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Abstract

Over the years Corporate Social Responsibility, an idea new to India, is quickly picking up pace. CSR has become a basic business practice and has gained much attention from the management of large international companies. It helps the matching up in a straight line of business operations with social values. CSR is considered as a point of coming together of different attempts to begin something new aimed at securing of related to how much money and power people should have for the development of the community. Admitting, recognizing, responding to the fact that placing with the regular majority of people CSR into businesses could be useful in delivering the value related to social pressure, how people act toward each other, etc., especially in a developing country like India, this paper specifically aims at providing an understanding of idea of CSR and analyses the development of CSR in India. It highlights the policies controlling, ruling CSR in India and discusses the cases of CSR attempts to begin something new in Indian firms including SMEs role in CSR. There are more than two, but not a lot of challenges facing CSR in India and the paper provide suggestions to overcome them and speed up the CSR attempts to begin something new in India.
VSRD International Journal of Technical & Non-Technical Research, Vol. IX Issue II February 2018 / 121
e-ISSN: 0976-7967, p-ISSN: 2319-2216 © VSRD International Journals: www.vsrdjournals.com, UGC Approved Serial No. 48578
RESEARCH PAPER
AN OVERVIEW OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INDIA
1Neeraj Kumar Sharma*, 2Ashish Kumar Shukla and 3Rohit Ramesh
1Research Scholar, 2Associate Professor, 3HOD,
1,3Department of Management, 2Department of Commerce,
1,2,3Nehru Gram Bharti University, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.
*Corresponding Author’s Email Id: brdudc@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Over the years Corporate Social Responsibility, an idea new to India, is quickly picking up pace. CSR has become a basic business
practice and has gained much attention from the management of large international companies. It helps the matching up in a straight
line of business operations with social values. CSR is considered as a point of coming together of different attempts to begin
something new aimed at securing of related to how much money and power people should have for the development of the
community. Admitting, recognizing, responding to the fact that placing with the regular majority of people CSR into businesses could
be useful in delivering the value related to social pressure, how people act toward each other, etc., especially in a developing country
like India, this paper specifically aims at providing an understanding of idea of CSR and analyses the development of CSR in India. It
highlights the policies controlling, ruling CSR in India and discusses the cases of CSR attempts to begin something new in Indian
firms including SMEs role in CSR. There are more than two, but not a lot of challenges facing CSR in India and the paper provide
suggestions to overcome them and speed up the CSR attempts to begin something new in India.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
1. INTRODUCTION
The idea of Corporate social responsibility has gained
importance from all avenues. The present attempt related
to social pressure, how people act toward each other, etc.
marketing idea of companies is constantly changing and
getting better and has given rise to a new concept-called
Corporate Social Responsibility. Many of the leading
corporations across the world had understood, made real,
achieved the importance of being connected with social
causes as a means of helping showing in a good way of
their brands. It comes from within and is caused by the
want to do well and get self happiness from meeting a
need or reaching a goal in return as well as related to
social pressure, how people act toward each other, etc.
responsibility and duty of business. As an engine for
social progress, CSR helps companies live up to their
responsibilities as worldwide people who lawfully live in
a country, state, etc. and local neighbors in a fast-
changing world.1 For Indian businesses CSR can be a
source of opportunity, invention of new things, and
competitive advantage while at the same time providing
with the opportunity to actively add something for
helping the planet in its development. Organizations in
India have been quite reasonable, showing good judgment
in taking up CSR attempts to begin something new and
combining different things together so they work as one
unit in their business processes. It has become more and
more projected in the Indian Corporate setting because
organizations have recognized that besides growing their
businesses, it is also important to shape responsible and
supportable relationships with the community at large.
PERFECT
2. OBJECTIVES
To develop an understanding of idea of CSR
To carefully study the development of CSR in India
and its changes
To understand the policies controlling, ruling CSR
To carefully study the CSR attempts to begin
something new in India including SMEs
To study the challenges faced by CSR in India
To provide suggestions for speeding up CSR
attempts to begin something new
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research paper is an attempt of exploratory research,
based on the secondary data sourced from journals,
magazines, articles, newspapers and media reports.
