ArticlePDF Available

Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality



Immersive visualizations refer to a novel way of representing data and information through spatial computing technologies such as augmented and virtual reality. It aims to enhance the user perspective for enhanced insights from data and information to assist in the various processes including but not limited to decision making, enhanced learning, higher precision, and cost savings. Various applications of AR and VR provide better visualizations over traditional methods resulting in better decision making, cost savings for organizations, enhanced experiences for consumers, and many more. Immersive products provide an edge over the competition for businesses and enhance brand value, better stakeholder communication, and higher client satisfaction. At times it also facilitates cost reduction in specific scenarios. Though AR and VR as technology are beneficial and advancing at a rapid pace, there are some short-term challenges in implementing immersive visualizations. To overcome these challenges and make immersive visualizations effective, solution providers need to design products and services which provide the appropriate level of presence, interactivity, and immersion based on application. The human-centered design needs to be adapted for more human senses as AR and VR can make use of visual, aural, and spatial dimensions.
Immersive Visualizations
Using Augmented Reality and
Virtual Reality
Madhusudan Rao
and Manoj Dawarwadikar
NTT Data Services Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, India
SP Jain School of Global Management, Sydney,
Bangalore, India
Augmented reality;Data visualization;Immersive
technologies;Information visualization;Virtual
Immersive visualizations refer to a novel way of
representing data and information through spatial
computing technologies such as augmented and
virtual reality. It aims to enhance the user perspec-
tive for enhanced insights from data and informa-
tion to assist in the various processes including but
not limited to decision making, enhanced learn-
ing, higher precision, and cost savings.
Immersive technologies such as augmented real-
ity and virtual reality have a transformational
effect on how complex data and information is
visualized. This trend has led to several applica-
tions across industries to adopt immersive visual-
izations. The reality-virtuality continuum has
served as a reference framework for classifying
different immersive technologies. The continuum
was a continuous scale ranging between the
completely virtual and completely real environ-
ment with visualization and immersion as the
primary inuencers (Milgram et al. 1995) (Fig. 1).
In this context, augmented reality, typically
called as AR, is a technology that superimposes
digital content on a users view of the real physical
world. It provides a composite view through a
device such as a smartphone, a tablet, or a smart-
glass. The AR has core capabilities of information
visualization, guiding the user and making the
environment interactive through mediums such
as gestures and voice (Porter and Heppelmann
2017). Latest developments in smartphone tech-
nologies such as sensor-based simultaneous
localization and mapping(SLAM), 3D render-
ing, and camera capabilities have made aug-
mented reality accessible to most consumers
with better applications (Pangilinan et al. 2019).
Virtual reality, typically called as VR, is a
computerized simulation of a new environment
with visuals and interactions through a head-
mounted device and controls. Vision, audio, and
haptic feedback create experiences that feel like
real. Virtual reality replaces physical reality with
computer-generated content and adds the core
capability of simulation in addition to AR
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
N. Lee (ed.), Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games,
(Porter and Heppelmann 2017). VR spectrum pro-
vides several usage patterns based on immersion
and interactivity. Web browser-based non-
immersive, noninteractive simple applications
such as consumption of 360-degree photos and
videos are at the lower end of the spectrum. At the
same time, head-mounted device (HMD) based
experiences with controllers and of freedom
provide complete immersion and real-time inter-
active experiences. The hardware requirements
for these experiences vary based on their com-
plexity and application (Pangilinan et al. 2019).
Mixed reality, typically known as MR, uses a
combination of augmented and virtual reality to
create engaging experiences. The extended real-
ity, typically known as XR, is an umbrella term
that covers augmented, virtual, and mixed reality.
It also encompasses other supporting technologies
such as AI (Articial Intelligence), 5G, IoT
(Internet of Things) to create engaging and inter-
active applications (Pangilinan et al. 2019).
AR and VR have wide-ranging applications
across industries. Depending on the need for inter-
activity, immersion, and visualization, the appli-
cations make use of AR or VR appropriately.
