ArticlePDF Available

Parenting Styles and Parent-Adolescent Relationship in the Indian Context

  • Aryabhatta College, University of Delhi

Abstract and Figures

The objective of the study was to understand the experience of adolescents of the parent-adolescent relationship and how it differed based on different parenting styles employed by the parents in the contemporary Indian context. The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved identifying parenting styles associated with higher resilience in adolescents. A sample of 60 school going adolescents in New Delhi was selected. Authoritative and Authoritarian parenting styles are associated with higher resilience and negligent parenting style is associated with lower resilience. In the second phase of the study, one participant from each parenting style were asked to describe the parent-adolescent relationship. The narratives were analysed using the grounded theory method and the parent-adolescent relationship was found to have three central aspects-adolescent's perception of parental behaviours, parental expectation, and communication between parent and adolescent which differed on the basis of different parenting styles.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 38
Parenting Styles and Parent-Adolescent Relationship in the
Indian Context
Muskan Datta* & Ms. Thangbiakching**
*Graduate Student, Psychology Department, Aryabhatta College, University of Delhi 110021
**Assistant Professor, Psychology Department, Aryabhatta College, University of Delhi 110021
The objective of the study was to understand the experience of adolescents of the parent-
adolescent relationship and how it differed based on different parenting styles employed by
the parents in the contemporary Indian context. The study was carried out in two phases. The
first phase involved identifying parenting styles associated with higher resilience in
adolescents. A sample of 60 school going adolescents in New Delhi was selected.
Authoritative and Authoritarian parenting styles are associated with higher resilience and
negligent parenting style is associated with lower resilience. In the second phase of the study,
one participant from each parenting style were asked to describe the parent- adolescent
relationship. The narratives were analysed using the grounded theory method and the parent-
adolescent relationship was found to have three central aspects- adolescent’s perception of
parental behaviours, parental expectation, and communication between parent and
adolescent which differed on the basis of different parenting styles.
KEYWORDS: Parenting styles, parent- adolescent relationship, resilience, adolescents
Parenting is a dynamic concept and involves the intricacies of child rearing behaviours and
the emotional climate that the parents provide to their children. It is an important concept of
developmental psychology as it plays a vital role in the child’s development. Parents, or a
primary care-giver, are the first experience of socialization for any individual. The
importance of this initial and overarching experiences of an individual with the parents have
time and again been highlighted by several researches (eg. Weiten, 2012;Williams, 2012;
Haun, Rekers & Tomasello, 2014;Sherwin-White, 2017). The present study attempts to
identify the relation between resilience and parenting styles, and understand the underlying
nature of the consequences of adoption of any one particular styles, by the parent, on the
parent- adolescent relationship in the Indian context.
Parenting Styles
Parenting styles are groups of specific strategies involvingattitudes and behaviours which are
directly observable, that parents employ in the process of rearing their children. Baumrind
(1966) grouped parenting styles into- permissive, authoritarian and authoritative. Maccoby
and Martin (1983) expanded on Baumrind’s typology by introducing two dimensions
underlying parental behaviours which are- parental responsiveness and parental control.
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 39
Authoritative parenting style is characterized as high in responsiveness and control.
Authoritative parents behave logically and encourage the child’s autonomy while also
expecting discipline. They provide children with clear and defined rules and take consistent
disciplinary actions along with imparting support and warmth. It is associated with positive
outcomes for the child like better self-image (Fruiht, 2019), higher self- esteem (Pinquart &
Gerke, 2019), and academic and socio- emotional school readiness in adolescents (Kim et al.,
Authoritarian parenting style is characterized as low in responsiveness but high in control.
Authoritarian parents believe in following the set conventions and conforming to the norms
of the society. They seldom provide the child with explanations or opportunities for verbal
give and take. It is associated with aggression, low quality of peer relationships, low social
competence and low academic achievement (Chen et al., 1997; Darling, 1999). This may lead
to development of feelings of insecurity and low self-confidence (Tripathi & Jadon, 2017;
Wild, 2019).
Indulgent parenting style is characterised by low control and high responsiveness. Indulgent
parents are acceptant and affirmative of the child’s wishes. The child is given opportunities
for self- regulation and not encouraged to follow externally defined conventions. Indulgent
parents do not set strict disciplinary standards. Positive outcomes of indulgent parenting
include better school performance, higher self-esteem, fewer instances of drug use and
personal difficulties in children (Calafat et al., 2014).
Negligent parenting style is characterized as low in responsiveness and control. Negligent
parents have an inattentive approach towards parenting show little warmth but express no
indications of expectations from the child. They seldom assign tasks and chores to the
children and are relatively uninvolved in their children's lives (Odame- Mensah & Gyimah,
2018). This may lead to extreme autonomy for the child (Llorca- Mestre et al., 2017).
Adolescents of negligent parents’ experience difficulty with self- regulation and show
impulsive behaviour (Kopko, 2007).
Resilience is an individual’s ability to maintain an optimal level of functioning in the face of
adversity and conflict and can be understood in terms of how an individual comes back to a
normal state of mind after coping from a difficult or threatening situation. It culminates in the
ability to have a positive psychological reaction to an experience that may be deemed
stressful (Ryff & Singer, 2003; Baumgardner, 2014; Sikand, 2019).
The individual, the family, and the society are domains of an individual’s life that promote
resilience (Berk, 2017). Individuals located in micro-system of adolescents’ social
environment (i.e. family and educational institutes) provide opportunities of development of
resilience. Parenting style is an important determinant of resilience (Masten & Reed, 2002).
Parents reinforce self- regulation, set limits to expression and teach expression of emotions in
socially acceptant ways through socialisation. Parental support is important because it is
perceived as consistent and unconditional (Pierce et al., 1996; Huver et al., 2010).
