ArticlePDF Available

Formulation and evaluation of patchouli oil gel for burn wound

Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis
p-ISSN: 2407-7062 | e-ISSN: 2442-5435
DOI : 10.25077/jsfk.6.3.191-194.2019
Patchouli essential oil is one of the biological
resources that produce oil of patchouli by distillation of
patchouli leaves [1, 2]. Patchouli oil contains patchouli
alcohol which is the main compound of patchouli oil.
The patchouli oil also contains eugenol, cinamaldehyde,
benzaldehyde and cadinene [1, 3, 4].
Patchouli oil plays an important role in the perfumery
and cosmetics industry. In the fragrance industry,
patchouli oil is used as a xative (binder aroma). Patchouli
oil can treat several skin problems as an antiseptic, acne
medicine, antifungi, eczema and dried skin. In addition, as
well as other volatile oil, patchouli oil can also be used as
aromatherapy [1, 5].
One of the plants that are empirically able to heal
burns is patchouli. It has been applied to the skin by
rubbing the patchouli oil or leaves that have been pounded
on the injured skin. This essential oil will accelerate healing
when applied to the burn wound [6].
Burns is a tissue damage caused by contact with hot
objects, electrical and radiation. Damage caused by burns
can come to the subcutaneous tissue, dermis and epidermis
depends on the length of exposure to the causative factor
[7-9]. Burns are usually expressed by degrees, depending
on the extent of tissue damaged by burns prociency level
[10]. At burns, body uids such as water and serum will
be out. This condition is a good medium for microbial
growth. Therefore, patients with burns should receive
special treatment [9].
In previous studies, patchouli showed inhibitory to
bacteria and can reduce the inammation. Patchouli oil
has been formulated in to face soap with a concentration
of 0.5% and 1% [11]. Patchouli oil can accelerate tissue
regeneration by stimulate the formation of new skin layer.
In wound healing, patchouli oil does not only play a role in
accelerating wound healing but also prevents scarring [6].
Patchouli oil also has a strong adhesion. Major compound
of patchouli oil is patchouli alcohol. This compound
experiences an activity against Staphylococcus aureus and
Bacillus subtilis [12, 13]. Both of these bacteria are mostly
found in burns [14]. Based on the activity and its ability to
regenerate the new skin, then patchouli oil is developed as
a remedy for burns.
Gel is a semisolid dosage form consists of dispersion
system. This dispersion is composed of small inorganic
molecules or large organic molecules [15-17]. Gel dosage
form has several advantages such as simple preparation,
easy washed with water, and can provide a cooling
sensation on the skin because the more water contents and
more attractive appearance than cream dosage form [17-
19]. But if the ingredients used are not soluble in water, gel
produced will not transparent [18, 20].
Patchouli oil is obtained
from West Sumatera, Indonesia.
Carbopol 940 (Total equipment®),
Arcle history
Received: 07 Apr 2019
Accepted: 21 Nov 2019
Published: 30 Des 2019
Access this arcle
ORIGINAL ARTICLE J Sains Farm Klin 6(3),191–194 (Desember 2019)
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil Gel
for Burn Wound
Febriyenti*, Rizki Febrika Putri, & Netty Suharti
Faculty of Pharmacy Andalas University, Jl. Limau Manis, Kec. Pauh, Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat
ABSTRACT: Essenal oil of the patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) was known has the anbacterial eect and could
be used to treat burn. The aim of this study is to formulate patchouli oil into a gel dosage form. Patchouli oil was used at three
concentraons i.e. 2% (F1), 4% (F2) and 6% (F3). Evaluaon of the resulng formulas includes examining its general appearance,
homogeneity, skin irritaon test, pH and spreadability test. Based on the evaluaon data, it was found that gel with 2% patchouli
oil was transparent. The greater the concentraon of patchouli oil, the more opaque the gel is produced. The other parameters
give results that are not dierent for the three formulas.
Keywords: patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) oil; gel; burn wound.
*Corresponding Author: Febriyen
Faculty of Pharmachy Andalas University, Jl. Limau Manis, Kec. Pauh,
Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat 25163 | Email: febriyen
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil... Febriyenti et. al.
Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis | Vol. 06 No. 03 | Desember 2019
Tween 80 Glycerin, Triethanol amine (TEA) were bought
from Brataco Chemical®. Bioplacenton® was used as
Formulation of Patchouli Oil Gel
Patchouli Oil Gel Preparation:
Carbopol 940 was dispersed in distilled water.
Then added TEA and stirred gently to form a gel mass.
Furthermore, added glycerin and patchouli oil that had
been mixed with Tween 80. The preparation was stirred
until homogeneous [17].
General Appearance [15, 21]
Consistency, texture, color, odor and transparency of
the samples were done visually.
Homogeneity [15, 21, 22]
All formulas were tested for homogeneity by visual
inspection after the samples were dispersed on a slide of
object glass. They were tested for their appearance and
presence of any aggregates.
Skin Irritation Test [15, 22]
Skin irritation test have done on humans volunteers.
For each formula, ve volunteers were selected and 0.1
g sample was applied on an area of 2 square inch to the
inner upper hand then covered with gauze. The volunteers
were observed for irritation and other symptoms after 24
pH Measurements [22, 23]
The pH of all formula was determined by using
digital pH-meter (Accumet Basic AB15).
Spreadability Test [21, 22]
0.5 g of each formula was placed on a transparent
glass repose graph paper. Then covered with transparent
plastic and given a certain load (1, 3, 5 and 7 g) for 60
seconds. The increasing of diameter was measure after
being given the load.
Results and Disscussion
Patchouli oil was formulated into gel dosage forms
because the process of preparation the gel is relatively
easy, attractive appearance, their cooling effect on the skin
due to the evaporation of water [18]. Carbopol 940 was
used as gel base. Carbopol 940 has good characteristics
that provide a transparent gel base and a high viscosity at
low concentrations [24]. The concentration of carbopol
940 used as a gelling agent is 0.5-2% [25]. This study used
a concentration of 0.5% as based orientation conducted.
Carbopol 940 with concentrations greater than 0.5%
will form a gel with high viscosity. Glycerin is used as a
humectant in the gel [25]. Tween 80 was used as surfactant
to lower the surface tension between the patchouli oil and
gel base that mostly contain water. The concentration
of tween 80 used as a surfactant agent is 1-15% [25].
Therefore, in this study attempted to use a tween 80
at a concentration of 15%. Formula F1 that contain
patchouli oil 2% produce transparent gel. Increasing the
concentration of patchouli oil would produce opaque gel.
This is due to the amount of tween 80 was not enough to
dissolve the patchouli oil.
The results of the general appearance, homogeneity
and irritation test of patchouli oil gel could be seen in
Table 2. All formula were observed during 6-week and
there were no change in terms of general appearance, color
and odor during storage. All formulas were homogeny and
not irritant.
Table 1. Patchouli Oil Gel Formula
NO Ingredient
F1 (%) F2 (%) F3 (%)
1. Patchouli oil 246
2. Tween 80 15 15 15
3. Carbopol 940 0.5 0.5 0.5
4. TEA 0.5 0.5 0.5
5. Glycerin 10 10 10
6. Dislled water up to 100 100 100
Table 2. General Appearance, Homogeneity and Irritation
Test Results
Formula General Appearance Homogeneity Irritaon Test
Specic Odor
Transparent White
Good Nil
Specic Odor
Opaque White
Good Nil
Specic Odor
Opaque White
Good Nil
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil... Febriyenti et. al.
Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis | Vol. 06 No. 03 | Desember 2019
Results of patchouli oil gel pH probe using Carbopol
gel base 940 for each formula that is F1 ranged from 6.3
to 6.5, ranging from 6.3 to 6.4 F2, F3 ranging from 6.2 to
6, 4. Results of pH measurement for 6 weeks showed a
decrease and an increase in pH which tends not too big
for storage so it can be concluded that the preparation of
a thermodynamically stable and the absence of either a
chemical reaction caused by the storage container or the
materials contained in the preparation. pH test results
using a base of patchouli oil gel Carbopol 940 gel for each
formula that is F1 ranged from 6.3 to 6.5, ranging from 6.3
to 6.4 F2, F3 ranged from 6.2 to 6.4.
