genus of a class of ancient va
Equisetum is the single surviving genus of a class of ancient vascular plants that
scular plants that
dates back to the mid
dates back to the mid-
-Devonian period (350 + million years ago). Species (no
Devonian period (350 + million years ago). Species (no
hybrids): 15 (18), nearly worldwide. Plants with jointed stems a
hybrids): 15 (18), nearly worldwide. Plants with jointed stems and distinct nodes.
nd distinct nodes.
Leaves small, fused into sheaths, tips remaining free,
Leaves small, fused into sheaths, tips remaining free, toothlike
toothlike. Sporangia borne
. Sporangia borne
on
on peltate
peltate sporophylls
sporophylls aggregated in cones
aggregated in cones.
. Spores green, rather white in hybrids.
Spores green, rather white in hybrids.
Gametophytes green, terrestrial, unisexual, male gametophytes sm
Gametophytes green, terrestrial, unisexual, male gametophytes smaller than
aller than
female.
female.
Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753.
Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753.
f
field
ield horsetail, common horsetail
horsetail, common horsetail
Ancient plant. A species of perennial plant belonging to the fam
Ancient plant. A species of perennial plant belonging to the family
ily
Equisetaceae
Equisetaceae. A cosmopolitan species that has spread throughout the
. A cosmopolitan species that has spread throughout the
world. A valuable medicinal plant and heavy weed.
world. A valuable medicinal plant and heavy weed.
E
Equisetum
quisetum arvense
arvense L.
L.
©
©IEA,
IEA, Hungary
Hungary
Aerial
Aerial stems
stems dimorphic
dimorphic;
; vegetative
vegetative stems
stems green
green,
, branched
branched, 2
, 2-
-60(100)
60(100)
cm;
cm; hollow
hollow center
center 1/3
1/3-
-2/3
2/3 stem
stem diam
diam.
. Sheaths
Sheaths squarish
squarish in
in face
face view
view,
,
2
2-
-5(10)
5(10) ×
×2
2-
-5(9) mm;
5(9) mm; teeth
teeth dark
dark, 4
, 4-
-14,
14, narrow
narrow, 1
, 1-
-3.5 mm,
3.5 mm, often
often
cohering
cohering in
in pairs
pairs.
. Branches
Branches in
in regular
regular whorls
whorls,
, ascending
ascending,
, solid
solid;
; ridges
ridges 3
3-
-
4;
4; valleys
valleys channeled
channeled; 1st
; 1st internode
internode of
of each
each branch
branch longer
longer than
than
subtending
subtending stem
stem sheath
sheath;
; sheath
sheath teeth
teeth attenuate
attenuate.
. Fertile
Fertile stems
stems
brown
brown,
, lacking
lacking stomates
stomates,
, unbranched
unbranched,
, shorter
shorter than
than vegetative
vegetative stems
stems,
,
with
with larger
larger sheaths
sheaths,
, fleshy
fleshy,
, ephemeral
ephemeral. 2 n =
. 2 n =ca
ca. 216.
. 216. Cones
Cones maturing
maturing
in
in early
early spring
spring.
. Roadsides
Roadsides,
, riverbanks
riverbanks,
, fields
fields,
, marshes
marshes,
, pastures
pastures,
,
tundra.
tundra. Cones maturing in early spring
Cones maturing in early spring. N
. Nearly worldwide
early worldwide.
.
Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense L. (Field horsetail) occurs throughout the world
L. (Field horsetail) occurs throughout the world
and is widely distributed on most types of soil. It is a weed of
and is widely distributed on most types of soil. It is a weed of
horticultural importance being a particular problem in perennial
horticultural importance being a particular problem in perennial crops
crops
and in nursery stock. It grows strongly in arable soils and gras
and in nursery stock. It grows strongly in arable soils and grassland
sland
and waste land. It is a serious weed on damp soils. Field horset
and waste land. It is a serious weed on damp soils. Field horsetail has
ail has
a preference for stone free, abandoned sites. Extracts of horset
a preference for stone free, abandoned sites. Extracts of horsetail
ail
make an effective fungicide. It accumulate heavy metals such as
make an effective fungicide. It accumulate heavy metals such as
cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.
Field horsetail has the ability to accumulate gold in its tissue
Field horsetail has the ability to accumulate gold in its tissues, 4.5
s, 4.5
ounces per ton of fresh plant material have been recorded.
ounces per ton of fresh plant material have been recorded.
