After Play—Knowledge (and) Practices

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The question as to who bridges barriers as well as the role of insider-scholars leads to the fourth axis of uncertainty, which revolves around actor knowledge, researchers and theories. All previous uncertainties or controversies relate to the issue of who is to speak for the parties involved. The last chapter in lieu of a conclusion ends this book by scrutinising what remains after playing: Knowledge through, for and of RPGs. What knowledge gain players by and for role-playing? Who decides what constitutes a role-playing game? How much involved are scholars of RPGs in the making of their object? The chapter wraps up with a summary of the ordering conflicts entangling the assemblage. It delivers a contingent sketch of the possibilities of role-playing games and the uncertainties revolving around their dynamics and ordering in Japan and beyond: The assemblage of role-playing is more than one and less than many.

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Don't come to television for the truth. TV's a goddamned amusement park. We'll tell you the good guys always win. We'll tell you nobody ever gets cancer at Archie Bunker's house. We'll tell you any shit you want to hear. Paraphrasing Howard Beale, Paddy Chayefsky's character in Network (Chayefsky, 1976). I opened this chapter in the second edition of Bryant and Zillmann's Media Effects series with the same quote. I retained it for this updated volume because it still rings true, despite some significant changes in the media landscape. Although in the movie it is unclear whether his words were those of a madman or a sage, few would be likely to question Howard Beale's claim that television presents a distorted view of reality. Cer- tainly, one can argue that aspects of media content, format, and presentation have changed significantly in just the last few years, with a rise in so-called "reality program- ming," made popular by the initial success of programs such as Survivor, and more recently by programs such as American Idol. Yet charges such as scripting of outcomes of competitions, selection of contestants based on audience appeal, and product placements have undermined the claim that these programs present the world as it really is. But even if most people do not question the premise that typical television fare distorts reality, what they do question is if the distortion has any effect, and if so, why and how. These interrelated questions about the why and how of media effects lie at the heart of scholarly debates and critiques of media effects research. Over the past few decades, there have been two persistent criticisms. One is that the evidence accumulated to date has provided little indication of sizable media effects on viewers' thoughts, feelings, or actions, in spite of a generally held "myth of massive media impact" by many researchers (McGuire, 1986). The second criticism is that it has for the most part lacked any focus on explanatory mechanisms. That is, media effects research has been primarily concerned with relations between input variables (e.g., media information and its characteristics) and output variables (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, behavior), with little con- sideration of the cognitive processes that might mediate these relations (Hawkins & Pingree, 1990; Reeves, Chaffee, & Tims, 1982; see also Wyer, 1980).
The thesis of this book is that knowing how to do something amounts to knowing facts. The facts are those that answer a question about how one could do it. Elaborating the conception of knowledge how involves presenting more generally an account of what it is to know the answer to a question. The account of knowing an answer to a question, or knowledge-wh, leads to a novel defense of a Fregean view of propositions, according to which they contain ways of thinking (or modes of presentations) of objects. In explaining and defending the account of knowing how, the book lays out a conception of knowledge of facts where possession of such knowledge is not merely passive in guiding behavior. The ultimate moral of the book is that it is our ability to acquire knowledge of facts that explains our capacity for skilled engagement with the world.
This paper provides a principled and elegant solution to the Gettier problem. The key move is to draw a general metaphysical distinction and conscript it for epistemological purposes. Section 1 introduces the Gettier problem. Sections 2–5 discuss instructively wrong or incomplete previous proposals. Section 6 presents my solution and explains its virtues. Section 7 answers the most common objection.
The introduction to this special collection examines five dilemmas about the use of the concept of authenticity in anthropological analysis. These relate to 1) the expectation of a singular authenticity "deep" in oneself or beyond the surface of social reality, 2) the contradictions emerging from the opposition of authenticity with inauthenticity, 3) the irony of the notion of invention of tradition (which deconstructs, but also offends), 4) the criteria involved in the authentication of the age of objects (with a consideration of their materiality), and 5) authenticity's simultaneity, its contemporaneous multiple conceptualizations in context. I argue for a perspective on the study of authenticity that acknowledges the simultaneous co-existence of more than one parallel manifestation of authenticity in any given negotiation of the authentic.
