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Abstract

We investigated how sharing performance on Facebook and Twitter is influenced both by news articles’ content characteristics and the availability of additional news articles reporting on the same news topic. We conducted a multi-method study, integrating automated data collection and manual/automated content analyses of 1,764 German online news articles. Our findings show the influence of news factors and, more importantly, news outlets on sharing performance, while simultaneously highlighting differences between the logics of news sharing on Facebook and Twitter. We also find that the first article reporting on a news event is shared more often than subsequent articles.

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... Based on the idea of news values, communication scholars have argued that some news articles are more "shareworthy" (Trilling, Tolochko, & Burscher, 2017) than others. Despite disagreement on specific features, shareworthiness studies largely confirmed that shareworthiness can be determined based on an article's textual features (e.g., Karnowski, Leiner, Sophie Kümpel, & Leonhard, 2020;Trilling et al., 2017). . ...
... For one, users are influenced by popularity cues such as the number of shares displayed next to an item (Messing & Westwood, 2014), further accelerating the feedback loop of popular content getting both viewed and shared more, and hence reducing the impact of content differences. Additionally, the criteria that determine the newsworthiness of an item for journalists and consumers also by and large explain their shareworthiness (e.g., Karnowski et al., 2020;Trilling et al., 2017). ...
... Consequently, source cues also influence sharing patterns. For instance, prior research has shown that tweets from trusted sources such as news media organizations are shared more on Twitter (An, Quercia, Cha, Gummadi, & Crowcroft, 2014), and that specific sources can be very good predictors of news sharing (Karnowski et al., 2020;Trilling et al., 2017). Previous research, however, often could not disentangle the role of the source from its popularity. ...
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Abstract: How is political news shared online? This fundamental question for political communication research in today's news ecology is still poorly understood. In particular, very little is known how explaining news sharing differs from explaining news viewing. Based on a unique dataset of approximately 870,000$ URLs shared approximately 100 million times on Facebook, grouped by countries, age brackets, and months, we study the predictors of viewing versus sharing of political versus non-political news. We first identify websites that at least occasionally contain news items, and then analyze metrics of the news items published on these websites. We enrich the dataset with natural language processing and supervised machine learning. We find that political news items are viewed less than non-political news items, but are shared more than one would expect based on their views. Furthermore, the source of a news item and textual features often studied in clickbait research and in commercial A/B testing matter. Our findings are conditional on age and time, but are robust across four different countries (Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Poland). Taken together, our findings call for stronger theoretical differentiation (a) between predictors of viewing and sharing of news, and (b) between the underlying mechanisms in sharing political versus non-political news.
... An influential strain of this literature explains online news sharing as a function of how platform affordances make each SNS unique in its dynamics and characteristics (Bastos, 2015;Christin, 2015;Kalsnes & Larsson, 2018;Karnowski et al., 2020;Trilling et al., 2017). Alternatively or additionally, news sharing is also explained by journalism studies in terms of general human selection criteria or similar concepts from evolutionary psychology and cognitive accessibility theories (Trilling et al., 2017). ...
... 52-53). Bastos (2015), Christin (2015), Kalsnes and Larsson (2018), Karnowski et al. (2020) found similar results by analyzing data from different countries. ...
... As suggested above, there is little room for uncontested answers to this question because the available evidence is rather heterogeneous and even conflicting. Some studies will identify Facebook as infertile soil for hard news and PA articles (Bright, 2016;Karnowski et al., 2020;Trilling et al., 2017), others will suggest alternative accounts (Lycarião & Leite, 2020;Martin, 2019;Ørmen, 2019 Certainly, there is, overall, a greater tendency to soft stories in everyday news sharing, but this type of sharing activity has a lesser engagement and reach than the top quartile sharing, so is not as publicly visible. Further, when people are doing ordinary lowlevel commendation, they are more likely to exchange PA-oriented news features and opinion content, suggesting they are regularly engaged in conversations about socially significant issues. ...