Authoritative parenting style is associated with higher resilience in adolescents (Ritter, 2005;
Kritzas, 2005; Mathibe, 2015; Firoze & Sathar, 2018; Nesrin & Mathai, 2018). A warm and
supportive environment and a focus on child’s growth, characteristic of authoritative
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 40
parenting, acts as a shield against taxing experiences. Parental acceptance significantly
impacts development of resilience (Zakeri, Jowkar & Razmjoee, 2010). Parental support
promotes development of resilience as it positively impacts development of adolescents’
internal resources (Wong, 2008; Dawson & Pooley, 2013). Through resilience, adolescents
focus on the protective resources which helps in overcoming the challenge at hand (Fergus
and Zimmerman, 2005).
Parent-Adolescent Relationship
Adolescence is a critical stage of development as it involves transition from childhood
dependence on parents to adulthood and a desire for independence. The parent-child
relationship and the family environment act as primary sources of protection and
development (Masten & Palmer, 2019).Intimate relationship with either the parent who is
warm, has appropriately high acceptations, monitors child’s activities, and a safe and ordered
home environment promotes resilience in children and provides emotional and material
resources for the growing adolescent. When parenting is perceived as positive, adolescents
are less likely to indulge in delinquent and risky behaviours (Ungar, 2004; Coley, Morris &
Hernandez, 2004; Hoeve et al., 2009), and have greater well- being (Pearson & Wilkinson,
2013). Negative perception of parent- adolescent relationship is associated with problem
behaviours like drug use (Farell & White, 1998), parent- adolescent conflict, and risk for
depression (Chai, Kwok & Gu, 2018).
Indian Beliefs of Parenting
In India, family is the central unit of life and plays a major role in socialisation of children.
There lays much emphasis on the mother’s role when it comes to parenting. In addition to
that, the family environment is as important as the mother’s role in parenting of the child.
While joint families are prevalent in rural areas, urban households have become nuclear
which has led to evolution of traditionally authoritarian parenting to more acceptant parenting
strategies. Ideas of motherhood and fatherhood have renewed as family structures have
undergone changes. The effect of parenting styles is more or less similar across cultures.
Authoritative parenting is associated with positive outcomes, authoritarian and negligent
parenting is associated with negative outcomes, and indulgent parenting is associated with
mixed outcomes for adolescents (Sathiya, Manohari & Vijaya, 2019).
Present Study
Parenting is a dynamic concept and every generation utilises different child rearing
techniques. With increasing global interaction and urbanisation, the modern Indian family is
faced with the challenge of keeping up with the fast-paced change. Previous research suffers
from limitations of either using only descriptive data or using statistical data to draw
conclusions about aspects of parenting and its outcomes, and focuses mostly on western
family structures. South-Asian perspective and views on parenting have not been widely
examined. The present study focuses on the perceptions of adolescents regarding the key
dimensions of the parentadolescent relationships in the Indian context, and the influence of
perceived parenting style on a developmental outcome like resilience.
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 41
The present study aimed to understand which parenting styles are associated with better
developmental outcome, such as resilience in adolescents, and how experiences of
adolescents and the parent-adolescent relationship differs based on different parenting styles.
Research Design
The study follows a mixed research design. In the first phase of the study, a quantitative
approach is used to determine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and degree
of resilience in adolescents. It is hypothesised that there will be a significant difference in the
level of resilience in adolescents who perceive their parents to have different parenting styles.
This data is analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. In the second phase of the study, a
qualitative approach is used in order to gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics
underlying the parent- adolescent relationship and how it differs based on parenting styles.
For the purpose of integrating qualitative method, grounded theory is incorporated as a tool
for analysis.
The participants of the study are higher secondary school children belonging to a study centre
in South Delhi. The participants are in the age group of 15-18 years, and belong to different
types of families and ethnicities. The sample size is 60 and included adolescents of all
genders. For the qualitative study, one participant each from the four groups of parenting
styles was chosen for a short interview. The participants interviewed for authoritative,
authoritarian, and indulgent parenting styles were female students, while the participant
interviewed for negligent parenting style was a male student. Data collected was analysed
through Grounded Theory.
The Scale of Parenting Style by Gafoor and Kurukkan (2014), and Resilience Scale by
Wagnild and Young (1993) were employed to identify the parenting styles and level of
resilience respectively. The former scale measures perceived parenting styles of higher
secondary school students. There are 38 items which measure parental responsiveness and
parental control. The criterion validity coefficient of the scale is 0.80 for responsiveness and
0.76 for control subscales. The reliability of the scale was established by test-retest method
after an interval of one week. The test-retest coefficient of reliability of responsiveness
variable in the scale is 0.81 and for control it is 0.83. The later scale, that is, Resilience
Scale,is a self-report questionnaire that identifies the degree of resilience in an individual
with 25 items. Wagnild and young (1993) reported reliability coefficient of .91 for the scale
indicating that the resilience scale is reliable. Oladipo and Idemudia (2015) reported that the
scale is a valid measure of resilience to be used in scientific settings.
A semi structured interview was conducted to understand the adolescents’ perspectives.
Interview took place at a comfortable setting and mostly open ended questions were asked.
The following questions were predominantly asked, following up with request to clarify or
give their reasoning for their response-
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 42
Do your parents have expectations when it comes to your grades or marks?
How do they react or respond when your performance in academics may not be at
par with their expectations?
Do you think your parents let you make independent decisions?
Do you have strict curfews and do you perceive these as restrictions?
Do you think your parents are mostly available for you?
Do you think they value your opinions and choices?
How do they respond when your actions are contradictory of their wishes?
The study took place in two phases. First phase followed a quantitative approach. A study
centre in New Delhi was chosen to select the sample for the study. The researcher visited the
study centre to have face-to-face meetings with the teachers. The purpose and the process
were explained to the teachers who helped with the data collection. The participants were
explained the process and given consent forms to fill. For data collection, participants
assembled in their classes and each student was given the two questionnaires. Participants
completed the questionnaires and handed them after completion. They were informed of
confidentiality of the data. The scores obtained on the resilience and parenting scales were
analysed using one-way ANOVA test.