"This book presents the most current research in fantasy games and examines the cultural and constructionist dimensions of fantasy gaming as a leisure activity. Each chapter investigates some social or behavioral aspect of fantasy gaming and provides insight into the cultural, linguistic, sociological, and psychological impact of games on both the individual and society"--Provided by publisher.
Role-playing games have evolved into many forms in their thirty-year history. From the traditional pen-and-paper form, that originated with Dungeons and Dragons, with a group of friends playing around a table, to large live-action game, with hundreds of people acting out their assumed roles. The first computer role-playing games appeared over twenty-five years ago and massively multi-player role-playing games, such as World of Warcraft are now one of the most popular genres of digital games. Despite this diversity players at least seem to think they know when something is a role-playing game. When players, writers and game designers say "this is a role-playing game" there are no problems, they all seem to know what each other means, what is and is not a role-playing game. Yet there is no commonly accepted definition of the form. Understandable, perhaps, given the diversity, but the implicit agreement about its use means that there may well be some common underlying features shared by the various examples. Hampering any attempt to understand what makes a game a role-playing game is the subtle divide between role-playing and role-playing game. Role-playing can take in many places, not all of them games (such as ritual, social activities, therapy, etc). This means that definitions of the role-playing activity are not that useful in separating role-playing games from other games. In this paper we start from the position that the players are correct: they know what a role-playing game is. By examining a range of role-playing games some common features of them emerge. This results in a definition that is more successful than previous ones at identifying both what is, and what is not, a role-playing game. ABSTRACT Role-playing games have grown and evolved into a large number of forms in the last thirty years, spanning digital as well as non-digital media. They demonstrate a wide variety in the number of participants, style of play and the formal and informal systems that govern them. Despite this diversity players at least seem to think they know when something is a role-playing game. Yet there is no commonly accepted definition which both captures games generally accepted as role-playing games and distinguishes them from other, similar, games which begs the question, whether role-playing games are united by anything more than a colloquial name. Additionally, research involving these games is hampered by lack of a widely accepted definition of what constitutes a role-playing game, as it is then not even possible to clearly delineate the subject of such research. In
The tripartite account of propositional, fallibilist knowledge that p as justified true belief can become adequate only if it can solve the Gettier Problem. However, the latter can be solved only if the problem of a successful coordination of the resources (at least truth and justification) necessary and sufficient to deliver propositional, fallibilist knowledge that p can be solved. In this paper, the coordination problem is proved to be insolvable by showing that it is equivalent to the ''''coordinated attack'''' problem, which is demonstrably insolvable in epistemic logic. It follows that the tripartite account is not merely inadequate as it stands, as proved by Gettier-type counterexamples, but demonstrably irreparable in principle, so that efforts to improve it can never succeed.
This classic study still provides one of the most acute descriptions available of an often misunderstood subculture: that of fantasy role playing games like Dungeons & Dragons. Gary Alan Fine immerses himself in several different gaming systems, offering insightful details on the nature of the games and the patterns of interaction among players—as well as their reasons for playing.
Obra teórica de una sociología de las asociaciones, el autor se cuestiona sobre lo que supone la palabra social que ha sido interpretada con diferentes presupuestos y se ha hecho del mismo vocablo un nombre impreciso e inadecuado, además se ha materializado el término como quien nombra algo concreto, de manera que lo social se convierte en un proceso de ensamblado y un tipo particular de material. Propone retomar el concepto original para hacer las debidas conexiones y descubrir el contenido estricto de las cuestiones que están conectadas bajo la sociedad.