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Current literature on online news sharing presents a range of methods and results, alongside contradictory explanations for the phenomenon. To disentangle this, we compared three countries with contrasting levels of political stability (Brazil, Canada and the US). A content analysis of articles (n = 1.658) posted in 2016, on the main news pages in Facebook for each country, shows that the Canadian news pages presented far less news sharing on national politics conflicts than Brazil and the US did. We discuss how this shows the relevance of political context in explaining both news routines and shareworthiness.
... An influential strain of this literature explains online news sharing as a function of how platform affordances make each SNS unique in its dynamics and characteristics (Bastos, 2015;Christin, 2015;Kalsnes & Larsson, 2018;Karnowski et al., 2020;Trilling et al., 2017). Alternatively or additionally, news sharing is also explained by journalism studies in terms of general human selection criteria or similar concepts from evolutionary psychology and cognitive accessibility theories (Trilling et al., 2017). ...
... 52-53). Bastos (2015), Christin (2015), Kalsnes and Larsson (2018), Karnowski et al. (2020) found similar results by analyzing data from different countries. ...
... As suggested above, there is little room for uncontested answers to this question because the available evidence is rather heterogeneous and even conflicting. Some studies will identify Facebook as infertile soil for hard news and PA articles (Bright, 2016;Karnowski et al., 2020;Trilling et al., 2017), others will suggest alternative accounts (Lycarião & Leite, 2020;Martin, 2019;Ørmen, 2019 Certainly, there is, overall, a greater tendency to soft stories in everyday news sharing, but this type of sharing activity has a lesser engagement and reach than the top quartile sharing, so is not as publicly visible. Further, when people are doing ordinary lowlevel commendation, they are more likely to exchange PA-oriented news features and opinion content, suggesting they are regularly engaged in conversations about socially significant issues. ...
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ABSTRACT – Current literature on online news sharing presents a range of methods and results, alongside contradictory explanations for the phenomenon. To disentangle this, we compared three countries with contrasting levels of political stability (Brazil, Canada and the US). A content analysis of articles (n = 1.658) posted in 2016, on the main news pages in Facebook for each country, shows that the Canadian news pages presented far less news sharing on national politics conflicts than Brazil and the US did. We discuss how this shows the relevance of political context in explaining both news routines and shareworthiness. RESUMO – A literatura sobre compartilhamento de notícias online apresenta uma gama de métodos e resultados com linhas contraditórias de explicação para o fenômeno. Para destrinchar o problema, comparamos três países com níveis contrastantes de estabilidade política (Brasil, Canadá e EUA). Uma análise de conteúdo de notícias (n = 1.658) postadas nas principais páginas noticiosas do Facebook de cada país em 2016 mostra que as páginas canadenses apresentaram muito menos compartilhamento sobre conflitos políticos nacionais do que nos EUA e Brasil. Discutimos como isso mostra a relevância do contexto político para explicar as rotinas produtivas e a compartilhabilidade. RESUMEN – La literatura actual sobre el intercambio de noticias en línea presenta una variedad de métodos y resultados junto con líneas de explicación contradictorias para el fenómeno. Para desenredar esto, comparamos tres países con niveles contrastantes de estabilidad política (Brasil, Canadá y EE. UU.). Un análisis de contenido de los artículos (n = 1.658) publicados en las principales páginas de noticias en Facebook de cada país en 2016 muestra que las páginas de noticias canadienses presentaron mucho menos intercambio de noticias sobre conflictos políticos nacionales. Lo contrario ocurrió en Brasil y Estados Unidos. Discutimos cómo esto muestra la relevancia del contexto político para explicar tanto las rutinas informativas como las compartidas.
... A series of recent studies analyzed the role of social media in disseminating news content by comparing news values, topics, digital-native and traditional news websites (Garcia-Perdomo et al., 2018;, other research focused on content characteristics of news stories and their influence on Facebook and Twitter recommendations (Karnowski, Leiner, Sophie Kümpel, & Leonhard, 2020), and the effects of frames on people's decision to share news (Valenzuela et al., 2017). Hyper-partisanship of the news outlets was also found to affect audience engagement in connection to source transparency and emotional content (Xu, Sang, & Kim, 2017). ...