Enterprise sectors such as education, manufactur-
ing, healthcare, military, real estate have seen
early adoption of AR and VR for applications
such as simulated walkthroughs, remote surgeries,
combat training, employee training, and more
(Carmigniani et al. 2011; Sicaru et al. 2017). Con-
sumer segments such as retail, e-commerce, edu-
cation, gaming, entertainment, and tourism also
make use of AR and VR for applications such as
virtual try-on for products (Bonetti et al. 2018,
interactive books, interactive advertisements,
immersive videos, virtual tours of famous places
(Huang et al. 2016), and 3D interactive lessons
Kosa and Uysal 2019).
Since the advent of Internet and mobile
penetration, the amount of data and information
processed in every enterprise and consumer appli-
cation have grown exponentially. This situation
poses signicant challenges for users to make use
of data and information for activities such as deci-
sion making, gaining insights, learning effec-
tively, and collaborating. One of the critical
elements that makes data accessible and usable
for users is the visualization of it. The primary
objective of data and information visualization is
to facilitate learning and decision-making of users
across the personal and organizational spectrum
(Schintler and McNeely 2020).
As the complexity and volume of the informa-
tion and data are increasing exponentially, the
traditional methods of 2D and 3D visualizations
on at screens of computers or phones are not
sufcient enough. Hence, emerging technologies
such as AR and VR are being explored by
researchers and businesses.
Need for Immersive Visualization
There are various reasons data visualization is
increasingly becoming more critical in recent
times. With growing complexity and volume of
data, aggregation and creating insightful or
delightful experiences is a signicant challenge.
The purpose of visualization varies based on
applications, and some of the objectives are facil-
itating higher learning, speedier decision making,
and keeping the user at the center of data and
insights. This process must seamlessly work for
general as well as professional users (Schintler
and McNeely 2020).
Decision-making process analyses data to
extract patterns and facilitate the discovery of
knowledge or insights. Reducing the complexity
of data to discover trends and anomalies lead to
accelerated and more accurate decision making.
Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, Fig. 1 Reality-virtuality continuum as a
function of immersion (Milgram et al. 1995)
2 Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
Visual data mining techniques use human visual
perception to gain insights from patterns.
Immersive technologies assist signicantly in
this entire process (Moloney et al. 2018).
Scientic visualizations play an essential role
in facilitating learning and information sharing
among researchers, businesses, and government
organizations. Applications such as stocks analy-
sis or sports analytics are usually multi-
dimensional and hence difcult to visualize on
existing visualization technologies such as 2D or
3D. Entertainment and gaming applications
require greater interactivity to enjoy the overall
experience. Industrial applications, such as
healthcare training or enterprise training, require
a sense of physical presence to be more productive
(Sicat et al. 2018). Due to these several complex
situations, immersive visualizations become a
tool of preference for personal and enterprise use.
Augmented and virtual reality have been
extended from the original continuum to the
multidimensional realm. Now it covers a sense
of presence, level of interactivity, and the mecha-
nism to achieve these through the embodiment of
suitable devices (Flavián et al. 2019). In other
words, the primary characteristics of immersive
technologies such as delity with spatial, visual,
and aural senses of humans make it perfectly
suitable for complex data and information visual-
ization (Moloney et al. 2018).
Applications of AR and VR for Immersive
This section presents a summary of applications
from various industries which use immersive
visualizations through AR and VR to facilitate
decision making, learning, or experiences
Virtual Try-On of clothing or accessories through
augmented reality is picking up among consumers
as well as retailers. An in-store augmented mirror
setup provides users with a digital catalogue to
try-on for clothing and accessories. The proposed
AR application gives an enhanced shopping
experience compared to the physical model lead-
ing to higher customer satisfaction due to the
speedier decision-making process for shopping.
As a result, physical retail stores can provide
greater choice to users similar to online methods
and augment it with a sense of a physical presence
(Bonetti et al. 2018).