Most definitions describe CSR as an idea within which
companies combine different things together so they
work as one unit, social worries about the health of the
Neeraj Kumar Sharma, Ashish Kumar Shukla and Rohit Ramesh VSRDIJTNTR, Vol. IX (II) February 2018 / 122
Earth in their business operations and in their interaction
with their people who are interested in a project or
business on required basis.
CEC: Green Paper for Promoting a European Framework
for Corporate Social Responsibility
The World Business group of people who advise for
helping the planet, Development WBCSD defines CSR as
"The continuing commitment by business to behave
having to do with right and wrong and add, give to
money-based development while improving the quality of
life of the work force and their families as well as of the
local community and community of people in the world
at large".
Kotler and Lee define CSR as "Corporate social
responsibility is a loyalty to, promise to improve
community well-being through optional, business
practices and thing that's given, work that's done of
Corporate useful things, valuable supplies. Corporate
social attempts to begin something new are major
activities begun, tried by a corporation to support social
causes and to satisfy promises to Corporate social
responsibility"
Corporate social attempts to begin something new are
major activities begun, tried by a corporation to support
social causes and to satisfy promises to Corporate social
responsibility 2.
The end, end result would be that there is no where every
single person agrees on the definition of what makes up,
is equal to Corporate Social Responsibility CSR.
However what could be taken into account CSR is
generally used to describe business's efforts to
accomplish or gain with effort able to last, helping the
planet results by committing to good business practices
and standards.
4. CSR ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT
IN INDIA
The idea of CSR has been drank in Indian community of
people, all good people in the world from the very
beginning. Gandhi's way of thinking of trusteeship is just
like CSR of the modern world; companies like TATA and
BIRLA have been drinking the case for good thing that
helps all people in their operations for at least 20 years
long before CSR become popular cause. The extreme
interest in community welfare among the Tata Group
dates back to the 1860s when the company was founded
by Jamshedji Tata. This explains why nearly two-thirds
of the equity of Tata Sons, the Tata Group's help increase,
show in a good wayr company, is held by money-giving
to charities trusts, which have created many national
institutions in science and technology, medical research,
social studies and the performing arts.
Dr.Kurien's Amul-led Operation flood had first
discovered used including everything growth through
work with dairy farmers at grass-root level, changing
lives, improving income, give power toing women and at
the same time collecting benefits to the business.
At Indian Oil, Corporate social responsibility CSR has
been the very important part of success right from
beginning in the year 1964. The Corporation's goals in
this key performance area are permanent in its Mission
statement: "...to help enrich the quality of life of the
community and preserve related to surrounding
conditions or the health of the Earth balance and history
through a strong surrounding conditions sense of right
and wrong."3
Before Corporate Social Responsibility found a place in
Corporate word list, vocabulary, it was already textured
into the Birla Group's value systems. As early as the
1940s, the founderi G.D Birla supported the trusteeship
idea of management. Simply stated, this involves that the
wealth that one creates and holds is to be held as in a trust
for our many people who are interested in a project or
business. Relating to, connected to CSR, this means
investing part of our money made, good things received
beyond business, for the larger good of community of
people, all good people in the world 4.
Over the years CSR has gained importance in India as
companies are understanding, making real, achieving the
importance of investing in CSR for accomplishing or
gaining with effort benefits of creating share holder
value, increased money, money income base, related to a
plan to reach a goal calling, labeling, operational wasting
very little while working or producing something, better
access to capital, human and thinking-related capital and
lower business risk.CSR has come out as an effective tool
that synergizes the efforts of Corporate and the social
part, area towards able to last, helping the planet growth
and development of related to social pressure, how people
act toward each other, etc. goals at large.
5. CHANGING TRENDS IN CSR : FROM
CHARITY TO RESPONSIBILITY
An understanding of the history of CSR shows, tells
about that till 1990s it was only ruled by the idea of
money-giving to charities. thinking about, when one
thinks about CSR as an act of money-giving to charities,
businesses often restricted themselves to one time related
to managing money grant and did not reserve for use their
useful things, valuable supplies for such projects. More
than that, businesses never kept the person who is
interested in a project or business in mind while planning
for such attempts to begin something new, by that, in that
way reducing the effectiveness and wasting very little
while working or producing something of CSR attempts
to begin something new. However, over the last few
years, the idea of CSR has been changing.
