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Formulation and evaluation of patchouli oil gel for burn wound

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Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis
p-ISSN: 2407-7062 | e-ISSN: 2442-5435
homepage: http://jsfk.ffarmasi.unand.ac.id
DOI : 10.25077/jsfk.6.3.191-194.2019
Introduction
Patchouli essential oil is one of the biological
resources that produce oil of patchouli by distillation of
patchouli leaves [1, 2]. Patchouli oil contains patchouli
alcohol which is the main compound of patchouli oil.
The patchouli oil also contains eugenol, cinamaldehyde,
benzaldehyde and cadinene [1, 3, 4].
Patchouli oil plays an important role in the perfumery
and cosmetics industry. In the fragrance industry,
patchouli oil is used as a xative (binder aroma). Patchouli
oil can treat several skin problems as an antiseptic, acne
medicine, antifungi, eczema and dried skin. In addition, as
well as other volatile oil, patchouli oil can also be used as
aromatherapy [1, 5].
One of the plants that are empirically able to heal
burns is patchouli. It has been applied to the skin by
rubbing the patchouli oil or leaves that have been pounded
on the injured skin. This essential oil will accelerate healing
when applied to the burn wound [6].
Burns is a tissue damage caused by contact with hot
objects, electrical and radiation. Damage caused by burns
can come to the subcutaneous tissue, dermis and epidermis
depends on the length of exposure to the causative factor
[7-9]. Burns are usually expressed by degrees, depending
on the extent of tissue damaged by burns prociency level
[10]. At burns, body uids such as water and serum will
be out. This condition is a good medium for microbial
growth. Therefore, patients with burns should receive
special treatment [9].
In previous studies, patchouli showed inhibitory to
bacteria and can reduce the inammation. Patchouli oil
has been formulated in to face soap with a concentration
of 0.5% and 1% [11]. Patchouli oil can accelerate tissue
regeneration by stimulate the formation of new skin layer.
In wound healing, patchouli oil does not only play a role in
accelerating wound healing but also prevents scarring [6].
Patchouli oil also has a strong adhesion. Major compound
of patchouli oil is patchouli alcohol. This compound
experiences an activity against Staphylococcus aureus and
Bacillus subtilis [12, 13]. Both of these bacteria are mostly
found in burns [14]. Based on the activity and its ability to
regenerate the new skin, then patchouli oil is developed as
a remedy for burns.
Gel is a semisolid dosage form consists of dispersion
system. This dispersion is composed of small inorganic
molecules or large organic molecules [15-17]. Gel dosage
form has several advantages such as simple preparation,
easy washed with water, and can provide a cooling
sensation on the skin because the more water contents and
more attractive appearance than cream dosage form [17-
19]. But if the ingredients used are not soluble in water, gel
produced will not transparent [18, 20].
Methods
Materials
Patchouli oil is obtained
from West Sumatera, Indonesia.
Carbopol 940 (Total equipment®),
Arcle history
Received: 07 Apr 2019
Accepted: 21 Nov 2019
Published: 30 Des 2019
Access this arcle
ORIGINAL ARTICLE J Sains Farm Klin 6(3),191–194 (Desember 2019)
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil Gel
for Burn Wound
Febriyenti*, Rizki Febrika Putri, & Netty Suharti
Faculty of Pharmacy Andalas University, Jl. Limau Manis, Kec. Pauh, Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat
ABSTRACT: Essenal oil of the patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) was known has the anbacterial eect and could
be used to treat burn. The aim of this study is to formulate patchouli oil into a gel dosage form. Patchouli oil was used at three
concentraons i.e. 2% (F1), 4% (F2) and 6% (F3). Evaluaon of the resulng formulas includes examining its general appearance,
homogeneity, skin irritaon test, pH and spreadability test. Based on the evaluaon data, it was found that gel with 2% patchouli
oil was transparent. The greater the concentraon of patchouli oil, the more opaque the gel is produced. The other parameters
give results that are not dierent for the three formulas.
Keywords: patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) oil; gel; burn wound.
*Corresponding Author: Febriyen
Faculty of Pharmachy Andalas University, Jl. Limau Manis, Kec. Pauh,
Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat 25163 | Email: febriyen74@gmail.com
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil... Febriyenti et. al.
Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis | Vol. 06 No. 03 | Desember 2019
192
Tween 80 Glycerin, Triethanol amine (TEA) were bought
from Brataco Chemical®. Bioplacenton® was used as
standard.
Formulation of Patchouli Oil Gel
Patchouli Oil Gel Preparation:
Carbopol 940 was dispersed in distilled water.
Then added TEA and stirred gently to form a gel mass.
Furthermore, added glycerin and patchouli oil that had
been mixed with Tween 80. The preparation was stirred
until homogeneous [17].
Evaluations
General Appearance [15, 21]
Consistency, texture, color, odor and transparency of
the samples were done visually.
Homogeneity [15, 21, 22]
All formulas were tested for homogeneity by visual
inspection after the samples were dispersed on a slide of
object glass. They were tested for their appearance and
presence of any aggregates.
Skin Irritation Test [15, 22]
Skin irritation test have done on humans volunteers.
For each formula, ve volunteers were selected and 0.1
g sample was applied on an area of 2 square inch to the
inner upper hand then covered with gauze. The volunteers
were observed for irritation and other symptoms after 24
hours.
pH Measurements [22, 23]
The pH of all formula was determined by using
digital pH-meter (Accumet Basic AB15).
Spreadability Test [21, 22]
0.5 g of each formula was placed on a transparent
glass repose graph paper. Then covered with transparent
plastic and given a certain load (1, 3, 5 and 7 g) for 60
seconds. The increasing of diameter was measure after
being given the load.
Results and Disscussion
Patchouli oil was formulated into gel dosage forms
because the process of preparation the gel is relatively
easy, attractive appearance, their cooling effect on the skin
due to the evaporation of water [18]. Carbopol 940 was
used as gel base. Carbopol 940 has good characteristics
that provide a transparent gel base and a high viscosity at
low concentrations [24]. The concentration of carbopol
940 used as a gelling agent is 0.5-2% [25]. This study used
a concentration of 0.5% as based orientation conducted.
Carbopol 940 with concentrations greater than 0.5%
will form a gel with high viscosity. Glycerin is used as a
humectant in the gel [25]. Tween 80 was used as surfactant
to lower the surface tension between the patchouli oil and
gel base that mostly contain water. The concentration
of tween 80 used as a surfactant agent is 1-15% [25].
Therefore, in this study attempted to use a tween 80
at a concentration of 15%. Formula F1 that contain
patchouli oil 2% produce transparent gel. Increasing the
concentration of patchouli oil would produce opaque gel.
This is due to the amount of tween 80 was not enough to
dissolve the patchouli oil.
The results of the general appearance, homogeneity
and irritation test of patchouli oil gel could be seen in
Table 2. All formula were observed during 6-week and
there were no change in terms of general appearance, color
and odor during storage. All formulas were homogeny and
not irritant.
Table 1. Patchouli Oil Gel Formula
NO Ingredient
Gel
F1 (%) F2 (%) F3 (%)
1. Patchouli oil 246
2. Tween 80 15 15 15
3. Carbopol 940 0.5 0.5 0.5
4. TEA 0.5 0.5 0.5
5. Glycerin 10 10 10
6. Dislled water up to 100 100 100
Table 2. General Appearance, Homogeneity and Irritation
Test Results
Formula General Appearance Homogeneity Irritaon Test
F1
Semisolid
Specic Odor
Transparent White
Good Nil
F2
Semisolid
Specic Odor
Opaque White
Good Nil
F3
Semisolid
Specic Odor
Opaque White
Good Nil
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil... Febriyenti et. al.
193
Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis | Vol. 06 No. 03 | Desember 2019
Results of patchouli oil gel pH probe using Carbopol
gel base 940 for each formula that is F1 ranged from 6.3
to 6.5, ranging from 6.3 to 6.4 F2, F3 ranging from 6.2 to
6, 4. Results of pH measurement for 6 weeks showed a
decrease and an increase in pH which tends not too big
for storage so it can be concluded that the preparation of
a thermodynamically stable and the absence of either a
chemical reaction caused by the storage container or the
materials contained in the preparation. pH test results
using a base of patchouli oil gel Carbopol 940 gel for each
formula that is F1 ranged from 6.3 to 6.5, ranging from 6.3
to 6.4 F2, F3 ranged from 6.2 to 6.4.