The results of the test checks the power spread
patchouli oil stocks for each formula indicates the greater
concentration of patchouli oil, the higher the power
spread. Spreadibility test aims to see the spread of the
preparations when applied to the skin. This test were
performed using extensiometer method, which is done
manually by calculating the gain broad principle given by
preparation at a particular time if the given load with a
certain weight [26]. In the gel formulation using carbopol
base 940, viscosity decreases with increasing concentration
of active substance. This is due to the patchouli oil itself is
uid, so that with increasing concentrations of the active
substance, the consistency of the gel is also more dilute.
Figure 1. Physical appearance of patchouli oil gel
Table 3. PH of Patchouli Oil Gel
pH at week
1 2 3 4 56
F1 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.5 6.42
F2 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.37
F3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.30
Table 4. Spreading Test Results
Spreading (cm2)
1 g 3 g 5 g 7 g
F1 0.04 0.16 0.42 0.84
F2 0.08 0.22 0.64 0.96
F3 0.10 0.26 0.70 1.14
Formulation and Evaluation of Patchouli Oil... Febriyenti et. al.
Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis | Vol. 06 No. 03 | Desember 2019
[1] Chakrapani, P., K. Venkatesh, S.S.B. Chandra, A.J. B., P. Kumar, A.
P., and A.R. Rani, Phytochemical, Pharmacological Importance of
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth) an Aromac Medicinal
Plant. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2013. 21(2): 7-15.
[2] van Beek, T.A. and D. Joulain, The essenal oil of patchouli,
Pogostemon cablin: A review. Flavour Fragr. J., 2017: 1-46.
[3] Guenther, E., The essenal oils. Vol. 1. 1948, New York: Van Nostrand
Company Inc.
[4] Bhuiyan, M.N.I., V.K. Varshney, S.C. Varshney, A. Tomar, and F.
Akter, Composion of essenal oil of the leaf and inorescence of
Pogostemon benghalensis (Burm.f.) Kuntze. Internaonal Research
Journal of Plant Science, 2011. 2(9): 271-275.
[5] Ramya, H.G., V. Palanimuthu, and S. Rachna, An introducon to
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) - A medicinal and aromac
plant: It's importance to mankind. Agric. Eng. Int: CIGR Journal, 2013.
15(2): 243-250.
[6] Shigwan, A.V., A.B. Khade, B.C. Hatpakki, and S.M. Ghurghure, A
Comprehensive Review on Pogostemon benghalensis (Burm. F.)
O. Kuntze. Research and Reviews Journal of Pharmacognosy and
Phytochemistry, 2013. 1(1): 10-15.
[7] Richard, R. and R.M. Johnson, Managing supercial burn wounds.
Adv. Skin Wound Care, 2002. 15(5): 246-247.
[8] Thomas, S., Wound Management and Dressing. 1990, London: The
Pharmaceucal Press.
[9] Church, D., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay, Burn
Wound Infecons. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 2006. 19(2): 403 - 434.
[10] Alharbi, Z., A. Piatkowski, R. Dembinski, S. Reckort, G. Grieb, J.
Kauczok, and N. Pallua, Treatment of burns in the rst 24 hours:
simple and praccal guide by answering 10 quesons in a step-by-
step form. World Journal of Emergency Surgery, 2012. 7(13): 1-10.
[11] Winitchai, P., W. Thanapae, W. Kongtud, J. Ruangmarerng, C.
Meewang, and S. Supjarean, Anmicrobial Property of Essensial
Oil and Crude Extract from Patchouli Leaves (Pogostemon cablin). J.
Microbiology Kasetsart University Thailand, 2007.
[12] Kongkathip, N., P. Sam-ang, B. Kongkathip, Y. Pankaew, M.
Tanasombat, and P. Udomkusonsri, Development of patchouli
extracon with quality control and isolaon of acve compounds
with anbacterial acvity. Journal Kasetsart, 2009. 41: 519-525.
[13] Karimi, A., Characterizaon and anmicrobial acvity of patchouli
essenal oil extracted from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.