Article
The study employed a quantitative content analysis of stories (N = 1200) and photographs (N = 1200) to examine how U.S. digital-native and traditional news websites of different political orientations (right-leaning vs left-leaning) represented immigration in frames, topics and visual frames. Social media engagement was also analyzed to understand how people react to news content. Both in stories and images, left-leaning news websites focused more often on victimization, while right-leaning outlets emphasized threat. This trend was even more pronounced among digital-native news websites. Traditional left-leaning news sites generated the highest number of social media interactions.
... Information that is eas-ily brought to one's mind is more likely to be shared; indeed, the proximity aspect is a crucial predictor of news-and shareworthiness, including in research concerned with the EU in particular (Boomgaarden et al., 2013;García-Perdomo et al., 2018;Harcup & O'Neill, 2017;Trilling et al., 2017). Rooted in evolutionary psychology, the news values of conflict and negativity have repeatedly been found central to news values and indicators of shareworthiness (García-Perdomo et al., 2018;Harcup & O'Neill, 2017;Karnowski et al., 2021), including in studies of EU news (Boomgaarden et al., 2013;Gattermann, 2013). Finally, the emotionality of news content is often studied in analyses of shareworthiness (García-Perdomo et al., 2018) and represents an important news value (Harcup & O'Neill, 2017). ...
Article
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The EU is diagnosed with a participation deficit, rooted in a lack of public communication. While news media are the primary source of information about EU politics, social media have become an important channel for political information. Importantly, social media platforms offer unique opportunities for citizens to engage with information about the EU. Such engagement is under-researched despite users’ responses offering valuable information about the potential effects of EU news on public engagement. Therefore, we systematically analyze social media users’ engagement with news about the EU. Drawing on the concepts of news values and shareworthiness, we investigate the proximity , conflictuality , negativity , and emotionality of EU news content posted on mainstream media Facebook accounts to explain the variation in reactions, shares, and number of comments. Using semi-supervised machine learning, we analyze articles from the largest newspapers in Austria for the period 2015–2019, along with Facebook users’ reactions to them. Results resonate only partly with prior literature, with negativity of EU news leading to more reactions and shares but fewer comments; emotionality , to fewer reactions and shares but more comments; and conflict mainly decreasing user engagement. Concerning proximity , a national angle leads to distinctly more engagement, whereas news about other EU member states and the EU as such do mostly not. Our study contributes to the discussion on how citizens engage with information on the EU and how to promote informed debate on social media through elites’ communication.
... Los estudios sobre redes sociales y periodismo se han decantado habitualmente por el análisis de contenido (Segado-Boj, 2020) y la difusión social de noticias no ha sido una excepción (Choi, Lee, & Ji, 2020;Karnowski, Leiner, Sophie Kümpel, & Leonhard, 2020). Aunque el tema se ha abierto recientemente a otras herramientas como los diarios personales (Hopp, Ferrucci, & Vargo, 2020) este estudio resulta novedoso en tanto que combina el análisis de contenido de los mensajes publicados con la observación no participante de los usuarios, lo que permite combinar el estudio de los aspectos del mensaje con características de los propios sujetos. ...
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El artículo mide quién, qué y cómo comparte noticias en Facebook. mediante una observación no participante sobre la actividad de 279 usuarios con un análisis de contenido de sus mensajes publicados (n=2193) durante un mes. La publicación de noticias de actualidad es una actividad minoritaria, realizada por usuarios de un nivel educativo más elevado. Las noticias compartidas suelen referirse a sucesos y están publicadas por medios generalistas.
... Importantly, while more passive users less regularly click the "follow" button for news outlets than more active news consumers (Leonhard et al., 2020), more news could also be included in one's social media feeds because of friends' engagement with news outlets (Boczkowski et al., 2018). Driven by the perceived "shareworthiness" (Karnowski et al., 2021;Trilling et al., 2017) of news items, this diffusion of news via SNS "is a continuous process involving journalists, users, intermediaries, and algorithms" (Brosius et al., 2019, p. 133), which equally affects and is affected by a user's surrounding social network. News on SNS are, thus, brought to one's attention through the "interactive features and affordances of various social media platforms, particularly those which reduce attentional effort" (Oeldorf-Hirsch & Srinivasan, 2021, p. 11). ...
