ArticlePublisher preview available
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Besides enabling economic activity, the domestication of indigenous species in situ configures a strategy for the conservation of genetic resources in Agroforestry Systems (AFSs), as well as an ecological restoration strategy. Successful productivity and restoration through AFSs require active intervention with agroecological practices, e.g., the use of green manure. We evaluated how planting different green manure species in consortium with Guavira influences its reproductive period, growth, and productivity in different spatial arrangements. Guavira, Campomanesia adamantium, is a shrub that is native to the Brazilian Savannah and has fruticulture potential. To evaluate growth, we measured plant height and canopy cover and to evaluate fruit yield, we monitored reproductive phenology among different treatments. Guavira grows better in less dense areas with Crotalaria breviflora and Cajanus cajan rather than with Canavalia ensiformis. In all inter-row spacing of Guavira and green manure species, the reproductive phases were highly seasonal, with flowering and fruiting lasting for two and four months, respectively. Guavira plants that grew in consortium with green manure in different inter-row spacing presented different flowering times, but this difference was not reflected in fruit production. Fruiting and growth appear to be affected by inter-row spacing, as well as by the species used in the consortium. Thus, these variables must be considered carefully when implementing an agroforestry system.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Growth, flowering and fruiting of Campomanesia
adamantium (Cambess) O. Berg intercropped with green
manure species in Agroforestry Systems
Eva
ˆnia Xavier Gondim .Bruno Henrique dos Santos Ferreira .
Letı
´cia Koutchin Reis .Ange
´lica Guerra .Mariana Abraha
˜o.
Ana Cristina Ajalla .Edimilson Volpe .Letı
´cia Couto Garcia
Received: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published online: 4 September 2020
ÓSpringer Nature B.V. 2020
Abstract Besides enabling economic activity, the
domestication of indigenous species in situ config-
ures a strategy for the conservation of genetic
resources in Agroforestry Systems (AFSs), as well as
an ecological restoration strategy. Successful produc-
tivity and restoration through AFSs require active
intervention with agroecological practices, e.g., the
use of green manure. We evaluated how planting
different green manure species in consortium with
Guavira influences its reproductive period, growth,
and productivity in different spatial arrangements.
Guavira, Campomanesia adamantium, is a shrub that
is native to the Brazilian Savannah and has fruticulture
potential. To evaluate growth, we measured plant
height and canopy cover and to evaluate fruit yield, we
monitored reproductive phenology among different
treatments. Guavira grows better in less dense areas
with Crotalaria breviflora and Cajanus cajan rather
than with Canavalia ensiformis. In all inter-row
spacing of Guavira and green manure species, the
reproductive phases were highly seasonal, with flow-
ering and fruiting lasting for 2 and 4 months, respec-
tively. Guavira plants that grew in consortium with
green manure in different inter-row spacing presented
Electronic supplementary material The online version of
this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-020-00533-2) con-
tains supplementary material, which is available to authorized
users.
E. X. Gondim B. H. dos Santos Ferreira
L. K. Reis (&)A. Guerra M. Abraha
˜o
L. C. Garcia (&)
Laborato
´rio Ecologia da Intervenc¸a
˜o (LEI), Instituto de
Biocie
ˆncias, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul,
Avenida Costa e Silva, s/no, Bairro Universita
´rio,
Campo Grande, MS 79.070-900, Brazil
e-mail: leticiak.reis@gmail.com
L. C. Garcia
e-mail: garcialcbio@yahoo.com.br
E. X. Gondim B. H. dos Santos Ferreira
L. K. Reis A. Guerra L. C. Garcia
Programa de Po
´s-Graduac¸a
˜o em Biologia Vegetal,
Instituto de Biocie
ˆncias, Universidade Federal de Mato
Grosso do Sul, Avenida Costa e Silva, s/no, Bairro
Universita
´rio, Campo Grande, MS 79.070-900, Brazil
M. Abraha
˜o
Programa de Po
´s-Graduac¸a
˜o em Ecologia e Conservac¸a
˜o
dos Recursos Naturais, Instituto de Biologia,
Universidade Federal de Uberla
ˆndia, Avenida Amazonas,
s/n - Bairro Umuarama, Uberla
ˆndia, MG 38.400-902,
Brazil
A. C. Ajalla E. Volpe
Age
ˆncia de Desenvolvimento Agra
´rio e Extensa
˜o Rural
(AGRAER), Rodv. MS 080 km 10, Campo Grande,
MS 79114-000, Brazil
123
Agroforest Syst (2021) 95:1261–1273
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-020-00533-2(0123456789().,-volV)(0123456789().,-volV)
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... The main challenges of agroecological cultivation for the growth of native species are soil fertilization and soil structuring, control of spontaneous species, low content of organic matter, and the long-term response in growth and physiology of native species of the Cerrado (GONDIM et al., 2020). A strategy used by family farmers to overcome these variables in agroecological systems is the use of plants as green manure to maximize the use of space, land cover, moisture retention, and nutrient cycling (CALHEIROS et al., 2013;MAZZETTO et al., 2016;SOLATI et al., 2017;ARAÚJO et al., 2017;CHEN et al., 2019). ...