(Lamiaceae). Advances in Environmental Biology, 2014. 8(7): 2301-
[14] Hema, T.A., A.S. Arya, S. Subha, C.R.K. John, and P.V. Divya,
Anmicrobial acvity of ve south indian medicinal plants against
clinical pathogens. Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci., 2013. 4(1): 70-80.
[15] USP, The United States Pharmacopeia XXX - The Naonal Formulary
XXV. 2007, United States Pharmacopeial Convenon, Inc.: Rockville.
[16] Carter, S.S., Dispensing Pharmaceucal Student. 12th ed. 1975,
London: Piman Medical.
[17] Swarbrick, J. and J.C. Boylan, Encyclopedia of Pharmaceucal
Technology. 1992, Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York.
[18] Cooper and Gunn’s, Dispensing for pharmaceucal students. 12 ed.
1972, London: Pitman Medical Publishing.
[19] Kumar, L. and R. Verma, In vitro evaluaon of topical gel prepared
using natural polymer. Internaonal Journal of Drug Delivery, 2010.
2: 58 - 63.
[20] Cao, N., X. Yang, and Y. Fu, Eects of various plascizers on
mechanical and water vapor barrier properes of gelan lms. Food
Hydrocolloid, 2009. 23(3): 729-735.
[21] Misal, G., G. Dixit, and V. Gulkari, Formulaon and evaluaon of
herbal gel. Indian journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2012.
3(4): 501 - 505.
[22] Shivhare, U.D., K.B. Jain, V.B. Mathur, K.P. Bhusari, and A.A. Roy,
Formulaon development and evaluaon of diclofenac sodium
gel using water soluble polyacrylamide polymer. Digest Journal of
Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 2009. 4(2): 285 - 290.
[23] Marn, A., P. Bustamante, and A.H.C. Chun, eds. Physical Pharmacy.
Fourth ed. 2001, Lippinco Williams & Wilkins: Balmore.
[24] Islam, M.T., R.-H. N., S. Cio, and C. Ackermann, Rheological
characterizaon of topical carbomer gels neutralized to dierent pH.
Pharm. Res., 2004. 21(7): 1192-1199.
[25] Wade, A. and J.W. Paul, eds. Handbook of Pharmaceucal Excipient.
2nd ed. 1994, The Pharmaceucal Press.: London.
[26] Shukr, M.H. and G.F. Metwally, Evaluaon of Topical Gel Bases
Formulated with Various Essenal Oils for Anbacterial Acvity
against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Tropical Journal
of Pharmaceucal Research 2013. 12(6): 877-884.
Copyright © 2019 The author(s). You are free to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the
material for any purpose, even commercially) under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if
changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use; ShareAlike — If you remix,
transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original (
Gel with 2% patchouli oil was transparent. The greater
the concentration of patchouli oil, the more opaque the
gel is produced. The other parameters give results that are
not different for the three formulas.
Full-text available
Patchouli oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin, Benth) is known as the antimicrobial effect. Patchouli oil has been formulated into a gel dosage form. But the appearance of the gel could be improved to microemulsion and microemulgel. The aims of this study are to formulate the patchouli oil to microemulsion and microemulgel form and to determine the effect of the different dosage form to the ability of the patchouli oil to inhibit bacterial growth. Patchouli oil has been formulated to microemulsion (M) and microemulgel (MG) with three different concentrations i.e., 2%, 4%, and 6%. Evaluation of the resulting formulas included examining its general appearance, homogeneity, pH, stability test, spreadability test, and inhibition of bacterial growth. The results showed that patchouli oil microemulsion thinner than patchouli oil microemulgel. Microemulsion and microemulgel dosage forms were not affecting the ability of patchouli oil to inhibit of Citrobacter diversus and Staphylococcus .aureus bacterial growth.