A study was conducted that ingested data from
neuro-scientic tools such as tracking eye move-
ments, storing navigation, and selecting the
brands in a virtual supermarket, performing data
analysis, and thereby gaining insights about con-
sumer choices, customer experience, and shop-
ping behavior in a store. Qualitative analysis was
also used to compare the choices of consumers
and the subsequent outcomes and sales. The over-
all suggestions correlated high attention devoted
to a brand and slow eye movements (between
brands), to additional brand purchases within the
category. The outcome of the results meant that
that the additional brand choices drive the time
buyers spent on the rst choice. Hence, less time
available for the rst selection leads to additional
purchases within the product category and
increased sales (Bigne et al. 2015). This is a
good use-case of how a VR environment was
used to identify retail consumersbehaviors to
improve product placements and, hence, increase
The training and manufacturing process of assem-
bling desktop computers is enhanced with AR to
convert instructions manual into a step-by-step
visual guide. The proposed AR app is a simplied
process to follow for new employees without los-
ing the tasks context. The clarity of instructions
leads to reduced errors and lesser training costs
incurred by the organizations. Thus, productivity
is higher, and product quality is also enhanced
(Osborne and Mavers 2019).
By combining the manufacturing industry with
VR technology, enterprises can remain competi-
tive by utilizing quality inputs in new product
developments. In manufacturing enterprises, by
its visualization and immersive experience, VR
helps in aggregating relevant information and
enables faster decision-making during the product
Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality 3
development processes. A thorough analysis
shows the increasing use of VR technologies and
further research being conducted to increase the
practical use of VR technologies (Choi
et al. 2015).
A virtual tour of heritage locations provides
immersive history and cultural experiences to stu-
dents. In one of the examples, a 360-degree virtual
simulation is created at the historical center of the
city of Rethymno in Greece to teach ancient his-
tory and culture. A virtual reali ty application gives
learners a higher attention span due to a virtual
environment free of distractions. The additional
sense of physical presence helps to facilitate
greater understanding and engagement to the
learners. The level of interactivity fostered
through the VR application evokes higher interest
in learners than just consuming content over the
screen (Argyriou et al. 2020).
Real Estate
4D CAD models and immersive visualizations are
used in structural steel framing operations to
showcase the design and construction process to
all stakeholders for approvals and updates.
Through effective visualizations, construction
processes and operations are streamlined pro-
cesses. The outcome means the decision-making
process is effective due to lesser ambiguity
reduced errors and greater participation and
engagement of all stakeholders (Kamat
et al. 2010).
Patient care and training in the poststroke phase
are one of the healthcare use cases using
immersive technologies. The rehabilitation of
body-part functioning (such as hands) is enhanced
through AR assisted devices for common tasks
such as reaching out and grasping objects. The
approach involving AR helps give haptic feed-
back, and the interactivity helps in accelerating
the patientsrehabilitation process. The process is
highly scalable due to the re-use of the virtual
environment resulting in cost saving for patient
care. As AR systems are easy to set up, the manual
operations effort is reduced (Xun et al. 2005)
(Fig. 2).
The surgical workplace is transforming with
the help of emerging technologies like VR and
AR. VR applications play an important role in
healthcare by enhancing the medical use of data
such as anatomy, intraoperative surgery, or post-
operative rehabilitation. This process is acceler-
ated by an increase in the availability and speed of
VR hardware and a reduction in price (Khor et al.
2016) (Fig. 3).
Tourist destination marketing is using virtual real-
ity to spread interesting information among cus-
tomers. Creating interactive and informative
virtual worlds to market tourist destinations is
attracting customers. This method of using
immersive visualizations provides higher con-
sumer engagement and more credible marketing
efforts resulting in less ambiguity for customers.
Hence, marketers receive a higher satisfaction rate
from their consumers as the immersive visualiza-
tion of destination gives a more realistic look and
feel of what to expect. The outcome is that the
customers make their decisions faster (Huang
et al. 2016; Huang and Liao 2015).