Neeraj Kumar Sharma, Ashish Kumar Shukla and Rohit Ramesh VSRDIJTNTR, Vol. IX (II) February 2018 / 123
There has been a seen, obvious change from one thing to
another from giving as a responsibility, duty or generous
kindness, organization that helps people to giving as a
success plans, ways of reaching goals or responsibility.5
Review of the case studies and work done on CSR by
companies in India hints that the CSR is slowly moving
away from generous kindness, organization that helps
people and dependence and starting to build on getting or
giving power and partnership.
6. MAKING A DIFFERENCE - CSR
INITIATIVES IN INDIAN FIRMS
Today, the Corporate world has just started seeing the
opportunity to help solve the problems CSR faces, deals
with. Private Part, area has come out in favor of social
responsibility and showed, shown or proved their support
for the Government's loyalty to, promise to provide
greater money-based opportunities to the not having
money or education.
POLICY INITIATIVES
Understanding, making real, achieving the role that can
be played by Corporate part, area in dealing with some of
the angrily staring problems of a developing nation like
India, ministry of Corporate affairs MCA is expecting a
fund flow of more than Rs 10,000 crore a year from
private companies for social welfare attempts to begin
something new as part of their CSR after Parliament
clears the Companies Bill. Once the laws and law making
is approved by Parliament, India would become the first
country to order CSR through a law-related rule.
According to the proposal, it will be required for private
firms to portion, set aside 2% of their average net money
made, good thing received for CSR attempts to begin
something new. The government wants Corporate houses
to spend the sum in social parts, areas such as education
and health rather than involving themselves in individual
money-giving to charities6. MCA's draft something you
choose to do, but is not required guidelines on CSR are
along worldwide ways of thinking, basic truths, rules
such as related to the rules and beliefs of doing the right
thing and clearness, open honesty, well-being of workers,
human rights, health and safety, use of surrounding
conditions-friendly raw materials, following legal, law-
based solid basic structures on which bigger things can be
built and larger engagement of people who are interested
in a project or business.
7. SOME EXAMPLES OF INDIAN
CORPORATIONS’ CSR ACTIVITIES
WELSPUN ENERGY LTD
Socially responsible and honest and right business
practices are the defining principles of Welspun's
Corporate way of thinking, related to learning about how
people think. ASSOCHAM has identified Welspun
Energy with its CSR Excellence Award 2012. Welspun
Energy Ltd is part of the $3.5 billion Welspun Group,
which ranks among India's fastest newly appearing
groups of companies with businesses in power
generation, basic equipment needed for a business or
society to operate, exploring things and production of oil
and natural gas, steel pipes and fabrics
CSR Programs
By starting programs like 'Training the Trainer', Enrolling
children in Schools, 'Healthy Baby Competition' and Skill
Development for Women, Welspun Energy has engaged
with local communities to bring a positive change in their
lives. Its social including in something attempts to begin
something new are beginning to show something big and
important that changes people's thinking or lives results in
Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Welspun Energy's leadership is also involved in different
forums which are focused on able to last, helping the
planet growth on a related to being big enough to reach or
serve the whole world; these are - B20's Green Growth
Action Friendly partnership, World Money-based
Forum's WEF's Steering Committee on able to last,
helping the planet basic equipment needed for a business
or society to operate & City-based Development.
HUL RURAL MARKETING
HUL's CSR way of thinking, related to learning about
how people think is deeply set within, surrounded by and
part of its loyalty to, promise to all people who are
interested in a project or business, including people who
use a product or service and workers, the health of the
Earth, the surrounding conditions, and the community of
people, all good people in the world the company
operates in. The company depends on able to last, helping
the planet sources of raw materials, and is committed to
making something as small as possible, treating
something important as unimportant the health of the
Earth, the surrounding conditionsal hit, effect, improving
the ability to keep something around, or keep something
going throughout the value chain.