Second phase followed a qualitative approach. Semi structured interview was utilised to
gather data. One participant each from the four groups of parenting styles was selected for an
interview. The interview involved open ended questions. Data collected from these
interviews was analysed using the grounded theory method. A semi-structured interview was
used which allows interviewees to answer preset open questions which were supplemented by
follow-up questions and probes. The interview was then transcribed and analysed following
Grounded Theory. The idea behind using Grounded Theory was to development a theory
which consists of categories which are related to each other (Ruppel & Mey, 2017). The
subjective data were analysed using comparisons to conceptualize and form an understanding
of the data (Charmaz & Belgrave, 2018).
Parenting Styles and Degree of Resilience in Adolescents
One-Way ANOVA Test Result
Table 1. Result for one way ANOVA test between the perceived parenting styles- Indulgent,
Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Negligent on resilience in adolescents
Sum of squares
Mean square
F value
Between groups
Within groups
*significant at 0.05 level
Table 1 shows that significant difference exists in the degree of resilience in adolescents on
the basis of different parenting styles. Post- hoc analysis indicated that higher resilience is
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 43
associated with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles,and lower resilience is
associated with negligent parenting style.
Parent-Adolescent Relationship
Three core aspects of parent-adolescent relationship are found, and these differed on the basis
of four parenting styles. Figure 1 shows the three aspects of parent-adolescent relationship.
Figure 1. Aspects of parent-adolescent relationship
The parents have expectations from children. Parental expectations help nurture the
adolescent’s sense of self-esteem but unrealistically high or low expectations can have a
negative effect on the adolescent’s personality and self-worth. Parental expectations translate
to parental behaviour and these behaviours cater to the needs of the developing adolescent.
The adolescent’s perception of parental response to her/ his needs, demands, and actions form
the adolescent’s understanding of how available, acceptant, and autonomy granting parents
are. It gives the adolescent an idea of what is positively and negatively viewed by the parents.
Quality of communication between the parent and adolescent forms the basis and the nature
of the parent-adolescent relationship. This two- way communication places equal importance
to the adolescent’s and parents’ expression of emotions and sharing of feelings.
Table 2. Aspects of the parent- adolescent relationship for different parenting styles.
Parenting style
Aspects of parent-adolescent
Exemplar quote
The parental expectations are
rational and explained.
“expectations are only those that
I set up for
myself...expectations do not
have any negative connotations”
The adolescent feels supported and
“I have proved that I am worth
this…I am capable...decisions
are the ones that are better and
they have seen that I am capable
of making independent
decisions respect my
opinions and choices”
The adolescent can freely and openly
communicate with the parents
“I am comfortable in sharing
my feelings with them because
they are always there…I don’t
have to plead to them or ask for
their attention”
The parents are autonomy granting
but have set limits keeping in mind
“do not express clear
expectations in academics…I
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 44
the societal standards.
should get good marks…they
ask for a respectable
percentage…they do (let me
make independent decisions)
The adolescent is unable to express
herself full and feels judged for her
“I used to feel restricted… I’ve
gotten used to it…“I do things
that are very stupid…they
become very disappointed with
The adolescent is emotionally distant
from one of her parents and has
difficulty in opening up.
“I don’t really like to share
feelings and be open with
The parent subtly communicates
expectations and they are autonomy
“…do have certain expectations
but they are not very strict…it’s
my independent decision”
The adolescent self- regulates, sets
her own goals, works at her own
pace, and feels supported.
“they are very motivating and
supportive… it’s not the end of
the world”
Parent- adolescent communication is
warm and open.
“They are always there to talk. I
am comfortable in sharing my
feelings with them. They are
always there to guide me and
listen to me and also give
suggestions. They are always
there when I need them”
The parental expectations are not
defined and explained to the
“They never scold…I don’t
have any curfews…they
generally do buy what I tell
The parents seem distant and
emotionally unavailable to the
“I only share things that are
academics related but I don’t
feel comfortable in sharing my
feelings with them”
The adolescent does not feel
comfortable in sharing emotions with
“I don’t think they will
understand me…I don’t think
they ever listen to me”.
Table 2 shows how adolescents perceive parental behaviours and expectations associated
with the parenting styles employed by their parents.
Authoritative Parenting Style
Authoritative parents set academic and social expectations which are perceived as rational
and reasonable by the adolescent. These expectations are not explicitly communicated but
subtly projected by behaviour. The parents provide the adolescent appropriate resources and
support. The adolescent feels confident to make her own decisions. They express
disappointment with adolescent’s behaviours when necessary, but in a subtle way that does
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 45
not qualify for a disagreement within the family. There is easy and open communication
between parents and adolescent.
Authoritarian Parenting Style
Authoritarian parents explicitly communicate strict limits to the adolescent’s behaviour but
the adolescent has gotten used to these. The expectations are perceived as rigid by the
adolescent and are perceived positively. Expectations are set, keeping in mind the societal
standards. In some situations, the adolescent feels uncomfortable and judged for her actions.
Authoritarian parents communicate expectations but do not provide the child with rational
explanations for these. The adolescent is hesitant is sharing her feeling with the parents.
Indulgent Parenting Style
Indulgent parents are autonomy granting. They do have certain expectations from the child,
but they subtly express those expectations rather than being direct. They are warm and have
struck a balance between the adolescent and the parent, and there is equality in
communication. The parents are encouraging and the adolescent feels supported. They are
responsive to the child’s needs but have not been consistent in enforcing boundaries.
Indulgent parents use transparency in communication and establish democracy in the
Negligent Parenting Style
Negligent parents do have some expectations and demands, but they are largely emotionally
unavailable to the adolescent. The parents’ responds to the child’s demands is not neglectful
but it does notgenerate feelings of acceptance in the child. Emotional detachment is a central
theme. Negligent parents communicate their expectations, but they are not strict in their
implementation. They do not scold the child and do not specify curfews;in-spite
ofthephysical, or emotional freedom provided by the parents, the child finds it difficult to
open up to the parents.
Authoritative Parenting Style and Resilience
Authoritative parenting style is associated with high parental responsiveness and control.
There is a greater level of emotional adjustment in adolescents of authoritative parents and an
ability to better deal with challenges in the environment (Ferguson & Zimmerman, 2015).