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Research on news exposure has shown that while political knowledge and interest largely determine the degree of active engagement with online news, some people are generally less willing to invest into actively staying informed. Instead, these people report to pursue a passive mode of relying on specific sources, such as social media, based on the belief that “news finds me” (NFM). Notably, the three dimensions of NFM—feeling informed, relying on peers, and not actively seeking news—combine intentions and perceptions related to news use. Understanding NFM perceptions, hence, requires an analytical distinction between active and passive modes of news use as well as reliable measures of (different types of) news exposure. We contribute to this field by combining a survey, tracked web-browsing data, and tracked Facebook data to investigate the relationship between NFM perceptions and exposure to online news, also taking into account political knowledge and interest as traditional predictors of active news use. Our results show that both political knowledge and interest are associated with more news exposure via web browsers and that political knowledge—but not political interest—is also associated with more news in people’s Facebook feeds. Compared with the NFM dimensions, political knowledge and interest are stronger predictors of online news exposure in our study. Taken together, the novel combination of Facebook and web tracking data provides evidence that online news exposure is shaped by a confluence of traditional factors and more diffuse interpersonal processes.
... In an article conceptualizing the idea of shareworthiness, Trilling, Tolochko, and Burscher (2017) evaluate the influence of news values on number of shares, finding that traditional values seem to be good predictors of sharing, especially geographic proximity. Similarly, Karnowski et al. (2021) investigated how content characteristicsboth formal characteristics (outlet, length, news section, humour, emotion) and news factors (e.g. aggression, controversy, proximity)and availability of additional content influenced sharing on Twitter and Facebook. ...
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Im Internet stehen dem Journalismus zahlreiche Möglichkeiten der Beobachtung seiner Publika zur Verfügung. Mario Haim geht der Frage nach, ob und inwiefern sich solche Informationen – Klick- und Share-Zahlen etwa – auf Redaktionen, Journalistinnen und Journalisten sowie journalistische Produkte auswirken. Denn die Bedeutung von Publika ist für den Journalismus im Internet gestiegen, nicht zuletzt aufgrund ökonomischer Probleme sowie des großen Einflusses durch Intermediäre. Für die vorliegende Untersuchung der Orientierung an Publika im Online-Journalismus setzt der Autor auf ein umfangreiches quantitativ-automatisiertes Erhebungsverfahren sowie ergänzende Leitfadeninterviews. Es zeigt sich, dass sich Redaktionen vielfach nach Klickzahlen, Nutzungszeiten und Zugangswegen richten. Journalistinnen und Journalisten sehen sich mit veränderten Ansprüchen an ihr Schaffen konfrontiert, die sich durch eine ständige Beobachtung der Publika mit vermeintlicher empirischer Evidenz untermauern lassen. Der Inhalt • Online-Journalismus • Orientierung an Publika • Qualität und Quote • Dynamisch-Transaktionales Abhängigkeitsverhältnis • Automatisierte Online-Beobachtung • Leitfadengestützte Experteninterviews Die Zielgruppen • Dozierende und Studierende der Bereiche Kommunikationswissenschaft, Journalismus und Medienforschung • Journalistinnen und Journalisten sowie Politikerinnen und Politiker Der Autor Mario Haim ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Kommunikationswissenschaft und Medienforschung der LMU München.