Relating CSR to Business Strategies
Product Development : Water conserving products
Human Resource : Hiring and investing in local
talent (merit-based through employment exchanges)
Manufacturing : Safety Health Environment
Sourcing : Code of Business Practices
COBP Compliance
Sales : Shakti, cause marketing
Investment : Local enterprise development
Profit apportionment : Community involvement
initiatives
8. GUJARAT COOPERATIVE MILK
MARKETING FEDERATION LTD
(GCMMF)
CSR-orientation To Distributors & Retailers
The GCMMF has identified the distributors and stores are
Neeraj Kumar Sharma, Ashish Kumar Shukla and Rohit Ramesh VSRDIJTNTR, Vol. IX (II) February 2018 / 124
its important link in its vendor supply chain. Through
surveys the GCMMF found that 90% of the distributors
do not get any opportunity of exposure to latest
management practices. The GCMMF understood, made
real, achieved that it was a Corporate social responsibility
to strengthen the core business processes of its
distributors to keep them in mainstream business and
fight against those with formal training in management.
The GCMMF has developed and trained all its
distributors through Value-Mission-success plans, ways
of reaching goals Workshops, smart ability building,
Amul Yatra, Amul Quality Circle meetings,
computerisation, and electronic the buying and selling of
goods activities.
Something that a person is good at Building Module of
the GCMMF is meant to soak in professional selling
skills by making the distributors and their salesmen aware
of latest sales management tools and ways of doing
things; improve their knowledge of products positioning
and division of something into smaller parts success
plans, ways of reaching goals for different products.
CSR in SMEs
The SMEs in India have grown extremely in a good way
during last few years and have significant thing that's
given, work that's done in industrial output and exports
from the country. They account for more than 80% of
industrial businesses, projects and add, give to one of the
highest shares of employment in the country especially in
parts, areas like fabrics, engineering, jute, auto helping
thing, things made by hand etc. A successfully growing
SME part, area is extremely important as an independent
and as a supporting industry for large businesses, projects
as well as MNCs.
Knowledge about CSR is found to be very low among
SMEs, however, many of them do carry out activities and
put into use CSR programmes without focusing on the
term 'CSR'7 The very big, very strong giving a reason to
do something factor for SMEs to start, work at CSR is not
external pressure but an internal drive to 'doing the right
thing' or 'putting something back' or showing
'entrepreneurial spirit’. In the changing business picture,
situation, it is important to work with and involve SMEs
in helping increase, showing in a good way responsible
business behavior that focuses on key people who are
interested in a project or business in other words
suppliers, customers, workers, community and the health
of the Earth, the surrounding conditions. According to a
study by the related to Europe Commission in 2007 CSR
and SME wanting to beat others in contests SMEs' Good
Practice, CSR can positively influence SMEs' wanting to
beat others in contests by Improved products and, or
production processes, resulting in a better customer
happiness from meeting a need or reaching a goal and
loyalty. Higher desire to do something, reason for doing
something and loyalty of workers, resulting in a higher
ability to create interesting new things and cleverness,
Better being talked about a lot on TV, online, etc. due to
the award of prizes and, or improved word-of-the-mouth,
better position at the labour market and better networking
with business partners and people in charge including
better access to public money due to a better company
image. To remain competitive SMEs in India such as Elin
Appliances Pvt. Ltd have understood, made real, achieved
the need to change to fit newly appearing changes in
community of people, all good people in the world and
focus on CSR to gain extremely important business
advantage.
ELIN APPLIANCES PVT. LTD is an ISO 9001:2008
and ISO 14001:2004
It is a certified company established in May, 2004 in
Baddi, Himachal Pradesh has been awarded the CSR
award in the category of SME Part, area for
manufacturing of Domestic Home Appliances for Philips
Electronics Ltd CLS Division. Corporate by
ASSOCHAM Social Responsibility CSR has always been
an important part of Elin's rules that control how a big
company operates. The company firmly believes in
improving the quality of life of the all the workers in a
company or country, their family and local community.
CSR Programs
Elin Appliances Pvt. Ltd has promised amounts equal to
2% of money made, good thing received after tax PAT on
a yearly basis for the Company's CSR attempts to begin
something new, mostly to benefit the socially and money-
saving not having money or education sections of
community of people, all good people in the world. The
Company invests on the thinking-related growth of its
note workers by giving, communicating training related
to work and for social cause. As part of their employee
relations, the company encourages active worker
participation in the decision m.ing processes. Good
performers are well enough awarded and recognized. Elin
Appliances draws attention to on protection of natural
things, using less energy, water, etc. of valuable things
from nature and surrounding conditions protection. The
company has started a "Go Green Effort to begin doing
something" which is a tree large farm with crops drive
and has promised to plant and maintain 10,000 plants by
year 2012. Besides, the company distributes tree saplings
among workers and nearby villages during the health of
the Earth, the surrounding conditions week celebrations
Challenges of CSR
Although CSR has gained importance and focus in India,
there are more than two, but not a lot of issues
challenging its effectiveness and reach. A lack of proper
understanding of the idea of CSR, non-availability of real
data and detailed information on the kinds of CSR
activities, coverage, policy etc. are some of the different
challenges facing CSR attempts to begin something new.