This is amplified by the involvement of parents in the adolescents’ activities, and imparting
clear standards for them (Darling, 1999). Warm and supportive parenting strategies supports
development of resilience in adolescents (Darling, 1999; Zakeri et al., 2010; Nesrin &
Mathai, 2018). They combine reasoned control with support and concern, whilst setting firm
limits and encouraging verbal exchange between the parent and child (Shucksmith et al.,
1995). These behaviours lead to development of resilience in adolescents.
Authoritarian Parenting Style and Resilience
Authoritarian parenting is characterised with low warmth and high control which leads to
high expectations, and less feedback and nurturance on the parents’ part. Higher resilience in
adolescents who have grown up in authoritarian households is believed to have its genesis in
the adolescent’s experience of a higher degree of control and directive behaviour in their
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 46
lives. This leads to greater resilience when coping with stressful environmental conditions.
Authoritarian parenting style also leads to development of better emotion-focused coping
strategies in adolescents (Kristaz & Grobler, 2009).
The Indian Context
As India has a collectivistic culture, authoritarian parenting is normative and is not viewed in
a negative light (Nesrin & Mathai, 2018). Authoritarian parenting in a collectivistic culture
does not suggest a lesser parental concern towards the children. It does not indicate harmful
parenting practices to the extent to which it is perceived harmful in individualistic cultures.
This sheds light to how parental control is perceived as normative and as a positive aspect of
parenting in some cultures, and it has less detrimental effect on the child’s development as it
is not considered as rejecting or unaffectionate. The Indian beliefs on parenting puts emphasis
on the parents’ role in the behavioural regulation of the child; which is associated with high
parental control. The child’s behaviour needs to be person and context sensitive, and the
parental beliefs on autonomy are also situation specific (Tuli, 2012). Authoritarian parenting
style has different cultural meanings for Asians and leads to better social adjustment (Ang &
Goh, 2006).
Aspects of Parent- Adolescent Relationship
The adolescents’ narratives of the parent-adolescent relationship were analysed and three
important aspects of the relationship were identified.
Parental Expectations for the Adolescents’ Behaviour
The parents communicate the expectations and limits, within which the adolescent expresses
him/her-self through actions and thoughts. Providing adolescents with consistent limits helps
them to feel safe and secure,and teaches them self-control techniques and taking
responsibility for their behaviour by allowing the experience of consequences of their choices
and decisions. Expectations of authoritative and indulgent parents were perceived as rational.
Parental expectations are associated with positive developmental outcomes in adolescents
(Bodovski, 2012; Ma, Siu & Tse, 2018). Indulgent parents do not reinforce strict rules in the
household which may deprive the adolescents and parents the opportunities to debate and
negotiate appropriate boundaries, which in turn can lead the adolescent to question legitimacy
of parental authority (Bi et al., 2018). Authoritarian parents consider societal standards when
setting expectations but were perceived positively by the adolescent.Authoritarian control can
be perceived positively if it is considered as legitimate by the child (Smetana,
2017).Negligent parents are unclear and have ambiguous expectations for the adolescent.
Adolescent’s Perception of Parental Behaviours
The parent’s reactions to adolescents’ behaviour form the adolescents’ understanding of how
available, acceptant and autonomy granting his parents are. Authoritative parenting is the
most beneficial to adolescents, with regard to fostering healthy development of autonomy
(Baumrind, 1991). Emotional availability and parental support are associated with high self-
esteem in adolescents (Whitebeck et al., 1991; Babore et al., 2016). Adolescents who
experience higher emotional attachment from their parents demonstrate higher emotional
control challenging situations. Negative appraisal of the adolescents’ behaviour by parents,
associated with authoritarian parenting can result in low levels of self-esteem in the child
(Pierce & Wardle, 1993). Indulgent parents give the adolescents opportunities for self-
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 47
regulation which is the ability to intentionally control behaviour to achieve specific goals
helps children concentrate in school and behave appropriately in social situations (Liu et al.,
2018). Emotional detachment, associated with negligent parents leads to negative perceptions
of parental acceptance and low self- perceived lovability (Ryan & Lynch, 1989).
The Indian belief of providing independence to the child seem to be strongest for
authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. In the aspect of autonomy granting, indulgent
parenting is the closest to authoritative parenting, and just as protective against risky
behaviour (Tuli & Chouwdhary, 2008; Calafet et al., 2014).
Relationships between parents and their children are greatly improved when there is effective
communication taking place (Zolten & Long, 2006). The quality of communication between
authoritative parents and the adolescent is good which leads to adolescent-parent cohesion
and lower conflict, andgreater disclosure of information to parents (Sorkhabi & Middaugh,
2014; Pinquart & Kauser, 2018). Authoritarian parents’ use of coercive assertion can be
arbitrary, dominating, and status oriented and take the form of verbal hostility, harsh
discipline, and psychological control which reduces quality of communication. Indulgent
parents tend to usetransparency and equality in how they communicated, which is perceived
positively by the adolescent. Negligent parents were perceived as emotionally unavailable
which lead to poor communication between parents and the adolescent. Healthy parent-
adolescent communication acts as a protective factor for adolescents at risk of mental health
problems, while negative parent-adolescent relationship acts as a risk factor (Ochoa, Lopez &
Emler, 2007).
Implications of Adolescence as a Developmental Stage
During adolescence, parents show differential degrees of control on different aspects of the
adolescent’s life to allow adolescent identity formation, and prevent delinquency and
problematic behaviours (Fagan, 2013). Parent-adolescent relationships tend to become more
egalitarian during adolescence, and parents perceived by adolescents as powerful are now
viewed as supportive, as the relationship becomes more symmetrical (Meeus, 2016). As the
parent-adolescent relationship moves towards equality as the adolescent is provided more
autonomy which leads to formation of individual identity.