Augmented reality applications are enhancing
the overall tourism experience by providing more
context-specic information in a museum. The
tourists could use their smartphone camera and
augmented reality application to know interesting
information such as history and facts about each
article presented in a museum. This experience
signicantly adds value to the tourists knowledge
in a very engaging way without losing the context
and language barriers in a foreign location (Yung
and Catheryn 2019).
Virtual reality and interactive, immersive games
are being used to increase mindfulness. Its appli-
cations include therapy for pain management and
mental wellbeing.The VR approach offers con-
textual visualizations leading to lower mental
stress and perceived pain. The immersive
approach avoids distractions from the real-world
to assist in the healing process. This ultimately
4 Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
leads to higher satisfaction among patients and
speedier recovery (Kosa and Uysal 2018).
Interactive prints and immersive storytelling are
revolutionizing the journalism industry.
Augmenting the print media formats with digital
content through AR and immersive storytelling
makes news more effective and engaging. The
immersive storytelling approach makes for more
effective storytelling (via interactive media). The
digital augmentation enhances the value of
existing media such as print to make it more
relevant for the users. It enables the users to get
an easier transition from the existing medium to a
new medium without losing context. Some of the
limitations in this approach are lack of hardware
availability, lack of tools for content creation, and
lack of awareness among consumers (Pavlik and
Bridges 2013).
Immersive storytelling is also experimented
through virtual reality by many leading broadcast-
ing and publishing companies such as The
New York Times to deliver a rst-person account
of refugees during displacement due to crisis.
These short experiences put a consumer in the
middle of the action through 360-degree videos
and evoke a strong sense of reality and empathy.
The use of VR transforms the news from an
account of data and information to an experience
that heightened the learning as well as entertain-
ment of the consumer. One of the limitations in
this approach is shorter usage span of virtual real-
ity due to headset issues, hence short, and bite-
sized documentaries are popularly used for such
experiences (Sirkkunen and Uskali 2016).
Immersive Visualizations
Using Augmented
Reality and Virtual
Fig. 2 Rehabilitation
process of the stroke
patients using AR apps.
(Xun et al. 2005)
Immersive Visualizations
Using Augmented
Reality and Virtual
Reality, Fig. 3 Surgeons
using Google Glass in
Operating theatres. (Khor
et al. 2016)
Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality 5
Military training uses virtual reality to simulate
battleground and teach strategic tactics through
interactive training for the forces. The VR simu-
lations enhance both the navigation and coordina-
tion capabilities among soldiers. This method
provides a more accurate representation of war
scenarios and difcult situations than usual
mediums due to its immersive environment and
interactivity. The immersive simulations provide
scalability and exibility in training content
(Livingston et al. 2011) (Fig. 4).
Augmented reality is used as a handy tool to
disseminate real-time context-aware information
in a military operation. This objective can be
achieved through a head-mounted AR glass or a
handheld device such as a smartphone. The usage
of AR also helps in getting remote assistance or
recreation of a specic environment, such as a
demolished structure. It helps understand minor
and vital details about the actual environment and
make rapid decisions in combat situations. Navi-
gation information is also delivered on an AR
headset to guide the personnel making the expe-
rience seamless (Dodevska et al. 2018).
There are various technical as well as business
challenges in implementing immersive visualiza-
tions using AR and VR. VR experiences are lim-
ited by the quality of the headset, quality of
software applications, and interactivity issues.
Standalone wireless headset suffers due to pro-
cessing capability, weight, eld-of-view, and bat-
tery life. High-end PC based VR headsets are
difcult to set up and expensive. If not designed
well, software applications can deliver a bad expe-
rience to users, including motion sickness. Inter-
activity is currently limited to the use of
controllers and hand gestures, which are still
evolving. Augmented reality experiences on AR
glasses are limited by the design, size, weight,
battery, and eld of view of the headset.