not being there; not being present of training and
Neeraj Kumar Sharma, Ashish Kumar Shukla and Rohit Ramesh VSRDIJTNTR, Vol. IX (II) February 2018 / 125
undeveloped staff is added, more problems for reduced
CSR attempts to begin something new. A survey
managed and did, done by Times Group survey brought
out responses from participating organisations about
different challenges facing CSR attempts to begin
something new in different parts of the country showed,
told about.
Lack of community participation in CSR activities
There is a lack of interest of the local community in
participating and adding, giving to CSR activities of
companies. This is mostly named after, discovered by,
caused by the fact that there exists little or no knowledge
about CSR within the local communities as no serious
efforts have been made to spread knowledge about CSR
and put in confidence in the local communities about
such attempts to begin something new.
The situation is further irritated, made worse by a lack of
communication between the company and the community
at the basic by ordinary people.
Need to build local abilities to hold or do something:
There is a need for ability to hold or do something
building of the local non-governmental organizations as
there is serious very low number, very low amount of
trained and producing a lot with very little waste
organizations that can effectively add, give to the
happening now CSR activities started by companies. This
seriously compromises scaling up of CSR attempts to
begin something new and after that limits the extent of,
the range of such activities.
Issues of clearness, open honesty:
Lack of clearness, open honesty is one of the key issues
created by the survey. There is an expression by the
companies that there exists lack of clearness, open
honesty on the part of the local putting into use services
businesses, government units as they do not make good
enough efforts to tell people information on their
programmes, audit issues, impact test, evaluation and use
of money. This reported lack of clearness, open honesty
worsens, decreases the process of trust building between
companies and local communities, which is key to the
success of any CSR effort to begin doing something at the
local level.
Non-availability of well-organized non-governmental
organizations:
It is also reported that there is non-availability of well-
organized nongovernmental organizations in remote and
areas away from cities that can test, evaluate and identify
real needs of the community and work along with
companies to secure, make sure of successful putting into
use of CSR activities. This also builds the case for
investing in local communities by way of building their
abilities to hold or do something to begin, try
development projects at local levels.
Visibility factor:
The role of media in highlighting good cases of
successful CSR attempts to begin something new is
welcomed as it spreads good stories and sensitizes the
local population about different happening now CSR
attempts to begin something new of companies. This
seen, obvious influence of gaining visibility and calling,
labeling exercise often leads many non-governmental
organizations to involve themselves in event-based
programmes; in the process, they often miss out on
meaningful basic by ordinary people actions that help bad
situations.
9. SUGGESTIONS
In order to make sure that CSR is more and more
adding, giving and benefiting, the following
suggestions are given to make CSR attempts to begin
something new more effective:
It is found that there is a need for creation of
knowledge about CSR among the general public to
make CSR attempts to begin something new more
effective
It is noted that partnerships between all people who
are interested in a project or business including the
people and businesses that are not part of the
government, workers, local communities, the
Government and community of people, all good
people in the world in general are either not effective
or not effectively operational at the basic by ordinary
people level in the CSR domain. It is recommended
that appropriate steps be done, tried to deal with the,
to speak to the issue of building effective bridges
among all important people who are interested in a
project or business for the successful putting into use
of CSR attempts to begin something new. As a result,
a long term and able to last, helping the planet
opinion about CSR activities should be built into the
existing and future success plans, ways of reaching
goals of all people who are interested in a project or
business involved in CSR attempts to begin
something new.
The role of SME and their thing that's given, work
that's done to CSR in India has to be given special
attention upon to increase their thing that's given,
work that's done to CS attempts to begin something
new .When compared to large corporations, SME
play a limited role in CSR.SME have to be
encouraged to positively add, give and collect the
benefits of created by CSR
Giving-out finance for treating CSR as an investment
from which returns are expected
Watching, supervising CSR activities and liaising
closely with putting into use partners such as NGOs
to make sure that attempts to begin something new
really deliver the desired results.