The results of the test checks the power spread
patchouli oil stocks for each formula indicates the greater
concentration of patchouli oil, the higher the power
spread. Spreadibility test aims to see the spread of the
preparations when applied to the skin. This test were
performed using extensiometer method, which is done
manually by calculating the gain broad principle given by
preparation at a particular time if the given load with a
certain weight [26]. In the gel formulation using carbopol
base 940, viscosity decreases with increasing concentration
of active substance. This is due to the patchouli oil itself is
uid, so that with increasing concentrations of the active
substance, the consistency of the gel is also more dilute.
Figure 1. Physical appearance of patchouli oil gel
Table 3. PH of Patchouli Oil Gel
Formula
pH at week
Mean
1 2 3 4 56
F1 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.5 6.42
F2 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.37
F3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.30
Table 4. Spreading Test Results
Formula
Spreading (cm2)
1 g 3 g 5 g 7 g
F1 0.04 0.16 0.42 0.84
F2 0.08 0.22 0.64 0.96
F3 0.10 0.26 0.70 1.14
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil... Febriyenti et. al.
Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis | Vol. 06 No. 03 | Desember 2019
194
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Conclusion
Gel with 2% patchouli oil was transparent. The greater
the concentration of patchouli oil, the more opaque the
gel is produced. The other parameters give results that are
not different for the three formulas.
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Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) is a plant from Lamiaceae family, well known for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Patchouli is grown for its essential oil. Patchouli essential oil is mainly obtained by steam distillation of the shade dried leaves. It is widely appreciated for its characteristic pleasant and long lasting woody, earthy, camphoraceous odour. It is especially notable as the essential oil extracted is internationally important and valuable, principally for the aromatherapy, perfumery, cosmetics, incense stick production and food flavouring industries. This review attempted to give an overview of the relationship between aromatherapy and essential oils, importance of patchouli, harvesting pattern of patchouli, basics behind drying and steam distillation of patchouli crop, as well as trends existing in the various markets for essential oil application and its importance to mankind.
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Aromatic plants have been commercially used as spices, natural flavor, raw material for essential-oil industry and other medicinal purpose. The use of essential oils continues to rise, both as a separate commodity and indirectly through a large range of beautycare and aromatherapy products. Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth; is a species from the genus Pogostemon and a bushy herb of the mint family. Patchouli leaves are the source for essential oils that constitutes more than 70 chemical compounds. The presence of these compounds imparts excellent therapeutic properties to Patchouli oils that cure various problems tormenting human beings. Production of patchouli oil in India is limited (10-15 tons/ annum). Global demand of Patchouli is 1600 tons of oil per annum with a value of 240 crores. It helps cultivators to meet the demand of the spices and pharmaceutical industry. The present communication constitutes a review on the study of phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, medicinal importance of an aromatic medicinal plant, Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Blanco) Benth. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth which possesses activities like antimicrobial, cytotoxic activity, antiemetic activity, analgesic, anti-mutagenic activity and anti-inflammatory activity and other important activities. Based upon the given significant information, Pogostemon cablin can be developed into novel natural medicine.
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The antimicrobial activity of leaves of five South Indian medicinal plants Adhatoda vasika, Bacopa monnieri, Carica papaya, Cissampelos pareira and Cynodon dactylon, collected from regions of Kulathoor and Malayadi were investigated against ten clinical pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp.) using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method. The plant extracts were prepared using the solvents - acetone, ethanol and propanol. It is clear from the results that, the extract of five plants used in this study acts as a good source of antibiotics against various bacterial pathogens tested and exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids in all plants selected and other secondary metabolites like tannins, glycosides and saponins were also observed in all the extracts. The MIC values ranges between 3.175(g/ml and 12.5(g/ml, whereas MBC values ranges between 6.25(g/ml and 12.5(g/ml. The results of this study support the use of all the selected five medicinal plants to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals that address unmet therapeutic needs.
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