Full-text available
Patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) has potential as an antioxidant and high volatility due to air and light, therefore it needs to be formulated in the form of a microemulsion. This research aims to determine the physical stability and antioxidant microemulsion of patchouli oil with different concentrations of Tween 80 and PEG 400. Microemulsions was prepared with patchouli oil content of 5% along with different concentration of Tween 80: PEG 400 were F1 (26%: 13%), F2 (13%: 26%) and for F3 (26%: 26%). The patchouli oil microemulsion was tested for physical stability by the cycling test method using a climatic chamber at a temperature of 40 oC ± 2oC and 4 oC ± 2oC for 6 cycles. Furthermore, the tests include organoleptic, homogeneity, viscosity, pH, and separation. The antioxidant test was carried out using the DPPH method, and the quantitative data on physical stability and antioxidants were analyzed by a t-dependent test. The stability test results showed that F2 and F3 had decreased viscosity after 6 storage cycles (p <0.05). The results of the homogeneity, pH and separation tests did not experience significant differences. The test results of patchouli oil microemulsion antioxidant activity showed no change in antioxidant activity during 6 storage cycles with the mean inhibition percent before and after the cycling test was 73,13 ± 0,38 %. Patchouli oil microemulsion with tween 80: PEG 400 26%: 13% showed the most stable physical quality and antioxidant properties.Keywords : Microemulsion, Patchouli Oil, Physical Stability, AntioxidantsMinyak nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) berpotensi sebagai antioksidan dan memiliki laju volatilitas tinggi akibat udara dan cahaya sehingga perlu diformulasikan dalam bentuk mikroemulsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui stabilitas fisik dan antioksidan mikroemulsi minyak nilam dengan variasi konsentrasi tween 80 dan PEG 400. Mikroemulsi dibuat dengan kadar minyak nilam 5% dan variasi konsentrasi campuran tween 80:PEG 400 adalah untuk F1 (26%:13%) dan F2 (13%:26%) serta untuk F3 (26%:26%). Mikroemulsi minyak nilam diuji stabilitas fisik dengan metode cycling test menggunakan climatic chamber pada suhu 40 oC ± 2oC dan 4 oC ± 2oC selama 6 siklus. Pengujian meliputi organoleptis, homogenitas, viskositas, pH, dan uji pemisahan. Uji antioksidan dilakukan menggunakan metode DPPH. Data kuantitatif dari stabilitas fisik dan antioksidan dianalisis dengan uji t-dependent. Hasil uji stabilitas menunjukkan F2 dan F3 mengalami penurunan viskositas setelah 6 siklus penyimpanan (p < 0,05). Hasil uji homogenitas,pH dan uji pemisahan tidak mengalami perbedaan bermakna. Hasil uji aktivitas antioksidan mikroemulsi minyak nilam menunjukkan tidak terjadi perubahan aktivitas antioksidan selama 6 siklus penyimpanan dengan rerata persen inhibisi sebelum dan sesudah cycling test adalah 73,13 ± 0,38 %. Mikroemulsi minyak nilam F1 dengan tween 80: PEG 400 26%:13% menunjukkan Mutu fisik dan sifat antioksidan yang paling stabil.Kata kunci : Mikroemulsi, Minyak Nilam, Stabilitas Fisik, Antioksidan
Full-text available
The leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae) are the source of patchouli essential oil, which is – with an annual production of about 1300 tonnes – an important and unique commodity in the fragrance industry. All the literature pertaining to patchouli was critically reviewed with an emphasis on the qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the oil but also harvesting, fermentation, drying, distillation, used analytical techniques, sensory aspects including molecules responsible for the odour, adulteration and toxicological aspects, i.e., skin sensitisation, are discussed. In total 72 constituents have been convincingly identified in the oil and another 58 tentatively. The main constituent is the sesquiterpene patchoulol. For this review over 600 papers were consulted and in the supplementary information all patchouli-related references not relevant enough to be cited in the paper itself are listed.
Full-text available
The present study has been undertaken with the aim to formulate and evaluate the polyherbal gel containing Cassia alata Linn., Cassia tora Linn. and Cynodon dactylon Pers. extract. The gel formulation was designed by using methanolic extract of leaves of C alata and C tora and aerial part of C. dactylon in varied concentrations (1, 2 and 4%). Topical anti-inflammatory activity of gel was also evaluated. The gel was prepared by using Carbopol 940 (1% w/v), C. alata, C. tora and C. dactylon extract, ethanol, propylene glycol 400, methyl paraban, propyl paraben, EDTA, tri-ethanolamine and required amount of distilled water. The prepared gels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, spread ability, skin irritation to observe toxicity or side effects and also for anti inflammatory activity. It was inferred from the results that gel formulations were good in appearance and homogeneity. The values of spread ability indicated that these polyherbal gels were easily spread able by small amount of shear. Viscosity of polyherbal gels were determined by using Brookfield viscometer and were ranging between 4500 to 4900 centipoise. The gels showed significant inhibition in carrageenan induced paw oedema and formalin induced paw oedema in Wistar rat models.