The data was based on self-reports of the adolescents, and examined only the adolescents’
perspectives. The parenting style of the parents were studied, and not of the father and mother
as individuals. It would have helped in examining the differences in parenting strategies
adopted by the mothers and the fathers. The sample studied consisted of only school going
adolescents who were enrolled in an after-school study program. The generalizability of the
results is limited by the small sample size for the quantitative study. Another limitation is that
the interviews were conducted on only one participant for each parenting style, and the
queries did not focus on parent-adolescent conflicts which are frequent and worthy of being
examined as an aspect of the parent-adolescent relationship.
A future direction would be individually examining the mothers’ and fathers’ parenting
styles, and examining if there exist differences in the parenting strategies adopted by them,
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 48
and if these differences influence adolescent development. Discrepancies in the parents’ and
adolescents’ perception of the parent-adolescent relationship can also be a point of
examination. Future studies can longitudinally explore the parent-adolescent relationship in
different developmental stages, and include study of developmental constructs like self-
esteem, empathy, self- regulation, awareness, and their relationship with parenting styles and
the parent-adolescent relationship in the Indian context.
The present study analysed adolescents’ perspectives of the parent-adolescent relationship.
Parenting styles perceived as authoritative and authoritarian are associated with higher degree
of resilience, while negligent parenting style is associated with lower degree of resilience in
adolescents. Three main aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship are- parental
expectations of adolescent behaviour, adolescent’s perception of parental responses, and the
quality of communication. Results from this study can be helpful in developing interventions
aimed at fostering resilience in adolescents by encouraging families to adopt parenting
strategies that are supportive and warm.
The authors appreciate all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the
research process.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declared no conflict of interests.
i. Ang, R., & Goh, D. (2006). Authoritarian parenting style in Asian societies: A
cluster- analytic investigation. Contemporary Family Therapy. 28. doi:
ii. Babore, A., Trumello, C., Candelori, C., Paciello, M., & Cerniglia, L. (2016).
Depressive symptoms, self-esteem and perceived parent-child relationship in early
adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 982. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00982
iii. Baumgardner, S., & Crothers, M. (2014). Positive Psychology. Pearson: Essex.
iv. Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior.
Child Development, 37(4), 887-907. doi:
v. Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and
substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 5695. doi:
vi. Berk, L. E. (2004). Development through the lifespan. Boston: Pearson.
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 49
vii. Bi, X., Yang, Y., Li, H., Wang, M., Zhang, W., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2018).
Parenting styles and parent-adolescent relationships: The mediating roles of
behavioral autonomy and parental authority. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 21-87. doi:
viii. Bodovski, K. (2014). Adolescents’ emerging habitus: the role of early parental
expectations and practices. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 35(3), 389-412.
doi: 10.1080/01425692.2013.776932
ix. Calafat, A., García, F., Juan, M., Becoña, E., & Fernández-Hermida, J. R. (2014).
Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence
within the European context. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 138, 185192. doi:
x. Chai, W. Y., Kwok, S. Y. C. L., & Gu, M. (2018). Autonomy-granting parenting and
child depression: The moderating roles of hope and life satisfaction. Journal of Child
and Family Studies, 27(8), 25962607. doi:
xi. Charmaz, K., & Belgrave, L. (2018). Thinking about data with grounded theory.
Qualitative Inquiry. doi: 10.1002/9781405165518.wbeosg070.pub2
xii. Chen, X., Dong, Q. & Zhou, H. (1997). Authoritative and authoritarian parenting
practices and social and school performance in Chinese children. International
Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 855-873. doi:
xiii. Coley, R., Morris, J., & Hernandez, D. (2004). Out-of-School Care and Problem
Behavior Trajectories Among Low-Income Adolescents: Individual, Family, and
Neighborhood Characteristics as Added Risks. Child development. 75. 948-65. doi:
xiv. Darling, N. (1999). Parenting Style and Its Correlates. Eric Digest. Retrieved from
xv. Dawson, M., & Pooley, J. (2013). Resilience: The Role of Optimism, Perceived
Parental Autonomy Support and Perceived Social Support in First Year University
Students. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 1, 38-46. doi:
xvi. Fagan, A.A. (2013). Familyfocused interventions to prevent juvenile delinquency: a
case where science and policy can find common ground. Criminology and Public
Policy, 12 (4), 617- 650. doi:
xvii. Farrell, A. D., & White, K. S. (1998). Peer influences and drug use among urban
adolescents: Family structure and parentadolescent relationship as protective
factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 248258. doi:
xviii. Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). Adolescent resilience: a framework for
understanding healthy development. Annual Review Public Health, 26, 399419. doi:
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 50
xix. Firoze, H., & Sathar, K. (2018). Impact of parenting styles on adolescent resilience.
Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 9(7), 937-944. Retrieved from http://www.i-
xx. Fruiht, W. (2019). The impact of parental support and parenting style on the self-
esteem of children who have faced adversity. Scholarly and Creative Works
Conference 2020. Retrieved from
xxi. Gafoor, A. K., & Kurukkan, A. (2014). Construction and validation of scale of
parenting style. Guru Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2(4), 315-323.
Retrieved from
xxii. Haun, D. B. M., Rekers, Y., & Tomasello, M. (2014). Children conform to the
behavior of peers; other great apes stick with what they know. Psychological Science,
25 (12), 2160-2167.
xxiii. Hoeve, M., Dubas, J.S., Eichelsheim, V.I., van der Lan, P.H., Smmenk, V., & Gerris,
J.R.M. (2009). The Relationship between Parenting and Delinquency: A Meta-
analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 749775. doi
xxiv. Kim, Y., Calzada, E. J., Barajas-Gonzalez, R. G., Huang, K.-Y., Brotman, L. M.,
Castro, A., & Pichardo, C. (2018). The role of authoritative and authoritarian
parenting in the early academic achievement of Latino students. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 110(1), 119132.
xxv. Kopko, K. (2007). Parenting styles and adolescents. New York: Cornell Cooperation
Extension. Retrieved from
xxvi. Kritzas, N., & Grobler, A.A. (2005). The relationship between perceived parenting
styles and resilience during adolescence. Journal of child and Adolescent Mental
Health, 17. doi: 10.2989/17280580509486586
xxvii. Liu, L., Wang, N., & Tian, L. (2019). The parent-adolescent relationship and risk-
taking behaviors among Chinese adolescents: The moderating role of self-
control. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 542.
xxviii. Llorca-Mestre, A., Samper-García, P., Malonda-Vidal, E., & Cortés-Tomás, M. T.