Holm L G,
Holm L G, Plucknett
Plucknett D L,
D L, Pancho
Pancho J V,
J V, Hergerger
Hergerger J P (1977). The World
J P (1977). The World
s Worst
s Worst Weeds, distribution
Weeds, distribution
and biology. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.
and biology. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Field horsetail is poisonous both in the green state and dried i
Field horsetail is poisonous both in the green state and dried in hay
n hay
due to an enzyme present in the tissues. Is toxic to sheep, catt
due to an enzyme present in the tissues. Is toxic to sheep, cattle and
le and
horses. Horses are particularly sensitive. Field horsetail is
horses. Horses are particularly sensitive. Field horsetail is
rhizomatous perennial, dimorphic, producing non
rhizomatous perennial, dimorphic, producing non-
-photosynthetic spore
photosynthetic spore-
-
bearing fertile stems in March
bearing fertile stems in March-
-April followed by green vegetative
April followed by green vegetative
stems in late spring. Spores germinate quickly on moist substrat
stems in late spring. Spores germinate quickly on moist substrates to
es to
produce male and female gametophytes that mature only within a
produce male and female gametophytes that mature only within a
narrow range of conditions. Spores lose viability rapidly. The
narrow range of conditions. Spores lose viability rapidly. The
gametophytes are susceptible to desiccation and few achieve
gametophytes are susceptible to desiccation and few achieve
fertilisation
fertilisation. Maximum vegetative growth occurs in July. Dry matter
. Maximum vegetative growth occurs in July. Dry matter
accumulation in the rhizomes may continue until October and then
accumulation in the rhizomes may continue until October and then
decline through the winter. The rhizome system can be extensive
decline through the winter. The rhizome system can be extensive
both horizontally and vertically and may reach over 1.5/2 m deep
both horizontally and vertically and may reach over 1.5/2 m deep
depending on substrate and water table level. The underground
depending on substrate and water table level. The underground
rhizome tips are covered with scale
rhizome tips are covered with scale-
-like leaf sheaths. Roots arise at
like leaf sheaths. Roots arise at
the nodes of the rhizomes. Tubers are also produced at the nodes
the nodes of the rhizomes. Tubers are also produced at the nodes of
of
the rhizomes. Rhizomes may produce numerous tubers. Once detache
the rhizomes. Rhizomes may produce numerous tubers. Once detached,
d,
the tubers can grow into independent plants. Currently no biolog
the tubers can grow into independent plants. Currently no biological
ical
agents useful in combating field horsetail.
agents useful in combating field horsetail.
It has been calculated that Field horsetail has the potential to
It has been calculated that Field horsetail has the potential to
infest a one hectare area within 6 years of introduction.
infest a one hectare area within 6 years of introduction.
Cloutier
Cloutier D & Watson A K (1985). Growth and regeneration of field horseta
D & Watson A K (1985). Growth and regeneration of field horsetail
il (Equisetum
(Equisetum arvense
arvense).
).
Weed Science 33, 358
Weed Science 33, 358-
-365.
365.
In growth room tests, a 10 cm length of rhizome has produced a
In growth room tests, a 10 cm length of rhizome has produced a
total of 64 m of rhizome in 1 year. Tubers germinate when separa
total of 64 m of rhizome in 1 year. Tubers germinate when separated
ted
from the rhizome system and can remain viable for long periods i
from the rhizome system and can remain viable for long periods in soil.
n soil.
Cody W J & Wagner V (1981). The biology of Canadian weeds. 49. E
Cody W J & Wagner V (1981). The biology of Canadian weeds. 49. Equisetum
quisetum arvense
arvense L. Canadian
L. Canadian
Journal of Plant Science 61, 123
Journal of Plant Science 61, 123-
-133.
133.
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Czechia
Czechia
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Belarus
Belarus
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
E.
E. arvense
arvense L.
L.
Poland
Poland
species similar to E.
species similar to E. arvense
arvense L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
E.
E. palustre
palustre L.,
L.,
similar to E.
similar to E. arvense
arvense L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
E.
E. pratense
pratense Ehrh
Ehrh.,
.,
similar to E.
similar to E. arvense
arvense L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
E.
E. telmateia
telmateia Ehrh
Ehrh.,
.,
similar to E.
similar to E. arvense
arvense L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
Equisetum fluviatile L. em. Ehrh.
Equisetum fluviatile L. em. Ehrh.,
,
similar to E.
