This chapter introduces a combination of theoretical concepts that inform and motivate the empirical analysis of the next chapters. These are relational class theory, power structure analysis, accumulation strategies, revolving doors, the competition state, dependent development, socio-economic disintegration, economic nationalism, neo-nationalism and the accumulative state. These concepts are the fundamental building blocks of the causal mechanism developed in the book and synthesised in the concluding chapter. Instead of identifying the Hungarian case as a deviation from capitalist norms, the chapter interprets authoritarian politics in the context of capital accumulation, while also rejecting economic determinism that characterises much of critical political economy. Hungary’s authoritarian turn is the result of the reconfiguration of the dominant power bloc and the concomitant change in the accumulation strategy within the context of dependent development. The chapter concludes with a detailed description of the data and methodology.