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Audiences play a fundamental role in disseminating and evaluating news content, and one of the big questions facing news organizations is what elements make content viral in the digital environment. This comparative study of the United States, Brazil and Argentina explores what values and topics present in news shared online predict audience interaction on social media. Findings shed light on what news values and topics trigger more audience responses on Facebook and Twitter. At the same time, a comparison between popular content produced by traditional media versus online-native media reveals that the former lean more toward government-related news and con-flict/controversy news values than online native media. Brazilian stories prompted more social media interactivity than content from the United States or Argentina. Through content analysis, this study contributes to improving our understanding of audiences' news values preferences on social networks. It also helps us to recognize the role of users' online activities (sharing, commenting and liking) in the social construction of news and meaning inside the networked sphere. Finally, it opens an old media debate about whether providing and sharing too much media content with conflict, controversy and oddity could potentially hinder understanding and agreement in society. Articles were collected via media tracking and the data collection company NewsWhip.
Article
Understanding the processes of influence in societies has intrigued generations of scholars. One method of studying such influence in modern democracy is to investigate mass media, public, and policy agendas, defined as issues or events that are viewed at a point in time as ranked in a hierarchy of importance. Research by communication scholars and other social scientists has typically conceptualized either the mass media agenda, the public agenda, or the policy agenda as a dependent variable in order to explain how it is influenced by other factors. This chapter (1) analyzes past research on agenda-setting in order to learn where this research literature is deficient and where it is sufficient and (2) synthesizes this research literature with a view toward learning important theoretical and methodological lessons for future agenda-setting research.
Article
Citizens increasingly rely on social media to consume and disseminate news and information about politics, but the factors that drive political information sharing on these sites are not well understood. This study focused on how online partisan news use influences political information sharing in part because of the distinct negative emotions it arouses in its audience. Using panel survey data collected during the 2012 U.S. presidential election, we found that use of proattitudinal partisan news online is associated with increased anger, but not anxiety, directed at the opposing party's presidential candidate and that anger subsequently facilitated information sharing about the election on social media. The results suggest partisan media may drive online information sharing by generating anger in its audience.
Article
People increasingly visit online news sites not directly, but by following links on social network sites. Drawing on news value theory and integrating theories about online identities and self-representation, we develop a concept of shareworthiness, with which we seek to understand how the number of shares an article receives on such sites can be predicted. Findings suggest that traditional criteria of newsworthiness indeed play a role in predicting the number of shares, and that further development of a theory of shareworthiness based on the foundations of newsworthiness can offer fruitful insights in news dissemination processes.
Conference Paper
Online news domains increasingly rely on social media to drive traffic to their websites. Yet we know surprisingly little about how a social media conversation mentioning an online article actually generates clicks. Sharing behaviors, in contrast, have been fully or partially available and scrutinized over the years. While this has led to multiple assumptions on the diffusion of information, each assumption was designed or validated while ignoring actual clicks. We present a large scale, unbiased study of social clicks---that is also the first data of its kind---gathering a month of web visits to online resources that are located in 5 leading news domains and that are mentioned in the third largest social media by web referral (Twitter). Our dataset amounts to 2.8 million shares, together responsible for 75 billion potential views on this social media, and 9.6 million actual clicks to 59,088 unique resources. We design a reproducible methodology and carefully correct its biases. As we prove, properties of clicks impact multiple aspects of information diffusion, all previously unknown:(i) Secondary resources, that are not promoted through headlines and are responsible for the long tail of content popularity, generate more clicks both in absolute and relative terms; (ii) Social media attention is actually long-lived, in contrast with temporal evolution estimated from shares or receptions; (iii) The actual influence of an intermediary or a resource is poorly predicted by their share count, but we show how that prediction can be made more precise.
Article
In contemporary media management, the sharing of news articles among readers’ family, friends, and social circle is vital to the media outlet’s reaching a wide audience and building engagement. As the use of social media is becoming more integrated into the core strategy of many businesses, the propensity to share news has become a key metric to measure and understand media impact. Although existing literature suggests that increasing the centrality of news sharing has become an important factor in audience engagement, empirical evidence of the influence of news sharing is sparse. The challenges in motivating news readers to share in the media environment call for research on the characteristics that predict the spreading of news. In this regard, we investigate how textual characteristics of news articles influence sharing activities. Using a publicly available secondary dataset of 39,797 records from Mashable, we build a decision tree and conducted regression analysis to identify the factors that are most influential in terms of sharing. We find that subjective writing style, polar sentiments expressed in the title of an article, and embedded content, such as external links and images, are positively associated with number of shares. In addition, we find that sharing of articles occurs more often through social media channels than through other special interest websites (e.g., entertainment, business) and more frequently on weekends. We provide managerial insights into the economics of the contemporary news business and guidelines to measure, monetize, and analyze audience engagement based on the sharing process.