... The cultivation of C. adamantium with green manures is still poorly studied. Gondim et al. (2020) evaluated in an 11-month cultivation cycle the intercropping and the spacing of C. adamantium with legumes. The authors found that the wider spacing (2.00 m x 1.20 m) and intercropping with the mixture of Crotalaria breviflora and Cajanus cajan, plants of C. adamantium were taller, with larger canopy area and larger biomass. ...
... Consequently, the decomposition of plant material was accelerated (Figure 2), improving the chemical attributes of the soil (Table 4), resulting in greater production of metabolic energy and increased synthesis of nucleic acids, which contributed to shoot growth of C. adamantium. Gondim et al. (2020) found that fast-growing Fabaceae such as Crotalaria breviflora and C. cajan contributed to the mass gain of C. adamantium. ...
Article
Full-text available
Campomanesia adamantium (guavira) is a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado used both as food and as medicine. The plant has undergone indiscriminate overexploitation in its habitat, which, in association with fires and deforestation, puts the species at risk of extinction. To preserve the species, in situ and ex situ management actions are required and agroecological practices associated with green manuring is the recommended system. In this study, we investigated the development of C. adamantium grown with the green manures Stylosanthes macrocephala, Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopogonium mucunoides, and Cajanus cajan, as well as the chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. The green manures had the highest production of fresh and dry masses at the second cut and C. mucunoides, S. macrocephala, and P. phaseoloides presented the highest nutrient concentrations. C. mucunoides mass decomposed rapidly and influenced the chemical properties of the soil, with a greater role of soil microorganisms in the biochemical process of decomposition of the organic residues. The bestdeveloped and highest yielding plants with the highest leaf nutrient content were obtained for C. adamantium grown with the green manures C. mucunoides and S. macrocephala. The results showed that C. adamantium responded positively to the use of the green manure C. mucunoides with increased leaf production. This agroecological cultivation to contributes for the preservation of C. adamantium and the appropriate use of the natural resources of the Cerrado.
Article
Full-text available
It is well documented that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) affect growth and nutrient absorption in host plants under pot conditions. However, their effects on reproductive growth in ornamental plants under field conditions are unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of AMF on flowering and physiological traits in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) under greenhouse field conditions. Seedlings were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae (Nicolson & Gerd.) and without as controls. Results showed that AMF inoculation significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, phosphorus, and soluble protein; decreased soluble sugar; and had no effect on total nitrogen, carbon, and potassium. AMF colonization increased concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA), indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA3), and zeatin riboside (ZR); increased the ZR/IAA ratio; and reduced ABA/GA3 and ABA/IAA+GA3+ZR ratios. AMF advanced flowering by five days and prolonged flowering by 13 days. Our study showed that AMF can promote flowering and prolong flowering in snapdragon, which may be due to the improvement of endogenous hormone equilibrium.
Article
It is more and more acknowledged that agroecological innovations, such as agroforestry practices, should be co-created through a combination of research and traditional knowledge, be context adaptable, and meet the needs of producers and consumers. The word “innovation” recognises that agroforestry practices do exist everywhere in the world. However, to be able to effectively respond to global challenges and changes (demography and social changes, climate, local to international markets), speaking about "innovations" implies that these practices could be improved or transformed or reintroduced everywhere they had disappeared or are in decline. This reality is still current despite the significant number of research and innovation programmes, the volume of mobilized funds and the number of participating organizations. Increasing adoption of agroforestry practices also requires long term planning and coordination because trees’ life cycles are often longer than human life. This special issue includes papers on some agroforestry innovations that merit consideration for scaling up, on successful experiences that answer priorities expressed by stakeholders while taking into account their constraints, and on systemic approaches and frameworks to the development of more comprehensive perspectives on scaling up.