Smartphone-based AR experiences are widely
used now. However, they do not provide rich,
immersive experiences and interactivity. They
suffer from issues such as dependency on a spe-
cic smartphone model, GPU capabilities of
smartphone and smartphone hardware such as
camera and display. Business limitations such as
awareness about the technology, cost of adopting
the technology, and consumer readiness are being
researched for AR and VR implementation. Lack
of maturity of the eco-system, such as availability
of suitable hardware, software, and content, is also
Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, Fig. 4 Military training simulation
example, using Virtual Reality
6 Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
a challenge (Chandra and Kumar 2018;
Leovaridis and Bahnă2017; Porter and
Heppelmann 2017).
Various applications of AR and VR provide better
visualizations over traditional methods resulting
in better decision making, cost savings for orga-
nizations, enhanced experiences for consumers,
and many more. Immersive products provide an
edge over the competition for businesses and
enhance brand value, better stakeholder commu-
nication, and higher client satisfaction. At times it
also facilitates cost reduction in specic scenarios.
Though AR and VR as technology are benecial
and advancing at a rapid pace, there are some
short-term challenges in implementing immersive
visualizations. To overcome these challenges and
make immersive visualizations effective, solution
providers need to design products and services
which provide the appropriate level of presence,
interactivity, and immersion based on application.
The human-centered design needs to be adapted
for more human senses as AR and VR can make
use of visual, aural, and spatial dimensions.
Mindfulness, Virtual Reality, and Video Games
Argyriou, L., Economou, D., Bouki, V.: Design methodol-
ogy for 360° immersive video applications: the case
study of a cultural heritage virtual tour. Pers. Ubiquit.
Comput. (2020).
Bigne, E., Llinares, C., Torrecilla Moreno, C.: Elapsed
time on rst buying triggers brand choices within a
category: a virtual reality-based study. J. Bus. Res. 69,
Bonetti, F., Warnaby, G., Quinn, L.: Augmented reality and
virtual reality in physical and online retailing: a review,
synthesis and research agenda. In: Jung, T., Claudia,
M. (eds.) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality,
pp. 119132. Springer, Cham (2018)
Carmigniani, J., Furht, B., Anisetti, M., Ceravolo, P.,
Damiani, E., Ivkovic, M.: Augmented reality technol-
ogies, systems and applications. Multimed. Tools Appl.
51(1), 341377 (2011)
Chandra, S., Kumar, K.N.: Exploring factors inuencing
organizational adoption of augmented reality in
e-commerce: empirical analysis using technology--
organization-environment model. J. Electron. Commer.
Res. 19(3), (2018)
Choi, S., Jung, K., Do Noh, S.: Virtual reality applications
in manufacturing industries: past research, present nd-
ings, and future directions. Concurr. Eng. 23, (2015).
Dodevska, Z., Mihic, M., Manasijevic, S.: The role of
augmented reality in defensive activities, (2018)
Flavián, C., Ibáñez-Sánchez, S., Orús, C.: The impact of
virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies on
the customer experience. J. Bus. Res. 100, 547560
Huang, T.L., Liao, S.: A model of acceptance of
augmented-reality interactive technology: the moderat-
ing role of cognitive innovativeness. Electron.
Commer. Res. 15(2), 269295 (2015)
Huang, Y.C., Backman, K.F., Backman, S.J., Chang, L.L.:
Exploring the implications of virtual reality technology
in tourism marketing: an integrated research frame-
work. Int. J. Tour. Res. 18(2), 116128 (2016)
Kamat, V., Golparvar-Fard, M., Martinez, J., Peña-Mora,
F., Fischer, M., Savarese, S.: CEC: research in visual-
ization techniques for eld construction. J Const Eng
Manag. 137,(2010).
Khor, W., Baker, B., Amin, K., Chan, A., Patel, K., Wong,
J.: Augmented and virtual reality in surgery-the digital
surgical environment: applications, limitations and
legal pitfalls. Ann Translat Med. 4, 454454 (2016).
