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Wetlands are in Peril - A Case Study of Son Beel Wetland of Assam, India

  • Voice of Environment (VoE)
  • Sant Gahira Guru University Sarguja


Wetlands are the most productive ecosystems on earth’s surface. Ramsar Convention puts forward binding regulations to protect wetlands across the globe. The real situation however, is different and complex. These fragile ecosystems are under imminent threat from natural and anthropogenic stress factors. Son Beel Wetlands of Assam in North East India is also no different. The health of this wetland is steadily deteriorating as a result of a series of internal as well as external factors. Valuation of the wetland is important to understand the need for conservation and sustainable development. The beneficial future prospects of the wetland are further discussed in this chapter which can be facilitated with the help of cutting-edge technologies such as nanotechnology.
Dr. Abhijit Mitra
Mr. Monruskin M. Calma
Dr. Shambhu Prasad Chakrabarty
Dr. Sufia Zaman
Dr. Prosenjit Pramanick
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Wetlands are in Peril - A Case Study of Son Beel Wetland of Assam, India
Moharana Choudhury1, Anu Sharma2, Arghya Chakravorty3 and Joystu Dutta4
1Voice of Environment (VoE), Guwahati, Assam, India
2Govt. Degree College, Bhaderwah, Doda, Union Territory of J K
3School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632014, India
4Dept. of Environmental Science, University Teaching Department, Sant Gahira Guru University,
Ambikapur (CG.)-497001, India
Wetlands are the most productive ecosystems on earth’s surface. Ramsar Convention puts forward
binding regulations to protect wetlands across the globe. The real situation however, is different and
complex. These fragile ecosystems are under imminent threat from natural and anthropogenic stress
factors. Son Beel Wetlands of Assam in North East India is also no different. The health of this
wetland is steadily deteriorating as a result of a series of internal as well as external factors. Valuation
of the wetland is important to understand the need for conservation and sustainable development. The
beneficial future prospects of the wetland are further discussed in this chapter which can be facilitated
with the help of cutting-edge technologies such as nanotechnology.
Keywords: fragile ecosystems, natural, anthropogenic, stress factors, nanotechnology
Wetlands are in Peril - A Case Study of Son Beel Wetland of Assam, India
Moharana Choudhury, Anu Sharma, Arghya Chakravorty and Joystu Dutta | Page 104
Water is a very precious resource. It is a vital source for the living world to accomplish the essential
metabolic activity and other primary purposes like agricultural or industrial use. Water plays a crucial
role in the healthy economic growth and development of any nation or region. Its availability
determines factors such as agriculture, industrial, commercial, and sustainable development, etc. More
water resource presence means the country or the particular area is more abundant in water resource
availability, resulting in a more diversified ecosystem.
Here we refer to one such ecosystem called wetlands. Wetlands are not only one of the water bodies
but an important aquatic ecosystem. It is a very unique and distinct kind of ecosystem where the water
covers the land. These may be seasonal or permanent. This ecosystem is unique in having vegetation
that can survive without water. Thus, the wetland is an ecosystem where the land is covered with
freshwater or marine water or the mixture of two kinds of aquatic ecosystems producing unique
properties of an ecotone. Or we can state that the wetlands are the areas where water meets land or
between aquatic and terrestrial systems in transition. According to Ramsar convention which took
place at a place called Ramsar in Iran defined wetlands as
“Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the
associated plant and animal life. Wetlands occur the water table is near the surface of the
land, or where the land is covered by water.”
The 1971 Ramsar Convention took a wider view of the wetlands as defined. Article 1.1 of the
Convention sets down the wetlands are:
“areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or
temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of
marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres”.
Article 2.1 of the Convention fulfills the purpose of protecting sites and provides for the inclusion
of wetlands in the Ramsar List of wetlands of international significance, and provides that:
“May incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of
marine water deeper than six meters at low tide lying within the wetlands.
The 1971 Ramsar Convention classified wetlands into five broader categories, as:
1. Marine: Coastal wetlands such as lagoons, rocky beaches and coral reefs are examples
2. Estuarine: deltas, mangrove swamps and tidal marshes
3. Lacustrine: Sea based wetlands
4. Riverine: Rivers and rivers
5. Palustrine: swamps, marshes, and bogs
Certain types include Human-made wetlands, including fish and shrimp ponds, farm ponds, irrigated
agricultural land, salt pans, lakes, gravel pits, sewage fields, and canals. The Ramsar Convention has
given forty-two categories further grouped under three broader headings: marine and coastal wetlands,
inland wetlands, and human-made wetlands, following the Ramsar Wetland Classification. The
wetland generally includes marshes, swamps, flood plains, bogs, peat lands, shallow ponds, and littoral
zones. These are large water reservoirscaused by excessive accumulation of water at the surface of
land-logging during the specific season or over the year. This water body formation on this surface of
the soil is due to impeded drainage conditions. The Ramsar Convention in Iran (1971) defines wetlands
as areas of marshland, fen, and peat or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary,
with stagnant or flowing water, fresh, brackish or, marine, not exceeding six meters at low tides.