Full-text available
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), is a shrub with fragrant-smelling leaves from which patchouli oil is extracted. The oil has properties suitable for aromatherapy, relief of stress and anti-inflammatory activity. Water-steam distillation is the best method for extraction of patchouli oil. Fresh patchouli leaves gave much lower yield than dried leaves. Dried leaves fermented for 77 days at room temperature produced the highest yield (2.48% dry wt), which was much higher than from drying in an oven at 50°C for 40 h (0.30% dry wt). Soxhlet extraction of dried patchouli leaves with hexane for 15 h provided crude hexane extract (4.97% dry wt). The hexane extract was further separated and purified to obtain patchouli alcohol (0.05% dry wt), a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (0.09% dry wt) and 7,3 ',4- tri-O-methyleriodictyol (0.04% dry wt). Antibacterial activity assay showed that patchouli oil could inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis better than the hexane extract. Patchouli alcohol, a major component in patchouli oil, and the extract showed higher antibacterial activity than the mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol and 7,3',4-tri-O-methyleriodictyol. Therefore, patchouli alcohol could be used as a marker for quality control of patchouli oils and the extracts. Quantitative determination of patchouli alcohol in the patchoulil oils and the hexane extract was performed by GC-MS using the new optimum conditions. The results showed that patchouli oil contained more patchouli alcohol than the hexane extract. Time of leaf harvesting (3 months, 6 months and 9 months) was also important. Three-month harvesting of patchouli leaves gave the highest amount of patchouli oil and patchouli alcohol.
Full-text available
Purpose: To formulate topical gels containing various essential oils and evaluate their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) skin infections. Methods: The four essential oils namely, lemon grass, rosemary, thyme and basil were steam-distilled and then evaluated for their antibacterial activity against MRSA. Lemon grass and thyme oils were chosen for further studies, including analysis of their composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Gels were formulated using carbopol 940, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sodium carboxymethy cellulose with lemon grass oil and evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, spreadability rheological properties, antibacterial activity against MRSA and skin irritation in human volunteers. The selected gels were prepared with thyme oil alone or in combination with lemon grass oil and compared with that containing lemon grass oil alone. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lemon grass and thyme oils were 30 and 4 mu l/ml, respectively. Carbopol 940 gel (0.75 %) containing lemon grass oil showed good physical characteristics, including spreadability and rheological properties; it also showed the strongest antibacterial activity of the gels tested. No significant difference (p <= 0.05), were observed between the characteristics of the gels containing thyme oil alone and in combination with lemon grass oil. The antibacterial activity of the gel containing the two oils was approximately the sum of those containing the individual oils. No signs or symptoms of lesions, redness or itching were found when the gels were applied to the skin. Conclusion: The carbopol 940 gel containing lemon grass and thyme oils possess good antibacterial activity against MRSA when applied to human skin, and exhibit no skin irritation.
The physico-chemical properties of Philippine patchouli oil, hydro-distilled from fresh leaves and young shoots of Pogostemon cablin were characterized and found to be within the specifications set by the United States Essential Oils Society. Philippine patchouli oil and commercial patchouli oil have the same major components as shown by GC-MS analyses: patchouli alcohol, d-guaiene, a-guaiene, a-patchoulene, seychellene, [3-patchoulene, and transcaryophylene, with slightly lower concentrations in the Philippine oil. Using the disk diffusion method patchouli oil was found to be active against the gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Streptococcus species. Fifty five percent [11/20] of community and only 14.8% [9/61] of hospital- Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to an MIC of 0.03% [v/v.] and Sixtyfour percent or 23/36 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] isolates was sensitive to patchouli oil at 0.06%, as opposed to only 44% or 11/25 of the sensitive strains. Philippine patchouli essential oil was also active against several dermatophytes at 0.25%. The bioactivity of the oil was stable when refrigerated at its natural pH in the dark. Calculations by linear regression [8] and extrapolation of data showed that the shelf-life [t 5o] of Philippine patchouli oil had 6 years of age when stored at 30°C.