similar to E. arvense
arvense L.,
L.,
often misidentified
often misidentified
LITERATURE :
LITERATURE :
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J.,
R. J., Nowicki
Nowicki M.,
M., Short
Short Notes
Notes of
of Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense, IEA
, IEA Paper
Paper 2018
2018
Husby
Husby Ch
Ch. E.,
. E., Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J.,
R. J., An
An Introduction
Introduction to
to the
the Genus
Genus Equisetum
Equisetum (
(Horsetail
Horsetail)
) and
and the
the Class
Class
Equisetopsida
Equisetopsida (
(Sphenopsida
Sphenopsida) as a
) as a whole
whole, IEA
, IEA Paper
Paper 2012
2012
Hauke
Hauke, R. L. 1966, A
, R. L. 1966, A systematic
systematic study
study of
of Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense, Nova
, Nova Hedwigia
Hedwigia 13: 81
13: 81-
-109
109
Hauke
Hauke, R. L. 1978, A
, R. L. 1978, A taxonomic
taxonomic monograph
monograph of
of Equisetum
Equisetum subgenus
subgenus Equisetum
Equisetum, Nova
, Nova Hedwigia
Hedwigia
30: 385
30: 385
455
455
Maarten
Maarten J M
J M Christenhusz
Christenhusz,
, Lois
Lois Bangiolo
Bangiolo,
, Mark
Mark W
W Chase
Chase,
, Michael
Michael F
F Fay
Fay,
, Chad
Chad Husby
Husby,
, Marika
Marika
Witkus
Witkus, Juan
, Juan Viruel
Viruel,
, Phylogenetics
Phylogenetics,
, classification
classification and
and typification
typification of
of extant
extant horsetails
horsetails (
(Equisetum
Equisetum,
,
Equisetaceae
Equisetaceae),
), Botanical
Botanical Journal
Journal of
of the
the Linnean
Linnean Society
Society,
, Volume
Volume 189,
189, Issue
Issue 4,
4, April
April 2019,
2019, Pages
Pages
311
311
352
352
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J., A
R. J., A Taxonomic
Taxonomic Study
Study of
of the
the Genus
Genus Equisetum
Equisetum (
(Horsetail
Horsetail), IEA
), IEA Paper
Paper 2011
2011
Walkowiak
Walkowiak R. J.,
R. J., Equisetum
Equisetum Taxonomy
Taxonomy, IEA
, IEA Paper
Paper 2008,
2008, Version
Version of
of 2008
2008-
-10
10-
-04,
04, Retrieved
Retrieved 2011
2011-
-
11
11-
-07
07
WEED LITERATURE :
WEED LITERATURE :
Copson
Copson P J & Roberts H A (1991). Garden weeds
P J & Roberts H A (1991). Garden weeds
a survey in Warwickshire.
a survey in Warwickshire.
Professional Horticulture
Professional Horticulture
Dale H M, Harrison P J, Thomson G W (1965). Weeds as indicators
Dale H M, Harrison P J, Thomson G W (1965). Weeds as indicators of physical
of physical
characteristics in abandoned pastures. Canadian Journal of Botan
characteristics in abandoned pastures. Canadian Journal of Botany
y
Frankton C & Mulligan G A (1970). Weeds of Canada. Publication 9
Frankton C & Mulligan G A (1970). Weeds of Canada. Publication 948, Canada
48, Canada
Department of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture
Grime J P, Hodgson J G, Hunt R (1988). Comparative Plant Ecology
Grime J P, Hodgson J G, Hunt R (1988). Comparative Plant Ecology,
, Unwin
Unwin
Hyman Ltd, London, UK
Hyman Ltd, London, UK
H
Hå
åkansson
kansson S (2003). Weeds and weed management on arable land. An ecologic
S (2003). Weeds and weed management on arable land. An ecological
al
approach. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, UK
approach. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, UK
Salisbury E (1962). The biology of garden weeds. Part II. Journa
Salisbury E (1962). The biology of garden weeds. Part II. Journal of the Royal
l of the Royal
Horticultural Society
Horticultural Society
Thurston J M (1976). Weeds in cereals in relation to agricultura
Thurston J M (1976). Weeds in cereals in relation to agricultural practices. Annals
l practices. Annals
of Applied Biology
of Applied Biology
Willis S J (1954). Weed control in farm and garden. Vinton & Com
Willis S J (1954). Weed control in farm and garden. Vinton & Company Ltd,
pany Ltd,
London, UK
London, UK
Radoslaw
Radoslaw Janusz
Janusz Walkowiak
Walkowiak *
*
master
master
s
sdegree
degree in
in biology
biology and
and honorary
honorary doctor
doctor in
in botany
botany
Przemysl
Przemysl,
, Poland
Poland, IEA
, IEA Full
Full Member
Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [
[title
title: radek]
: radek]
Marek
Marek Nowicki
Nowicki
master
master
s
sdegree
degree in
in geography
geography,
, geology
geology
Prague
Prague, Czech
, Czech Republic
Republic, IEA
, IEA Full
Full Member
Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [
[title
title: marek]
: marek]
-
-
Editor: Beth
Editor: Beth Zawada
Zawada
MSc
MSc,
, Biology
Biology,
, USA, IEA Full Member
USA, IEA Full Member
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com [title:
[title: beth
beth]
]
-
-
Equisetum
Equisetum arvense
arvense L.
L. ©
©Rados
Radosl
la
aw J.
w J. Walkowiak
Walkowiak, Marek
, Marek Nowicki
Nowicki
©
©IEA 20
IEA 2020
20
Presentation & Botanical Report
Presentation & Botanical Report
*
* Corresponding
Corresponding author
author
Contact
Contact ©
©IEA 2020
IEA 2020
iea.wep@gmail.com
iea.wep@gmail.com
International
International Equisetological
Equisetological Association, Equisetum,
Association, Equisetum, Equisetaceae
Equisetaceae
(c) IEA is a non profit membership organization founded in 2008
(c) IEA is a non profit membership organization founded in 2008 and dedicated to the public
and dedicated to the public
engagement in scientific research and education of Equisetum Bio
engagement in scientific research and education of Equisetum Biology (
logy (Equisetology
Equisetology)
)
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