Ramsar has also defined riparian and coastal areas adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or marine
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bodies of water. Ramsar categorized wetlands into (A) estuaries, mangroves, and tidal flats (B) flood
plains and deltas; (C) freshwater marshes (D) lakes; (E) peatlands; and; (F) woodland wetlands. The
wetland ecosystem is a bank for a wide range of flora and fauna, with all the great cultural, aesthetic,
and scientific significance. These are a suitable niche for fish, tortoise, and some endangered and rare
bird species. The importance of water resource management is an essential feature of any country or
region's social, environmental, and economic system, which generally provides an overview of the role
of water resources in the economy of that country and the legislative framework for access to water
resources. Wetlands occur all over the world, from tundra to tropics. The UNEP-World Conservation
Monitoring Center estimates that about 570 million hectares are covered by wetlands, which is nearly 6
percent of the Earth's total land surface.
Significance of Wetlands
They act as habitat and niche for variety of floral and faunal species. They support huge variety
of birds, animals, reptiles, amphibious species, fish and other aquatic plants and animals.
They are the storehouses of genetic plant material. Paddy plant for example is a common
wetland plant.
Economically they are an important area like water supplies, fisheries, agriculture, recreation
They are a great center of tourist attraction
Wetlands are a part and parcel of the cultural heritage. They have a deep connection
withCreeds both mystical and cosmological.
They create anaesthetic source of inspiration, wildlife sanctuaries and a base for local rituals.
They act as buffer between saline waters of coastal region and agricultural fields and thus save
the crops
They act as barrier against pollution, cyclones, and floods like in case of recently occurred
cyclone Amphan that took place in the Bay of Bengal.
To highlight the significance of the wetlands we have conducted one study in the Son Beel lake
of Assam.
This study presents the reflection of the global and the regional level scenario of wetlands as a
freshwater resource and a storehouse of rich biodiversity. The wetland ecosystem is significant for
various functions such as food storage, water resource, and the aquatic world as well. It provides
habitat for different species of flora and fauna. Thus, the study of the wetland ecosystem for any
particular region can reflect a glimpse of its conservation status and its present scenario. The Son Beel
wetland study has been carried out to understand the wetland's current situation as it is considered
amongst the most significant wetland of Assam and North East, India. GIS and Remote sensing-based
studies show that the ecosystem is facing both natural as well as anthropogenic threats. As per this
present study, it is observed that there is a significant change in land use/land cover patterns during the
last five years (2011 to 2015). A sharp decreasing trend in water body area is noticed during the recent
years compared to the previous years. It was reported that spatial-temporal changes in the wetlands of
north Bihar by using geospatial technology (Ghosh et al., 2004). Recently in a study showed
delineating East Champaran wetlands, Bihar state using remote sensing and application of GIS (Manju
et al., 2005). It has also been noted that there is a growing trend in the degradation of wetlands,
particularly in northeast India. This analysis is thus performed to recognize and assess the present Son
Beel wetland scenario over time. Quite recently, a son beel wetland study that gave Son Beel a very
significant estimated monetary value ranges from a minimum of $88 / Hectare/year to a maximum of
Wetlands are in Peril - A Case Study of Son Beel Wetland of Assam, India
Moharana Choudhury, Anu Sharma, Arghya Chakravorty and Joystu Dutta | Page 106
$29,716 / Hectare/year, For this wonderful wetland, which is not only a reservoir of biodiversity, water
supplies, but can also improve the socio-economic scenario of the region by encouraging ecotourism,
proper conservation measures are thus desperately needed. The study also proposed that the site be
designated as the Ramsar site for Wetland, or that the authorities take other constructive steps to
improve its security. (Kumar Deepak et al., 2020).
Study Area
The Son Beel (Shon Beel) is not only an important wetland of Karimganj district of Assam but it is
considered as one of the largest wetlands of Asia. It is located between 92°24’50” to 92°28’25” E and
24°36’40” to 24°44’30” N in Karimganj district of southern Assam, India. The Son Beel wetland lies
in Ramkrishna Nagar block of Karimganj district as Son Beel is only 10 Km away from Ramkrishna
Nagar. A special interesting feature of Son Beel lake is said that during the winter season, it becomes
as an agricultural field where, rice cultivation is practised and after the winter season especially from
March onward this area generally gets filled up with water and becomes a large wetland due to rain
water. The average depth of this wetland is very less so when there is more rain, the lake overflows
and the excess water flows through by Kakra River and finally mix with the Kushira River which
eventually goes into Bangladesh (Kar 1990). Son Beel is famous for its fishery and it is one of the
main producers of fish for all the districts in southern Assam and the region.