Kosa, M., Uysal, A., et al. Acceptance of Virtual Reality
Games: A Multi-Theory Approach. International Jour-
nal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations
(IJGCMS), 12(1), 4370 (2020).
Leovaridis, C., Bahnă, M.: Aspects regarding virtual real-
ity as innovation in creative industries. Rev Romana
Soc. 28, (2017)
Livingston, M., Rosenblum, L., Brown, D., Schmidt, G.,
Julier, S., Baillot, Y., Swan, J., Ai, Z., Maassel, P.:
Military Applications of Augmented Reality. Springer,
New York (2011).
Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., Kishino, F.: Aug-
mented reality: a class of displays on the reality-
virtuality continuum. Telemanipulator Telepresence
Technologies. 2351, 282292 (1995).
Moloney, J., Spehar, B., Globa, A., et al.: The affordance of
virtual reality to enable the sensory representation of
multi-dimensional data for immersive analytics: from
Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality 7
experience to insight. J Big Data. 5, 53 (2018). https://
Osborne, M., Mavers, S.: Integrating augmented reality in
training and industrial applications. In: 2019 Eighth
International Conference on Educational Innovation
through Technology (EITT). IEEE, Biloxi (2019).
Pangilinan, E., Lukas, S., Mohan, V.: Creating Augmented
and Virtual Realities: Theory and Practice for Next-
Generation Spatial Computing. OReilly Media, Inc,
Sebastopol (2019)
Pavlik, J.V., Bridges, F.: The emergence of augmented
reality (AR) as a storytelling medium in journalism.
J Comm Monog. 15(1), 459 (2013)
Porter, M.E., Heppelmann, J.E.: Why every organization
needs an augmented reality strategy. Harv. Bus. Rev.
95(6), 4657 (2017)
Schintler, A.L., McNeely, C.L.: Encyclopedia of Big Data.
Springer, Cham (2020)
Sicaru, I.A., Ciocianu, C.G., Boiangiu, C.A.: A survey on
augmented reality. J Inf Syst Oper Manag. 11(2),
Sicat, R., Li, J., Choi, J., Cordeil, M., Jeong, W.K., Bach,
B., Pster, H.: Dxr: a toolkit for building immersive
data visualizations. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph.
25(1), 715725 (2018)
Sirkkunen, E., Uskali, T.: Journalism in virtual reality:
opportunities and future research challenges. In: Pro-
ceedings of the 20th International Academic Mindtrek
Conference (2016)
Xun, L., Kline, T., Fischer, H.C., Stubbleeld, K.A., Ken-
yon, R.V., Kamper, D.G.: Integration of augmented
reality and assistive devices for post-stroke hand open-
ing rehabilitation. In: 2005 IEEE Engineering in Med-
icine and Biology 27th Annual Conference, Shanghai
Yung, R., Catheryn, K.-L.: New realities: a systematic
literature review on virtual reality and augmented real-
ity in tourism research. Curr. Issue Tour. 22(17),
20562081 (2019)
8 Immersive Visualizations Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality
... However, it is noteworthy that extended reality (XR) is an emerging umbrella term for all immersive technologies, covering AR, VR, and MR [91], and encompassing other supporting technologies such as artificial intelligence), 5G, and Internet of Things to create engaging and interactive applications [92]. ...
Full-text available
The realm of architecture has been influenced by the expansion in virtual environments (VEs), along with Industry 4.0 technologies transforming human–VE interactions. Despite increasing scholarly interest in embodied experience-integrated VE, there have been few comprehensive literature reviews undertaken on VEs from a holistic experience perspective. Therefore, this article reviews the literature on the embodied experiential dimension of VEs that has become necessary to adapt theories and methodologies in a way that enhances the user experience in a VE. This study employs a bibliometric analysis to review research performance and undertake a science mapping of the literature. The 969 pieces of data retrieved from Web of Science were subjected to a performance analysis, and VOSviewer was used to visualize the intellectual structure and research themes. The results of this study emphasize the strength and growing interest in VEs from the embodied experience perspective. Another significant finding is that VE experience studies are mostly based on embodied technologies. In this paper, the results of analyses are discussed in terms of productivity, collaboration, and research themes for future. This study contributes to the literature by providing a significant theoretical reference for the potential of the embodied experience in VE research, which will mostly attract the interest of architectural design researchers.