Article
Full-text available
Field experiments were conducted at Coconut Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Aliyar Nagar during Rabi 2002-'03 and Kharif 2003. The treatment consisted of four groundnut varieties viz., TG 41, TG 42, CO 3 and VRI 2 and four plant spacing viz., 30 x 10, 30 x 15, 45 x 10 and 45 x 15 cm. The results indicated that the variety VRI 2 had the highest LAI as compared to other varieties whereas, the highest chlorophyll a and b content were noticed with TG 42 and the lowest values were observed with VRI 2. With regard to plant densities, the closer spacing of 30 x 10 cm significantly had the highest LAI during both the seasons. The highest chlorophyll 'a' and 'b' content were noticed with TG 42 groundnut though it was at par with TG 41 at 50 DAS during both the seasons. The highest number of flowers plant , pod setting per cent and number of matured pods plant were-1-1 registered with CO 3 groundnut; however it was on par with VRI 2 during both the seasons. Whereas, the total pegs plant was more with VRI 2 groundnut during both the seasons. The total number of pegs-1 plant and number of matured pods plant were significantly higher with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm.-1-1 Among the different plant geometry studied, closer spacing of 30 x 10 cm registered significant higher dry pod yield of 2360 kg ha as compared to wider spacing of 45 x 15 cm (1237 kg ha). Groundnut-1-1 varieties did not exert a significant influence on the dry pod yield during both the seasons. N, P and K uptake were higher with the variety VRI 2. However, it was comparable with CO 3 variety during both the seasons. N, P and K uptake were higher with closer spacing of 30 x 10 cm during both Rabi 2002-'03 and Kharif 2003 season. The lowest N uptake was observed under wider spacing of 45 x 15 cm. The highest partitioning efficiency of root and leaves were noticed with VRI 2 though it was at par with CO 3. The lowest values of these parameters were observed with TG 41. In contrast to this, more peg and pod partitioning efficiency was observed with TG 41 groundnut (34.29 and 31.42 per cent, respectively). Plant density did have significant influence on none of the partitioning parts except pegs and pods. Wider spacing of 45 x 15 cm registered the highest values of these parameters as compared to closer spacing.
Article
Full-text available
The practice of using green manure for ecological restoration has grown so significantly that there is a shortage of seeds for purchase on the market. Nonetheless, there is very little literature available demonstrating the effects and benefits commonly cited for green manure for addressing important environmental filters, as herbivorous and invasive grasses. Our objective is to determine which spatial sowing arrangement including green manure promotes the lowest rates of herbivory on native species and decreases cover by invasive grasses in ecological restoration. We experimentally tested three sowing configurations of green manure intercropping with native species: (T1) mixture of native and green manure species in the same row, (T2) alternating rows of green manure and native species, and (T3) rows of native species intercropped with a 2 m wide strip of green manure. We found that: (1) green manure species experience greater damage from herbivory than do native, average value ranging from 1,8 times higher values in green manure than natives in T1, 2,9 times in T2, until 2,7 times in T3; when sown in rows and in broader strips, green manure and native species attract more herbivorous insects than if they were sown together (muvuca); and, (2) When green manure and native species are planted mixed in the same row they produce greater soil cover, and thus limit invasion by undesired species. The use of green manure has been identified as an alternative method for overcoming the environmental filters of herbivory and invasive grasses in restoration areas. Considering the demand for information that supports the use of green manure for purposes of ecological restoration, the novel results of the present study fill a void and should prove to be of great interest to researchers and practitioners. In addition, the presented results provide information on efficient and low‐cost restoration techniques that are necessary for the activity to gain scale, enabling countries to meet the large restoration targets.