The Functions of Role-Playing Games: How Participants Create Community, Solve Problems and Explore Identity
  • Sarah Bowman
  • Lynne
  • Sarah Lynne Bowman
The Cutting Edge of Nordic Larp
  • Jon Back
DragonSys: Regelwerk für Fantasy-Live-Rollenspiele [DragonSys: Rulebook for Fantasy-Live-Action Role-Plays
  • Karsten Dombrowski
Fukanzazengi: Universal Recommendations for Zazen
  • Eihei Dōgen
Orcs, Britons, and the Martial Race Myth, Part II: They’re Not Human
  • James Hodes
  • Mendez
Rotten Use Patterns: What Entertainment Theories Can Do for the Study of Boys’ Love
Male-Male Romance by and for Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions
  • Akiko Mizoguchi
Spielen in anderen Welten. Zur sozialpädagogischen Einschätzung von ‘Fantasy-Rollenspielen’ [Playing in Other Worlds: A Socio-pedagogical Assessment of ‘Fantasy-Role-Playing Games
  • Christoph Schmidt
Shared Fantasy: Role-Playing Games as Social Worlds
  • Bill Ellis
Tēburutōku rōrupureingēmu (TRPG) ni yoru jihe supekutoramu-shō (ASD) ko no ‘ritateki hatsuwa’ no sokushin [Promoting ‘Altruistic Speech’ for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using Table-Talk
  • Kōhei Katō
  • Hiroshi Fujino
The Psychology of Immersion
  • Lauri Lukka
  • Jon Back
Promoting Social Communication among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Table-Top Role-Playing Game
  • Kōhei Katō
The Uses and Gratifications Approach
  • Jack M Mcleod
  • Lee B Becker
Beyond Role and Play: Tools, Toys and Theory for Harnessing the Imagination
  • Markus Montola
  • Jaakko Stenros
Parasocial Interaction in Pervasive Role-Play
  • Jaakko Stenros
  • Markus Montola
Race: The Original Sin of the Fantasy Genre
  • Paul B Sturtevant
Tēburutōku rōrupureingu gēmu katsudō ni okeru kōkinōjiheishō supekutoramu-ko no gōikeiseikatei [A Process of ‘Consensus Making
  • Kōhei Katō
  • Hiroshi Fujino
  • Shusuke Yoneda
Information, Knowledge & Intelligence
  • Alistair MacFarlane
Rorikon-to yaoi-zoku ni mirai wa aru ka!? – 90nendai no sekkusu-reboryūshon [Do have Lolicon- and Yaoi-Fans a Future Still!? - The Sex-Revolution of the 90 s]
  • Chizuko Ueno
  • Tomohiro Machiyama
The Dogma 99 Manifesto
  • Eirik Fatland
  • Lars Wingård
The Larping That Is Not Larp
  • J Harviainen
  • Tuomas
An Introduction to the Nordic Player Culture
  • Helene Piironen
  • Kristoffer Willer
  • Thurøe
Kurz & gut: Wie man einen Hype erzeugt
  • Claus Raasted
Knutepunkt-A Love Story
  • Margrete Raaum
The Mixing Desk of Larp: History and Current State of a Design Theory
  • Jaakko Stenros
  • Martin Andresen
  • Martin Nielsen
A Bilingual History of Latvian Larp
  • Agnes Dzervite
Russian Larp History
  • Alex Semenov
  • Elge Larsson
Unterhaltungswert und Wert der Unterhaltung. Eine dynamisch-pluralistische Ethik [Entertainment Value and the Value of Entertainment: Dynamic-Pluralistic Ethics
  • Werner Früh
States of Play: Nordic Larp Around the World. Helsinki: Pohjoismaisen roolipelaamisen seura
  • Juhana Pettersson
Doing Gender at Larp
  • Jofrid Regitzesdatter
Joyful Games of Meaning-Making: Role-Playing Games and Postmodern Notions of Literature.” Dissertation
  • René Schallegger