Chapter
Ziel dieser Studie ist es zu klären, wie ein Modell zur Nachrichtenselektion strukturiert sein soll, um am Beispiel Fernsehen zu beschreiben, wie und aus welchen Ereignissen aktuelle Nachrichten werden.
Article
The present study sheds light on the changing patterns of news experiences by defining it as news sharing. The study attempted to explicate the concept of news sharing by identifying the subdimensions of it in the context of online social networking sites (SNSs). Findings showed that news sharing is comprised of two distinctive behaviors: news internalizing (by those who read news) and externalizing (by those who offer news to others). Furthermore, news internalizing and externalizing have two subdimensions, respectively: browsing and personalizing for internalizing, and recontextualizing and endorsing for externalizing. Data were collected through a national survey of adults in the United States.
Article
We assess whether and how accidental exposure to political information on social media contributes to citizens’ online political participation in comparative perspective. Based on three online surveys of samples representative of German, Italian, and British Internet users in the aftermath of the 2014 European Parliament elections, we find that accidental exposure to political information on social media is positively and significantly correlated with online participation in all three countries, particularly so in Germany where overall levels of participation were lower. We also find that interest in politics moderates this relationship so that the correlation is stronger among the less interested than among the highly interested. These findings suggest that inadvertent encounters with political content on social media are likely to reduce the gap in online engagement between citizens with high and low interest in politics, potentially broadening the range of voices that make themselves heard.
Article
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide new ways of sharing news stories that allow users to act as opinion leaders in their networks, encourage discussion, and potentially increase their involvement in current events. This study identifies the particular features of Facebook that facilitate the discussion of news and tests their effects on involvement and feelings of influence. Participants (N = 265) in a 3 (Broadcast level: news feed vs. wall post vs. direct message) × 3 (Elaboration: opinion vs. question vs. no comment) × 2 (Involving-friends: tag vs. no tag) between-subjects factorial experiment were randomly assigned to share a story from a news website on Facebook. Results show that user involvement in the news content depends on the social affordances of the site, particularly those that allow for audience customization and those that drive network feedback. Asking the network’s opinions and targeting specific friends led to greater involvement in the news content. Discussion through comments led to a greater sense of influence and greater involvement for those sharing the news story. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging individuals to act as sources of information in their networks to drive engagement in current events in the changing news landscape.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw from the diffusion of innovations theory to explore multi-levels of influences (i.e. individuals, networks, news attributes) on news sharing in social media. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was designed and administered to 309 respondents. Structural equation modelling analysis was conducted to examine the three levels of influential factors. These included self-perceptions of opinion leadership and seeking at the individual level, perceived tie strength and homophily at the network level, and finally, perceived news credibility and news preference at the news attribute level. Findings – The results revealed that the influences of self-perceptions of opinion leadership, perceived tie strength in online networks and perceived preference of online news had significant effects on users’ news sharing intention in social media. However, self-perceptions of opinion seeking, homophily, and perceived news credibility were not significant. Originality/value – This is one of the first studies on news sharing in social media that focus on diverse levels of influential factors. In particular, the research suggests the viability of the diffusion of innovations theory to explain this pervasive global phenomenon. Further, the influential factors identified may help to stimulate active participation in social media platforms and ultimately enhance the sustainability of these platforms.
Article
This exploratory study matches a content analysis sample of Time magazine coverage of two “concrete” issues (drug abuse, energy) and two “abstract” issues (nuclear arms race, federal budget deficit) with Gallup Poll data over a lengthy period to find confirmation of the hypothesis: The media set the agenda with news about specific news events which readers/viewers can visualize, but the effect does not hold for news abstractions hard for readers/viewers to relate to. The study develops measures, tested independently in a separate, second study reported, to divide issues into either concrete or abstract categories. In agenda-setting terms, the study concludes, concreteness increases news media agenda-setting power; abstractness decreases agenda-setting power.