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Evaluate the effects of different concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) on adult plants of productive age of ‘Daiane’ and ‘Fuji Suprema’, to follow the ecophysiological effects and their efficiency in inducing leaf senescence, sprouting and productivity, in the Midwestern region of the state of Santa Catarina. Study Design: The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with six replications. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Caçador, Brazil (latitude 26º50’07” S, longitude 50º58’32” W, altitude 969 meters), during the growing seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Methodology: The apple fruit tree were submitted to the following treatments: 1) Control (without treatment), 2) abscisic acid 750 mg L-1, 3) abscisic acid 750 + 750 mg L-1, 4) abscisic acid 1500 mg L-1 and 5) abscisic acid 1500 + 1500 mg L-1. ABA applications in the first year were carried out on May 2, 2013 in treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5, and after 11 days (05/13/13) the plants of treatments 3 and 5 were sprayed again. In the second year, ABA applications were carried out on May 6 and 15, 2014, following the same application methodology described for the first year. As the source of abscisic acid (ABA) the commercial product ProTone® (20% i.a.) was used, without the use of adjuvant. The exogenous application of ABA was effective in promoting the senescence and leaf fall of the ‘Daiane’ and ‘Fuji Suprema’ cultivars. In the 2013/2014 season, the concentration of 750 mg L-1 was enough to induce 100% leaf fall in 'Daiane' plants. However, a difference was observed between the concentrations of ABA used. There was a difference between concentrations and number of applications. Lower concentrations were efficient and deflated as much as the higher concentration. The application of ABA induces the abscission of apple leaves in early autumn in 'Daiane' and 'Fuji Suprema' apple plants. The ABA does not affect shoots of axillary buds and anticipates the beginning of shoots.
Article
Full-text available
Determining optimum plant density for groundnut varieties is imperative to maximize productivity of the crop. A field experiment was conducted at Abeya District Borena Zone, southern Oromia Ethiopia, from May to October in 2013 and 2015 to determine the effect of plant density on yield components and yield of groundnut varieties. The experiment was laid out in RCBD in factorial arrangement with three varieties of groundnut (Tole-1, Fayo and NC-4x) and five plant densities (142847, 166666, 200000, 250000 and 333333 plants ha-1) in three replications. There was significant interaction effect of varieties and plant density on above ground dry biomass, number of pegs per plant, total pods per plant, number of matured pod per plant, dry pod yield, seed yield and harvest index. The highest above ground dry biomass (6050 kg ha-1) recorded for the variety "NC-4x" at the highest plant density of (333333 plants ha-1). The variety "Tole-1" at plant density of (142857 plants ha-1) gave the highest number of pegs per plant (78.83 pegs per plant) and total pod per plant (77.33 pods per plant). Likewise, the variety "Tole-1" at plant density of (142857 plants ha-1) gave the highest number of matured pod per plant (73 pods per plant). The variety "Tole-1" at plant density of (250,000 plants ha-1) gave the highest dry pod yield (3,831 kg ha-1) and the highest seed yield (2,790 kg ha-1) as well as highest harvest index (36.5). From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate plant densities for higher seed yield for varieties 'Tole-1' and NC-4x' was 250,000 plants ha-1 (40cm × 10cm), while 200,000 plants ha-1 (50 cm × 10cm), for the variety 'Fayo'. Among the varieties, 'Tole-1' was found to be high yielder in the study area.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to prepare a prediction model for the phenology of grapevine cultivars (Bordô, Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Embrapa, Paulsen 1103, SO4, and IAC 572) using hot water treatment. The heat treatment with hot water consisted of combinations of three temperatures (50, 53, and 55°C) and three time periods (30, 45, and 60 min), with or without previous hydration for 30 min. After the treatments, the cuttings were planted in the field and their phenological development was evaluated during two months. The six studied cultivars presented different responses to the effects of the factors temperature and time, but did not differ significantly regarding hydration. It was possible to develop a mathematical model for the use of hot water treatment in grapevine cuttings, based on phenological development (y phenology = 48.268-0.811x 1-0.058x 2) and validated by the variables sprouting and root emission. From the developed model, it is recommended that the hot water treatment be applied in the temperature range between 48 and 51°C for cuttings of all cultivars.