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) is a plant from Lamiaceae family, well known for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Patchouli is grown for its essential oil. Patchouli essential oil is mainly obtained by steam distillation of the shade dried leaves. It is widely appreciated for its characteristic pleasant and long lasting woody, earthy, camphoraceous odour. It is especially notable as the essential oil extracted is internationally important and valuable, principally for the aromatherapy, perfumery, cosmetics, incense stick production and food flavouring industries. This review attempted to give an overview of the relationship between aromatherapy and essential oils, importance of patchouli, harvesting pattern of patchouli, basics behind drying and steam distillation of patchouli crop, as well as trends existing in the various markets for essential oil application and its importance to mankind.
Aromatic plants have been commercially used as spices, natural flavor, raw material for essential-oil industry and other medicinal purpose. The use of essential oils continues to rise, both as a separate commodity and indirectly through a large range of beautycare and aromatherapy products. Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth; is a species from the genus Pogostemon and a bushy herb of the mint family. Patchouli leaves are the source for essential oils that constitutes more than 70 chemical compounds. The presence of these compounds imparts excellent therapeutic properties to Patchouli oils that cure various problems tormenting human beings. Production of patchouli oil in India is limited (10-15 tons/ annum). Global demand of Patchouli is 1600 tons of oil per annum with a value of 240 crores. It helps cultivators to meet the demand of the spices and pharmaceutical industry. The present communication constitutes a review on the study of phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, medicinal importance of an aromatic medicinal plant, Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Blanco) Benth. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth which possesses activities like antimicrobial, cytotoxic activity, antiemetic activity, analgesic, anti-mutagenic activity and anti-inflammatory activity and other important activities. Based upon the given significant information, Pogostemon cablin can be developed into novel natural medicine.
The antimicrobial activity of leaves of five South Indian medicinal plants Adhatoda vasika, Bacopa monnieri, Carica papaya, Cissampelos pareira and Cynodon dactylon, collected from regions of Kulathoor and Malayadi were investigated against ten clinical pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp.) using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method. The plant extracts were prepared using the solvents - acetone, ethanol and propanol. It is clear from the results that, the extract of five plants used in this study acts as a good source of antibiotics against various bacterial pathogens tested and exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids in all plants selected and other secondary metabolites like tannins, glycosides and saponins were also observed in all the extracts. The MIC values ranges between 3.175(g/ml and 12.5(g/ml, whereas MBC values ranges between 6.25(g/ml and 12.5(g/ml. The results of this study support the use of all the selected five medicinal plants to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals that address unmet therapeutic needs.
Editorial Reviews Product Description Now complete in 17 volumes, the Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology presents authoritative and contemporary articles on all aspects of drug development, dosage forms, manufacturing, and regulation;enabling the specialist and novice alike to keep abreast of developments in this rapidly evolving and highly competitive field. A dependable reference tool and a solid investment for years to come--maintaining currency through its supplements (Volume 18/Supplement 1 due to be published in the Fall, 1998)! The Encyclopedia contains interdisciplinary contributions in a wide array of subjects, including Drugs decomposition metabolism pharmaceutical incompatibilities pharmacokinetics physicochemical properties preformulation stability Drug Delivery Systems and Devices;Development and Manufacture analysis and controls bioavailability use of computerization formulation and processing alternatives national and international registration packaging patents process validation scale-up safety and efficacy stability standards Post-Production and Practical Considerations governmental/industrial/professional organizations legal aspects national and international agencies patent life of drugs patient compliance …and much, much more! Special Discount Offer New Subscribers ... save $415.00 off the subscription price of $3315.00! Purchase the entire 17-volume set for $2900.00 (only $171.00 per volume) offer expires 3/31/98 Missing volumes? For a limited time, complete your set at the special price of $171.00 per volume. offer expires 3/31/98 --This text refers to an alternate Hardcover edition.