Article
How does controversy affect conversation? We use both lab and field data to address this question. Contrary to popular belief, controversial things are not necessarily more likely to be discussed. Data from an online news forum show that controversy increases likelihood of discussion at low levels, but beyond a moderate level of controversy, additional controversy actually decreases likelihood of discussion. Experiments show that the controversy-conversation relationship is driven by two countervailing processes. More controversial things are more interesting to talk about and thus more likely to be discussed. At the same time, more controversial things are less likely to be discussed because they are uncomfortable to talk about. Consequently, contextual factors such as identity disclosure and whether people are talking to friends or strangers moderate the controversy-conversation relationship by impacting these underlying processes. Our framework sheds light on how, when, and why controversy affects whether or not things are discussed.
Article
News value research has contributed a great deal to the understanding of news selection. For a long time scholars focused exclusively on news selection by the media. Yet, more recent approaches - inspired by cognitive psychology - have conceptionalized news factors as relevance indicators that not only serve as selection criteria in journalism, but also guide information processing by the audience. This article examines the theoretical and methodological developments in the German research tradition and discusses selected results for newspaper and television news. Its theoretical perspective focuses on the conceptionalization of news factors as either event characteristics or characteristics of the reality construction by journalists and recipients. This article explores how and why news factors affect media use and the retention of news items. Finally, this contribution's empirical perspective discusses various modifications of the assumed factors and presents methodological advancements in the measurement of news factors in selection processes.
Article
The central thesis in this essay is that validity and reliability should be conceptualized differently across the various forms of content and the various uses of theory. This is especially true with applied communication research where a theory is not always available to guide the design. A distinction needs to made between manifest and latent (pattern and projective) content. Also, we argue that content analyses need not be limited to theory‐based coding schemes and standards set by experts. When researchers are clear about what kind of content they want to analyze and the role of theory in their studies, they are in a better position to select the most appropriate strategies for demonstrating validity and reliability.
Article
We present a morphological analyser for German inflection and word formation implemented in finite state technology. Unlike purely lexicon-based approaches, it can account for productive word formation like derivation and composition. The implementation is based on the Stuttgart Finite State Transducer Tools (SFST-Tools), a non-commercial FST platform. It is fast and achieves a high coverage.
Article
A property of the Poisson regression model is mean-variance equality, conditional on explanatory variables. ‘Regression-based’ tests for this property are proposed in a very general setting. Unlike classical statistical tests, these tests require specification of only the mean-variance relationship under the alternative, rather than the complete distribution whose choice is usually arbitrary. The optimal regression-based test is easily computed as the t-test from an auxiliary regression. If a distribution under the alternative hypothesis is in fact specified and is in the Katz system of distributions or is Cox's local approximation to the Poisson, the score test for the Poisson distribution is equivalent to the optimal regression-based test.
Article
Recent events indicate that sharing news in social media has become a phenomenon of increasing social, economic and political importance because individuals can now participate in news production and diffusion in large global virtual communities. Yet, knowledge about factors influencing news sharing in social media remains limited. Drawing from the uses and gratifications (U&G) and social cognitive theories (SCT), this study explored the influences of information seeking, socializing, entertainment, status seeking and prior social media sharing experience on news sharing intention. A survey was designed and administered to 203 students in a large local university. Results from structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis revealed that respondents who were driven by gratifications of information seeking, socializing, and status seeking were more likely to share news in social media platforms. Prior experience with social media was also a significant determinant of news sharing intention. Implications and directions for future work are discussed.
Article
It is shown that maximum likelihood estimation of a simple model retains high efficiency in the presence of modest amounts of overdispersion. The main requirement is that the target parameter should be the moment parameter of an exponential family distribution, or more generally of a parameter for which the order n−1 bias of the maximum likelihood estimate is zero. Extensions for models with explanatory variables are outlined.
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