Article
A Canavalia ensiformis é uma leguminosa com ampla distribuição tropical. É bastante utilizada em agricultura como cobertura verde para enriquecer o solo de nutrientes. Devido ao seu elevado valor nutricional suas sementes são empregadas na alimentação do gado e suas folhas na alimentação humana. Ela é bastante resistente às variações das condições ambientais, insetos e microorganismos. Seus principais componentes biologicamente ativos são proteínas, peptídeos, enzimas ou derivados de aminoácidos e dentre os quais é importante chamar a atenção para concanavalina A, urease, canatoxina, jaburetox, serino-proteases e L-canavanina / L-canalina. Estes compostos apresentam importantes funções bioquímicas e suas atividades biológicas têm sido objeto de intensas investigações. Além disso, estes principais componentes purificados de sementes de C. ensiformis exercem importantes efeitos farmacológicos, auxiliando assim na compreensão da fisiologia dos organismos, como também no tratamento de diversas patologias.Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC (Fabaceae)Canavalia ensiformis is a widely distributed tropical legume. It is extensively used in agriculture as a green cover for the nutritional enrichment of soils. Due to the high nutritional values the seeds are used to feed cattle and the leaves are food for humans. It is quite resistant to changes in environmental conditions, insects and microorganisms. The major compounds of C. ensiformis are biologically active proteins, peptides, enzymes or amino acid derivatives. Among these compounds it is important to mention concanavalin A, ureases, canatoxin, jaburetox, serine proteases, glycosidases and L-canavanina/L-canalina. These compounds play important biochemical roles in the plant and, their activities have been the subject of intense investigations. In addition, these major compounds extracted from seeds of C. ensiformis have important pharmacological effects, thereby aiding in the understanding of physiology of organisms and in the treatment of various pathologies.
Article
Phenological models for predicting the grapevine flowering were tested using phenological data of 15 grape varieties collected between 1990 and 2014 in Vinhos Verdes and Lisbon Portuguese wine regions. Three models were tested: Spring Warming (Growing Degree Days – GDD model), Spring Warming modified using a triangular function – GDD triangular and UniFORC model, which considers an exponential response curve to temperature. Model estimation was performed using data on two grape varieties (Loureiro and Fernão Pires), present in both regions. Three dates were tested for the beginning of heat unit accumulation ( t0 date): budburst, 1 January and 1 September. The best overall date was budburst. Furthermore, for each model parameter, an intermediate range of values common for the studied regions was estimated and further optimized to obtain one model that could be used for a diverse range of grape varieties in both wine regions. External validation was performed using an independent data set from 13 grape varieties (seven red and six white), different from the two used in the estimation step. The results showed a high coefficient of determination ( R² : 0.59–0.89), low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE: 3–7 days) and Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD: 2–6 days) between predicted and observed values. The UniFORC model overall performed slightly better than the two GDD models, presenting higher R² (0.75) and lower RMSE (4.55) and MAD (3.60). The developed phenological models presented good accuracy when applied to several varieties in different regions and can be used as a predictor tool of flowering date in Portugal.
Article
Cleaner fruit production has become important for producers worldwide because consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on environmental criteria. Green manure is a soil management practice that promotes soil nutrient enrichment and may improve crop yield. Nonetheless, the environmental impacts and economic analysis of combined green manure and tropical fruit production have not been performed. This work assesses the environmental impacts and profits resulting from the Brazilian melon, commercialized in Brazil. Melon production is analyzed under two cultivation systems: i) the conventional form practiced by farmers located in the São Francisco Valley region, Brazil, and ii) the conservationist system, based on a green manure experiment carried out in this same region. This study applies life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impacts of both systems, considering farm inputs production and transportation (energy power, fertilizers, pesticides, plastic, paper, and fuel) as well as melon production and transportation to the main national distribution market in São Paulo. The impact categories evaluated are climate change, soil acidification, freshwater and marine eutrophication, water depletion, human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer), and ecotoxicity. Scenario analysis is applied to assess impacts under different designed conditions for transportation, packing, and nitrogen fertilization. The profit analysis is performed by reducing the total production costs (inputs and services) from the revenue obtained from selling melons. Results indicate that the conservationist system causes lower impacts and lead to higher profit than the conventional system, for all assessed categories. The scenario analysis confirms that impacts can be further reduced in all categories when alternative melon transportation and fertilization practices are adopted. This work demonstrates that the environmental performance of Brazilian melon production can be improved with the addition of green manure and alternative transportation practices.