(2017). Parenting style and peer attachment as predictors of emotional instability in
children. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 45(4), 677-694.
xxix. Ma, Y., Siu, A., & Tse, W. S. (2018). The role of high parental expectations in
adolescents’ academic performance and depression in Hong Kong. Journal of Family
Issues, 39(9), 25052522. doi:
xxx. Maccoby, E.E., & Martin, J.A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family:
Parent child interaction. In P. Mussen and E.M. Hetherington, Handbook of Child
Psychology. New York: Wiley. Retrieved from
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 51
xxxi. Masten, A. S., & Palmer, A. R. (2019). Parenting to Promote resilience in children. In
Bornstein, M.H (Ed), Handbook of Parenting: Volume 5: The Practice of Parenting,
Third Edition. Retrieved from
xxxii. Masten, A. S., & Reed, M. (2002). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder, & S.
J. Lopez (Eds), Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University
Press. Retrieved from
xxxiii. Meeus W. (2016). Adolescent psychosocial development: A review of longitudinal
models and research. Developmental Psychology, 52(12), 19691993. doi:
xxxiv. Nesrin, A. M., & Mathai, S.M. (2018). Perceived parenting styles and development of
resilience in higher secondary school students. International Journal of Research in
Economics and Social Sciences, 8 (9). Retrieved from
xxxv. Ochoa, G.M., Lopez, E., & Emler, N. P. (2007). Adjustment problems in the family
and school contexts, attitude towards authority, and violent behavior at school in
adolescence. Adolescence, 42(168), 779794. Retrieved from
xxxvi. Odame-Mensah, S., & Gyimah, E.K. (2018). The role of permissive and neglectful
parenting style in determining the academic performance of adolescents in the senior
high schools in the Birim municipality. Journal of Education and Practice, 9, 73-82.
Retrieved from
xxxvii. Oladipo, S. E., & Idemudia, E.S. (2015) Reliability and validity testing of Wagnild
and Young’s resilience scale in a sample of Nigerian youth. Journal of
Psychology, 6(1), 57-65. doi: 10.1080/09764224.2015.11885524
xxxviii. Pearson, J., & Wilkinson, L. (2013). Family relationships and adolescent well-being:
are families equally protective for same-sex attracted youth?. Journal of Youth
Adolescence, 42, 376393. doi:
xxxix. Pierce, J. W., & Wardle, J. (1993). Self-esteem, parental appraisal and body size in
children. Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 34(7), 11251136. doi:
xl. Pinquart, M., & Gerke, D. (2019). Associations of parenting styles with self-esteem in
children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1-19.
Retrieved from
xli. Pinquart, M., & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with
behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-
analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1), 75100. doi:
xlii. Ritter, E. N. (2010). Parenting styles: Their impact on the development of adolescent
resiliency. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, Minnesota.
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 52
xliii. Ruppel, P., & Mey, G. (2015). Grounded theory methodology- Narrativity revisited.
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science. 10. doi: 1007/s12124-015-9301-y.
xliv. Ryan, R. M., & Lynch, J. H. (1989). Emotional autonomy versus detachment:
Revisiting the vicissitudes of adolescence and young adulthood. Child Development,
60(2), 340356. doi:
xlv. Ryff, C.D. & Singer, B. (2003). Flourishing under fire: Resilience as a prototype of
challenged thriving. In C.L.M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds), Flourishing: Positive
psychology and the life well-lived. doi:
xlvi. Sahithya, B.R., Manohari, S.M., & Vijaya, R. (2019). Parenting styles and its impact
on children a cross cultural review with a focus on India. Mental Health, Religion &
Culture, 22 (4), 357-383. doi: 10.1080/13674676.2019.1594178
xlvii. Sherwin-White, S. (2017). Melanie Klein and infant observation. International
Journal of Infant Observation and Its Application, 20 (1), 5-26. DOI:
xlviii. Shucksmith, J., Hendry, L. B., & Glendinning, A. (1995). Models of parenting:
Implications for adolescent well-being within different types of family
contexts. Journal of Adolescence, 18(3), 253270. doi:
xlix. Sikand. M, Arshad, R. Beniwal, R. P., Chandra, M., & Hiwale, S. (2019) Perceived
parental style, cognitive style, and resilience in females with dissociative disorder in
India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 61. doi:
l. Smetana J. G. (2017). Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and
beliefs. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 1925. doi:
li. Sorkhabi, N., & Middaugh, E. (2014). How variations in parents' use of confrontive
and coercive control relate to variations in parentadolescent conflict, adolescent
disclosure, and parental knowledge: Adolescents' perspective. Journal of Child and
Family Studies, 23(7), 12271241. doi:
lii. Tian, L., Liu, L., & Shan, N. (2018). Parent-child relationships and resilience among
Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of self-esteem. Frontiers in Psychology, 9,
1030. doi:
liii. Tripathi, S., & Jadon, P.S. (2017). Effect of Authoritarian Parenting style on self
esteem of the Child: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Advance
Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, 3, 909-913. Retrieved from
liv. Tuli, M., & N. Chaudhary (2008). Cultural networks, social research and contact
sampling. In S. Anandlakshmy, N. Chaudhary & N. Sharma (Eds.), Researching
Families and Children: Culturally Appropriate Methods (pp. 53-66). New Delhi:
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach
and Studies ISSN NO:: 2348 537X
Volume 07, No.3, May June 2020
Page : 53
lv. Ungar, M. (2004). The Importance of parents and other caregivers to the resilience of
high-risk adolescents. Family Process, 43, 23-41. doi:
lvi. Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation
of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2). Retrieved from
lvii. Weiten, W. (2012). Psychology: Themes and Variations. Wadsworth: Cengage
lviii. Whitbeck, L.B., Simons, R.L., Conger, R.D., O. Lorenz, F., Huck, S., & Elder, G.H,
Jr. (1991). Family economic hardship, parental support, and adolescent self-esteem.