A long term way of seeing things, sensible view of
what is and is not important by organizations, which
Neeraj Kumar Sharma, Ashish Kumar Shukla and Rohit Ramesh VSRDIJTNTR, Vol. IX (II) February 2018 / 126
includes their loyalty to, promise to both internal and
external people who are interested in a project or
business will be very important to the success of
CSR and the ability of companies to deliver on the
goals of their CSR success plans, ways of reaching
goals.
10. CONCLUSION
CSR is really about securing, making sure of that the
company can grow on an able to last, helping the planet
basis, while making sure of fairness to all people who are
interested in a project or business, CSR has come a long
way in India. It has successfully laced together, combined
business with social including in something and
surrounding conditions the ability to keep something
around, or keep something going. From able to reply or
react, quick to respond activities to able to last, helping
the planet attempts to begin something new, Corporate
have clearly showed their ability to make a big difference
in the community of people, all good people in the world
and improve the overall quality of life. In the current
social situation in India, it is hard for one single thing,
business to bring about change, as the scale is huge.
Corporate have the ability to do things very well, related
to a plan to reach a goal thinking, manpower and money
to help long, big social change. Effective partnerships
between Corporate, NGOs and the government will place
India's social development on a faster track.
11. REFERENCES
[1] World business council for Sustainable Development
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and Technology report, 2009

... In India, the concept of CSR is not a new phenomenon rather, it has its roots from ancient times and progressed parallely with the historical development of the country (Sharma, 2009). Like Western countries, the Indian business community, industrialists, corporate (BCIC) are engaged with charity, philanthropic, and voluntary activities. ...
... Like Western countries, the Indian business community, industrialists, corporate (BCIC) are engaged with charity, philanthropic, and voluntary activities. The religious ideology and socio-culture-economic conditions (Sundar, 2013;Sharma, 2009;Mitra, 2011;Chakrabarty, 2017;Satapathy & Paltasingh, 2019) were influenced BCIC's to perform altruistic actions in their community and region. The altruistic action changed periodically with changes in socio-economic conditions, religious practices, the establishment of nation and state, and adaptation of a different development model in India. ...
... These historical changes of Indian CSR have been well documented into five phases (the 1850s to 2012) by Puspa Sundar (2013) in her book. So starting from the idea of charity to philanthropy, philanthropy to citizenship, citizenship to stakeholder, and the new form of CSR in India have well analyzed by different scholars (Sundar, 2013;Satapathy & Paltasingh, 2019;Mitra, 2011;Sharma, 2009;Sood & Arora, 2006;Arora & Puranik, 2004;Das, 2015;Arevalo & Aravind, 2011;Sagar & Singla, 2004). The statutory provision added a new phase in Indian CSR progress. ...
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In the twenty-first century, corporate social responsibility is not a new phenomenon to India's capitalist development model. Instead, the concept itself is implicitly rooted in traditional values, customs, and ideal systems of charismatic leaders. Trusteeship is one such ideal notion of Gandhi's work on economic justice and equality, which influence business communities for voluntary activities. However, with exposure to globalization , the adaptation of new economic policy and its adverse impacts changed business communities' role towards voluntary activities and forced the state for the enactment of statutory provisions through the Companies Act 2013. In this context, the present paper employed the content and content configuration analysis method to analyze the relevance of these two ideas-trusteeship and statutory provision of CSR, in the current state of development. For that, the paper makes a comparative analysis between these two ideas with their eight inherent similar segments. After comparing and interrogating what present CSR deficient, the paper concludes that the alternative and future of Indian CSR practice and sustainability lie within the practice of trusteeship. Corporate and state need to incorporate the Gandhian idea of "trusteeship" within the present CSR framework to achieve a long-term sustainable society.
... He argues for the adoption of practices that go beyond the prevailing Indian notion of corporate philanthropy as being synonymous with CSR (Arora and Puranik 2004). Sharma (2009) has explored the historic terrain, focusing most closely on new articulations of the Gandhian concept of 'trusteeship' developed in response to globalization. Birla (2013) has also written on the importance of trusteeship to contemporary philanthropy, drawing on the traditions of Gandhi and her greatgrandfather-in-law, G.D. Birla, a confidant and patron of Gandhi. ...