3D Avatar is a representation of human users in a Virtual reality environment. It represents the body of the user, interaction of the user with the surrounding environment, and other users in the virtual world to enhance the realism of the overall experience. It facilitates collaboration among various users and the virtual environment in multiplayer games, remote collaboration meetings, virtual events, immersive learning classes, and many such applications.
Full-text available
As virtual reality (VR) games are getting more widespread, the need to understand the interaction between players and the VR games is gaining prominence. The present study examines player endorsement of virtual reality games from an amalgamation of technology acceptance, self-determination, and flow theory perspectives. A survey was carried out with participants (N = 396) who had played a VR game at least once and at most five times. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that perceived ease of use was the primary predictor for satisfaction of self-determination constructs (autonomy and competence) and flow constructs (immersion and concentration), which in turn predicted player enjoyment. Accordingly, the results suggest the importance of including self-determination constructs in addition to the flow perspective within the context of technology acceptance model, for explaining the acceptance of VR gaming. Findings also showed that enjoyment resulted in positive attitudes towards VR gaming, and these attitudes predicted intention to play VR games.
Full-text available
Three hundred sixty–degree (360°) immersive video applications for Head Mounted Display (HMD) devices offer great potential in providing engaging forms of experiential media solutions especially in Cultural Heritage education. Design challenges emerge though by this new kind of immersive media due to the 2D form of resources used for their construction, the lack of depth, the limited interaction and the need to address the sense of presence. In addition, the use of Virtual Reality (VR) headsets often causes nausea, or motion sickness effects imposing further implications in moderate motion design tasks. This paper introduces a methodological categorisation of tasks and techniques for the design of 360° immersive video applications. Following the design approach presented, a testbed application has been created as an immersive interactive virtual tour at the historical centre of the city of Rethymno in Crete, Greece, which has undergone user trials. Based on the analysis of the results of this study, a set of design guidelines for the implementation of 360° immersive video virtual tours is proposed.
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present the concept of Augmented Reality (AR) and a summary of the approaches used for this technique. Augmented Reality is a technique that superimposes 3D virtual objects into the user's environment in real time. We analyze the technical requirements that are addressed in order to provide the user with the best AR experience of his surrounding context. We also take into account the specificity of certain domains and how AR systems interact with them. The purpose of this survey is to present the current state-of-the-art in augmented reality.
Full-text available
Abstract Using the theory of affordance from perceptual psychology and through discussion of literature within visual data mining and immersive analytics, a position for the multi-sensory representation of big data using virtual reality (VR) is developed. While it would seem counter intuitive, information-dense virtual environments are theoretically easier to process than simplified graphic encoding—if there is alignment with human ecological perception of natural environments. Potentially, VR affords insight into patterns and anomalies through dynamic experience of data representations within interactive, kinaesthetic audio-visual virtual environments. To this end we articulate principles that can inform the development of VR applications for immersive analytics: a mimetic approach to data mapping that aligns spatial, aural and kinaesthetic attributes with abstractions of natural environments; layered with constructed features that complement natural structures; the use of cross-modal sensory mapping; a focus on intermediate levels of contrast; and the adaptation of naturally occurring distribution patterns for the granularity and distribution of data. While it appears problematic to directly translate visual data mining techniques to VR, the ecological approach to human perception discussed in this article provides a new framework for big data visualization researchers to consider.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Achievement of strategy objectives of defensive organizations is in close connection with the use of an adequate technology. This paper explains why augmented reality, technology that superimposes digital information over real world information, requires special attention in defense industry. The authors identified and described several key roles of AR in defensive activities: real situations with special focus on critical situations, trainings, real-time remote collaboration, maintenance, repair, and overhaul, as well as security system checks. Some challenges of using AR in defensive activities are outlined, and hints for future researches of this increasingly important technology are given.