Social Psychology Quarterly, 54(4), 353-363. Retrieved from
lix. Wild, M. (2019).The effect of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting
styles on self-image in male and female high school teens. South Carolina Junior
Academy of Science. Retrieved from
lx. W, Ruth. (2012, September). Peer pressure starts early: toddlers and apes copy the
crowd to learn a task. Scientific American Mind, 7. Retrieved from
lxi. Wong, M.M. (2008). Perceptions of parental involvement and autonomy support:
Their relations with self-regulation, academic performance, substance use and
resilience among adolescents. North American Journal of Psychology, 10,497-518.
Retrieved from
lxii. Zakeri, H., Jowkar, B., & Razmjoee, M. (2010). Parenting styles and resilience.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5. 1067-1070. doi:
lxiii. Zolten, K., & Long, N. (2006). Parent/Child Communication. Center for Effective
Parenting, 1-9. Retrieved from
... Regarding the geographic characteristics of the included studies, six were from Turkey (Arıdağ ve Seydoğulları, 2019; Çataloğlu, 2011;Özen, 2019;Özden Yıldırım & Ermiş, 2017;Yılmaz & Yalçın, 2021, Yörük-Topuz, Cihangir-Çankaya, 2022, five were from Korea (Kang & Son, 2016;Kim & Lee, 2016;Kim & Roh, 2016;Noh et al., 2015;Moon et al., 2009), three were from China (Morgan et al., 2020;Qui et al., 2022;Zhai et al., 2015), two were from USA (Nair et al., 2020;Swanson et al., 2010), two were from India (Datta & Thangbiakching, 2020;Prabhu & Shekhar, 2017), one was from Russia (Alikin et al., 2020), one was from Iran (Nikmanesh et al., 2020), one was from Nigeria (Obimakinde et al., 2019), one was from Islamabad (Adnan et al., 2022) and one was from South Africa (Kritzas & Grobler, 2009), one was from Lithuania (Kaniušonytė & Laursen, 2022). ...
... No information was provided about the participants' gender in seven studies (Datta & Thangbiakching, 2020;Kim & Lee, 2016;Noh et al., 2015;Nair et al., 2020;Nikmanesh et al., 2020;Obimakinde et al., 2019;Zhai et al., 2015). While the number of female participants in twelve studies was higher than male participants (Alikin et al., 2020;Arıdağ & Seydoğulları, 2019;Çataloğlu, 2011;Kang & Son, 2016;Kim & Roh, 2016;Kritzas & Grobler, 2009;Moon et al., 2009;Morgan et al., 2020;Prabhu & Shekhar, 2017;Swanson et al., 2010;Özden Yıldırım & Ermiş, 2017;Yılmaz & Yalçın, 2021), in four studies, the number of male participants was higher than female participants (Adnan et al., 2022;Qui et al., 2022, Özen, 2019, Yörük-Topuz & Cihangir-Çankaya, 2022. ...
... Considering the studies that expressed the age group as a range, In Adnan et al. (2022), Moon et al. (2009), andSwanson et al. (2010), the age range reported was five years. Datta and Thangbiakching (2020) and Nikmanesh et al. (2020) reported an age range of three years. In one study was six years (Zhai et al., 2015). ...
Full-text available
This study aims to review empirical studies that have been conducted to identify parental attitudes or styles that influence the emergence of psychological resilience in adolescents. The researchers scanned English and Turkish articles published between 2008 and 2023 in the specified national and international databases and with the specified keywords. They reviewed 24 articles that met the exclusion and inclusion criteria. These articles are presented in terms of research methods and study results. According to the results, the study determined that supportive, authoritative, democratic, and caring parental attitudes created or increased psychological resilience, whereas neglectful and unfriendly parental attitudes negatively affected adolescents’ psychological resilience. Authoritarian parenting style has controversial effects on psychological resilience since culture’s influences. Additionally, the study found that high family expectations and supportive, caring, and warm parental attitudes have positive effects on psychological resilience. The quality of the studies analyzed was good. Samples are suitable, designs are high-quality and their statistical analyses were sufficient. However, further research may improve research designs and get more quality rating from assessment. Findings of the reviewed articles are discussed in the light of the literature and cultural context. In addition, the limitations are mentioned. Lastly, based on the reviewed articles’ findings, suggestions and implications were made to experts in the psychology and researchers in the field.
Full-text available
One of the effective factors in shaping and growth of resilience is style of parent-child relationship. The present study investigated the relationship between the parenting styles and resilience. Three-hundred-fifty Shiraz University students (235 females and 115 males) were participants of the study. Steinberg's Parenting Styles Scale (2005) and Canner-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used as measures of the study. Simultaneous multiple regression of CD-RISC total score on the parenting styles subscales, revealed that the "acceptance-involvement" style was significant positive predictor of the resilience, whereas the "psychological autonomy-granting" and "behavioral strictness-supervision" styles didn't had a significant predict power for the resilience.
Full-text available
Parenting is a dynamic process, influenced by socio-cultural factors. It is an important contributing factor to child development and childhood psychopathology. Research investigating association between parenting styles and child outcome are limited in India. This paper aims to review studies conducted in West and in India in order to study cultural differences in parenting styles and its outcome. We found that despite hypothesized cultural differences between the West and India, the effect of parenting styles on children appear to be similar across culture, and culture did not serve as a moderator for parenting style and child outcome. An Authoritative parenting styles was associated with better outcome than authoritarian and neglectful/uninvolved parenting style in both Western countries and in India. Findings on indulgent/permissive parenting style were mixed in both Western countries and in India. The article discusses cultural shift in the parenting styles, and its implications for the future.