... Many of the largest business conglomerates in India today-Tata, Bajaj, Birla, Godrej, Mahindra, and Modi-have long been associated with philanthropy (Chahoud et al. 2007;Chanana 2011;Mohan 2001;Sharma 2009;Timane and Tale 2012;Viswanath and Dadrawala 2004a). Among these the Tata and Birla businesses continue to enjoy high public regard for their treatment of employees (Agarwal 2008). ...
... Tata founder, Jamsetji Tata, foretold the contemporary debate about CSR when he established his own business tradition in the nineteenth century. Tata is said to have observed, ''In a free enterprise, the community is not just another stakeholder in the business, but is, in fact, the very purpose of its existence'' 2 (Sharma 2009). On average, Tata has contributed between 8 and 14 % of its net profit every year for philanthropic activities through the various Tata Trusts (Ramachandran and Jha 2009). ...
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Corporate philanthropy in India is burgeoning due to a fast growing economy, rise in the number of billionaires, and the recent introduction of legislation that mandates spending 2 % of company profits on corporate social responsibility. Through analysis of key historical and anthropological texts, we argue that ‘business philanthropy has a long and honorable history in India’ (Sidel, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 12(2):171–180, 172, 2001), and explain this with reference to Indian giving practices from Hindu, Mughal (Muslim), British Raj, and Gandhian traditions. We then move into a review of the emerging field of literature on corporate philanthropy, to explore how these traditions synthesized with contemporary global business and economic practices to create a distinct form of Indian corporate philanthropy. We necessarily also include an overview of its salient critiques. This will be of interest to those concerned with Indian philanthropy and of culturally specific scholarship of philanthropy.
... At the level of an individual firm, IE activities include implementation of cleaner production practices such as minimising and reusing waste, and measures to increase the efficient use of materials and energy, resulting in productivity improvements (Figure 2.1). Large companies, both domestic and foreign owned, are thought-leaders with respect to modern environmental and social sustainability in India (Sharma, 2009 Foreign-owned multinationals tend to follow the lead of their corporate mandates in terms of the types and manner of sustainability initiatives such as implementing ISO 14001 or the Global Reporting Initiative (GIZ, 2012). Indigenous companies have developed their own agendas, in response to local needs, such as water pollution; certification programmes, for example Bureau of Energy Efficiency standards (BEE, 2001); and global trends. ...
Chapter
This chapter attempts to analyze the future of CSR in India considering its growth and historical perspectives. As such, a major portion of the discussion in this chapter is dedicated to the study of the evolution of social responsibility of the business sector in India identifying its major era of growth, characteristics, and outcomes. The chapter shows that the nature and extent of corporate involvement in social responsibility have evolved with the history of changes in economic and cultural dimensions of the society. It highlights the major features of the Indian Companies Act of 2013, which redefines the concept and encourages private sector–NGO partnerships in carrying out CSR activities analyzing at the end some implications of the act on CSR activities in India. The chapter concludes that the deep-rooted values and beliefs in Indian culture have played a major role in influencing public governance and its outcomes as manifested in the Indian Companies Act of 2013, and in shaping the businessmen’s’ orientation toward society and are likely to remain influential in formalizing and institutionalizing CSR practices in India.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to inform the business management literature that focuses on the perceptions of business professionals towards the multidimensional and highly complex concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on a sample of 118 Greek business executives/middle managers having different functional positions. A questionnaire based on the works of Quazi and O’Brien (2000) and Welford et al. (2007) was designed and used for data collection. Findings – Key findings denote occupational health and safety, benign environmental management as well as responsible production methods as the top CSR priorities. Two different CSR viewpoints emerged from the factor analysis reflecting a pragmatic and a more socially responsive interpretation of corporate responsibility. Cluster analysis confirmed such contrasting perspectives allowing the partition of data in distinctive groups according to the relative inclination on either of the identified viewpoints. Similarity measures obtained from cluster analysis also verified the different CSR positions. Originality/value – The paper explores CSR perceptions, as predictor factors of CSR performance, in three different groups of Greek business professionals. It contributes to the literature of CSR perspectives from South-East European countries where there is a distinct lack of empirical studies on managerial attitudes.
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