Full-text available
This paper presents DXR, a toolkit for building immersive data visualizations based on the Unity development platform. Over the past years, immersive data visualizations in augmented and virtual reality (AR, VR) have been emerging as a promising medium for data sense-making beyond the desktop. However, creating immersive visualizations remains challenging, and often require complex low-level programming and tedious manual encoding of data attributes to geometric and visual properties. These can hinder the iterative idea-to-prototype process, especially for developers without experience in 3D graphics, AR, and VR programming. With DXR, developers can efficiently specify visualization designs using a concise declarative visualization grammar inspired by Vega-Lite. DXR further provides a GUI for easy and quick edits and previews of visualization designs in-situ, i.e., while immersed in the virtual world. DXR also provides reusable templates and customizable graphical marks, enabling unique and engaging visualizations. We demonstrate the flexibility of DXR through several examples spanning a wide range of applications.
Full-text available
Despite the growing interest and discussions on Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in tourism, we do not yet know systematically the knowledge that has been built from academic papers on VR and AR in tourism; if and how VR and AR research intersect, the methodologies used to research VR and AR in tourism, and the emerging contexts in which VR and AR have surfaced in tourism research. By conducting a systematic literature review on VR/AR research in tourism, this work seeks to answer five main research questions: (1) Which tourism sectors and contexts have VR and AR research emerged in?; (2) Which forms of VR and AR have garnered the most attention in tourism research?; (3 and 4) What methodologies/theories are being utilized to research VR and AR in tourism?; and (5) What are the research gaps in VR and AR tourism research? From a synthesis of 46 manuscripts, marketing and tourism education emerged as the most common contexts. However, issues with heterogeneity appeared in terminology usage alongside a lack of theory-based research in VR and AR. Also, gaps were identified where challenges identified revolved around awareness of the technology, usability, and time commitment.
The arrival of Virtual-Reality, Augmented-Reality, and Mixed-Reality technologies is shaping a new environment where physical and virtual objects are integrated at different levels. Due to the development of portable and embodied devices, together with highly interactive, physical-virtual connections, the customer experience landscape is evolving into new types of hybrid experiences. However, the boundaries between these new realities, technologies and experiences have not yet been clearly established by researchers and practitioners. This paper aims to offer a better understanding of these concepts and integrate technological (embodiment), psychological (presence), and behavioral (interactivity) perspectives to propose a new taxonomy of technologies, namely the “EPI Cube”. The cube allows academics and managers to classify all technologies, current and potential, which might support or empower customer experiences, but can also produce new experiences along the customer journey. The paper concludes with theoretical and managerial implications, as well as a future research agenda.
Despite positive attitudes towards augmented reality (AR) technology and the rich consumer experience that the technology offers, AR technology adoption and usage to enhance the customer experience in e-commerce is rather limited. In this research, leveraging on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, we propose various factors that influence the adoption intention of AR from an organizational perspective. Analysis of organizational adoption of AR for e-commerce will bring out important factors organizations should focus on while considering the implementation of AR technologies to enhance the shopping experience of their consumers. Specifically, the study theorizes the role of technological factors (technological competence and relative advantage), organizational factors (decision-makers' knowledge, financial strength, and top management support), and environmental factors (consumer readiness and competitive pressure) in influencing an organization's adoption of AR for e-commerce. We test the proposed research model via a sample of potential adopters from Singapore, India, and the USA. Results highlight the significant roles of technology competence, relative advantage, top management support, and consumer readiness in influencing an organization's adoption intention of AR for e-commerce. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.