When providing pharmaceutical care to the pediatric population, pharmacists need to take extra care, and be vigilant to try to prevent some of the common drug-related problems that have previously been reported too commonly for this cohort. Through the medication review process (see Chap. 6), pharmacists make recommendations on appropriate dose adjustments, intercept potentially harmful medication errors, determine patient adherence, identify drug-related problems, and take action where necessary such as educating parents and children themselves. Considering that pediatric patients are more likely to experience adverse drug misadventures, they may need a narrower follow-up period than their adult counterparts, and pharmacists are able to apply advanced pharmaceutical and therapeutic knowledge to monitor for adverse, as well as positive outcomes.Some important general principles when treating children should be followed: 1. If the infant is very young (less than 3-6 months), then most often a referral would be appropriate. 2. If the child is very ill (lethargic, listless, and inconsolable), referral is required. 3. If a medication is to be given, then make sure the dose explained to the caregiver is correct (many medicines will be dosed according to weight). 4. Show the caregiver how to effectively administer/use the medication (e.g., show them how to use a syringe for measuring liquid medications). 5. Involve the child (when old enough to take part) in their own care and encourage communication between the child and their parents, because at some stage the child will be responsible for their own medication use.