Full-text available
The present study primarily aimed to examine whether self-control serves as a moderator in the associations between parent-adolescent relationships, including parental support and parent-adolescent conflict, and risk-taking behaviors among adolescents. The 917 Chinese adolescents whose mean age was 14.38 years (SD = 1.69) completed questionnaires effectively. The results indicated that the relationships between either parental support or parent-adolescent conflict and adolescent risk-taking behavior were moderated by self-control. Among those adolescents with lower levels of self-control, both higher levels of parent-adolescent conflict and lower levels of perceived parental support predicted more risk-taking behaviors, but their predicting roles got weakened with the increase of the level of self-control. Accordingly, good parent-adolescent relationship, particularly less parent-adolescent conflict, is critical for decreasing adolescent risk-taking. Otherwise, improving self-control is particularly helpful to those adolescents having more conflict with their parents or less parental support to decrease their risk-taking.
Full-text available
Background: Dissociative disorders are theorized to be caused by extremely stressful situations, including abuse, kidnapping, incest, rape, and other threats of death. Such childhood experiences alter one’s cognitive style as well as one’s ability to deal with adverse situations. It is important to understand how cognitive style influences the relationship between parental style and resilience to help in the management. We aimed to assess the relationship between perceived parental styles and resilience mediated by cognitive styles in females with dissociative disorder. Materials and Methods: Sample comprised 60 females between 18 and 50 years of age with dissociative disorder (International Classification of Diseases‑10 criteria) in a cross‑sectional observational study. Perceived parental style of the participant was assessed using s‑EMBU, cognitive style using the Cognitive Style Inventory, and resilience using the Conner and Davidson’s Resiliency Scale. Data were analyzed using Shapiro–Wilk to assess the normality of the data and Spearman rank correlation for determining the relationship between the variables. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between emotional warmth and systematic‑cognitive style (rs = 0.398, P = 0.01) and between systematic‑cognitive style and high resilience (rs = 0.256, P = 0.05). A significant regression equation was found (F[1, 58] = 9.146, P < 0.004), with an R2 = 0.136 to predict systematic‑cognitive style based on emotional warmth as the perceived parental style. To predict resilience based on systematic‑cognitive style, a significant regression equation was found (F[1, 58] = 6.006, P < 0.017), with an R2 = 0.094. Conclusion: The more emotional warmth was perceived by the participants, the more systematic they were in their perception of the environment, in turn being more resilient. The study findings help in establishing protective psychological factors in dissociative disorder.
Full-text available
The present study primarily aimed to examine whether self-esteem serves as a mediator in the associations between parent–child relationships, including parental support and parent–child conflict, and resilience among adolescents. Three hundred and four Chinese adolescents were surveyed with questionnaires and structural equation modeling was adopted to test the mediational hypothesis. The results indicated that the associations between parent–child relationships and adolescent resilience were primarily mediated by self-esteem and that parental support was more robustly linked with adolescent resilience than parent–adolescent conflict. The current study also tested a competitive mediational model in which resilience was the mediator and self-esteem was the outcome variable, and observed that this model was also well-established but inferior to the hypothesized mediational model. These findings extend our insight into the mechanisms underlying the associations among parent–child relationships, self-esteem, and resilience among adolescents and suggest that adolescent resilience promotion programs should focus on improving parental support in a family context and developing individual self-esteem.
Full-text available
Extensive research has demonstrated the positive relationship between parental expectations and adolescents’ academic performance. However, little attention has been paid to the negative influence of parental expectations on adolescents’ emotion well-being. The present study investigated the effects of high parental expectations on both academic performance and depression of adolescents. In addition, it also explored whether these relationships could be mediated through adolescents’ value of academic success, self-efficacy, and supports from parents and school. The sample consisted of 872 adolescents from secondary schools in Hong Kong and the results revealed that high parental expectations were positively associated with adolescents’ academic performance and also positively associated with their depression. The mediating roles of adolescents’ value of academic success and school support frequency were also confirmed. This study provides some implications for parenting practice by clarifying the complex roles of parental expectations and the need for social support for adolescents.
The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the 25-item Wagnild and Young’s resilience scale in order to establish its suitability for use in Nigeria. 284 (males 154 (54.2%) and females 130 (45.8%) randomly selected sample participated in the cross-sectional survey.The results suggested that 22 of the initial 25 items of the scale were retained because items 11, 20 and 22 of the initial scale loaded below the .3 benchmark. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation produced 3 factors, against the 5 factors of the initial scale; a KMO test produced .91 and Alpha reliability coefficient of the total scale was .867, while for each subscales was .897.644, and 605 respectively. It was concluded that 22 out of the 25 items on the scale are culturally relevant, but the scale is reliable and valid for use in Nigeria.
We analyzed the roles of parenting style and peer attachment in predicting emotional instability in late childhood and early adolescence. Effects were analyzed separately by gender. Children’s personal variables analyzed were empathy, anger, and the mechanisms used to cope with anger (externalization and self-control). Participants were 316 girls and 294 boys (N = 610) aged from 9 to 12 years who were students at schools in Valencia, Spain. Main gender differences for each variable were examined using one-way ANOVAs. Results of 2 multiple linear regression analyses (1 for boys and 1 for girls) explained 50.9% and 35.5%, respectively, of variance in the students’ emotional instability. Considering emotional and cognitive variables, the results for our participant group show that parenting styles and peer attachment were equally significant as predictors of emotional instability. © 2017 Scientific Journal Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
The author (the late Susan Sherwin-White) uses evidence of Melanie Klein’s interest in babies and young children in unpublished notes in the archive as well as her publications. Klein uses her observations to infer what happens in children’s minds and their internal worlds. She used her findings alongside her analyses of children to develop her ‘theoretical conclusions’ about psychic development from the earliest weeks of life. Her revolutionary developments of psychoanalytic theory have been wrongly attributed to her dominant interest in internal life and the character of babies and children without very much attention to external reality. This ground-breaking paper makes it clear that Klein was extremely interested in what could be seen and felt by close observation of their behaviour and play; she repeatedly emphasized the importance of consistent, loving care in healthy development. The author’s meticulous research gives a fascinating and enlightening account of Klein’s interest in the links she perceived between the way children were treated and their happiness, ability to trust and to develop well. This posthumous paper is a wonderful addition to our knowledge of Klein’s understanding of primitive mental states and of the significance of the contribution of both external and internal factors to healthy development.