Nanosponges: a viable option for combating Covid-19

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This brief communication appraises nanosponges regarding their potential application in drug industry. Initiating from their basics, their particular characteristics are briefed. Apart from this, one of the very recent application of nanosponges is outlined along with future perspectives.

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Covid-19 has terribly shaken the whole world. The disease has spared none. Since its inception, it is observed that the virus emerges as new strains whose characteristics remain untraceable for a considerable period. These new strains are capable of baffling the health care professionals. Even the symptoms are also found to bamboozle the infected ones which defer the rapid detection of the disease. Keeping all these in mind, this communication briefly overviews the elusive character of Covid-19. As precise and definitive evidence of the evolution of this virus to mutants is still in the primitive stage, it is believed that sticking to Covid appropriate behavior can be an effective solution to mitigate the hazard posed by this virus.
Cancer is known for higher mortality rates. If not detected in early stages, it can lead to loss of lives. Most of the therapies involved in treatment of cancer are accompanied by several undesirable effects in patients. As such, the need for a novel treatment is of immense requirement. This brief article outlines the potential possessed by magnetic heating as well as anticancer nonmagnetic nano systems.
Nanoparticles cloaked in human lung and immune cell membranes act as decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture, preventing host cell infection.
We report cellular nanosponges as an effective medical countermeasure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Two types of cellular nanosponges are made of the plasma membranes derived from human lung epithelial type II cells or human macrophages. These nanosponges display the same protein receptors, both identified and unidentified, required by SARS-CoV-2 for cellular entry. It is shown that, following incubation with the nanosponges, SARS-CoV-2 is neutralized and unable to infect cells. Crucially, the nanosponge platform is agnostic to viral mutations and potentially viral species, as well. As long as the target of the virus remains the identified host cell, the nanosponges will be able to neutralize the virus.
Background: Pharmacokinetic issues and poor solubility in water are the most important concern of numerous recently developed chemical entities. Objective: The drugs which are poorly soluble in water demonstrate numerous formulating troubles in conventional dosage forms and the low bio-availability is the critical problem linked with it. A nanosponge is an emerging technology which can overcome these problems and precisely control the release rates of controlled drug delivery. Method: Nanosponges are tiny mesh-like structures with a size less than 1µm. Due to their porous structure and small size; they can easily bind to drugs which are poorly-soluble leading to better bio-availability and solubility of such drugs. Broad range of drugs including both hydrophilic and lipophilic can be easily loaded into nanosponges. Results: These minute sponges can circulate until they reach the definite target site, attach themselves to the surface and initiate the discharge of drugs in a predictable and controlled way. Nanosponges are solid in character and can be developed in various dosage forms such as parenteral, topical, oral or inhalational. Nanosponge drug delivery system has been developed as one of the most capable aspects in the field of pharmaceuticals. Conclusion: In this review, attempt has been made to highlight the advantages, characteristics, application, methods of preparation and characterization of nanosponges along with the recent patents on nanosponges.
  • Q Zhang
  • A Honko
  • J Zhou
  • H Gong
  • S N Downs
  • J H Vasquez
  • R H Fang
  • W Gao
  • L Griffiths
  • Zhang
Q. Zhang, A. Honko, J. Zhou, H. Gong, S. N. Downs, J. H. Vasquez, R. H. Fang, W. Gao,Griffiths, L. Zhang, Cellular nanosponges inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Nano Lett. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02278 (2020).