Fig. 1. Study Area Map
Son Beel is the production point of all types of fish and the speciality of Son Beel is famous for its
small tiny fishes. There are about 500 families engaging in the net making and the fish marketing
network from this Son Beel wetland. It has been estimated by state government report and records
there are more than 35,000 families directly dependent on the Beel for traditional fishing system. More
than 40% of area around Son Beel is covered water body which has evergreen forest. Son Beel is the
habitat place for some reptiles and other various aquatic species. This wetland is also important
because of Siberian Birds rested for around three months of a year. There are near about 9 numbers of
Gaon Panchayats which are surrounded by Son Beel area. It has estimated that Son Beel has maximum
length and breadth of 13.2kms and 4.2kms, respectively. The nearby shoreline is about 35.4kms. Lake
Son Beel is rich in fish biodiversity and around 69 different fish species are found among which small
fishes are most (Kar et al., 2006).
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Conservation and protection of wetlands
Wetlands, due to their unique and distinct significance, are the ecosystems worth protection,
improvement, and conservation. The loss of wetlands means an imbalance in the ecological balance.
They protect the environment from the extremes of climate, disasters like cyclones, flash floods, etc.
Being the world’s highly productive ecosystems, they are rightly called the cradles of biodiversity. The
rapidly increasing population, pollution, big industries, deforestation, big unplanned developmental
projects are some of the factors responsible for the dwindling of the wetlands in India. Thus owing to
immense significance, the wetlands need immediate attention for their conservation, and Ramsar
Convention is one such step in this direction. In the Indian context, the wetland loss acute and chronic
acute failure means the filling up of wet areas with soil and the gradual removal of forest cover
followed by erosion and sedimentation of the wetlands over many years is the chronic loss.
Beneficial Future Prospect of Son Beel Wetland with the Help of Nanotechnology
1) Barringtoniaacutangula: Barringtoniaacutangula watery leaf extract is capable of reducing AgNO3
aqueous solution. Porrawatkul et al., 60 nm green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of the
plant have been reported to be a potent antioxidant along with antibacterial property against model
gram positive (+ ve) Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and model gram negative (-ve) Escherichia coli
bacteria (Porrawatkul et al., 2017). Also, the same NPs can serve as a cost-effective green manure,
thus playing a major role in seed germination and root shoot growth (Bharali et al., 2018).
2) Centellaasiatica: Ethanolic exact of the pant can reduce AuCl3 and can make an effective 2 24 nm
sized NPs, with the potential to use in molecular imaging for diagnosis of critical diseases like cancer
(Das et al., 2010). Netala et al., successfully tested the AgNPs of Centellaasiatica is antimicrobial
nanomedicine to treat different disease causing organisms like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus
aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. The size of these AgNPs may differ on the range
of 4 to 50 nm (Netala et al., 2015).
3) Cocciniaindica: Pectin is abundant phytochemical of Cocciniaindica, which can be used for drug
encapsulation and the zein nanoparticles were successfully encapsulated by Cocciniaindica derived
pectin (Dhanya et al., 2010). That refers that this wetland plant is capable to take part in drug delivery
4) Mimosa pudica: The root extract of Mimosa pudica is able to form 67 nm sized spherical FeO
nanoparticles at room temperature (Niraimathee et al., 2016). Ethanolic extract of the leaf extract able
to form ZnO nanoparticles (Fatimah et al., 2016); AgNPs of this plant shows significant antimicrobial
activity against pathogenic bacteria B. subtilis, gram E. coli, P. aeruginosa (Sreenivasulu et al.,
2016). By considering all aspects, it refers that derivatives of Mimosa pudica can be used as
nanomedicine as a very good drug carrier to treat different diseases at early stages.
5) Cassia tora: Extract of Cassia tora leaf can reduce AgNO3, results AgNPs which shows strong
affectivity against pathogenic E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and B. subtilis (Saravanakumar et al.,
2015; Shaikhet al., 2019). While the gold nanoparticles of the plant leaf extract shows activity against
Col320 colon cancer cell line (Abel et al., 2016)
6) Polygonum hydropiper: No published report found from public domain.
Wetlands are in Peril - A Case Study of Son Beel Wetland of Assam, India
Moharana Choudhury, Anu Sharma, Arghya Chakravorty and Joystu Dutta | Page 108
7) Achyranthes aspera: Extract of the Achyranthes aspera is capable to reduce AgNO3 as well as
AuCl3 by resulting the successful formation of AgNPs and AuNPs; while the AgNPs of Achyranthes
aspera can act as a strong mosquito lervicidal agent (Elumalai et al., 2016; Gude et al., 2012).
Acknowledgment: The authors are thankful to local residents for their cooperation during filed study.
The authors are also thankful to members of Voice of Environment organisation for their spontaneous
support to carry the research study and filed visit. Authors are also thankful to especially to Mr. Ishan
Trivedi for GIS based location map in this present Chapter.
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Full-text available
Chandubi Wetland is facing a serious ecosystem marginalization where ecosystem services have not been priced and reflected in decision making and which proves a complete market failure. Agriculture yield from transformed/converted/encroached lake does not reflect values depleted due to flood protection, fisheries, biodiversity, etc. People who degrade are not the same whose livelihoods are affected leading to continued deterioration of wetland. Wetland governance has been ineffective in addressing sectoral policies providing incentives, thus leading to wetland deterioration. Chandubi Wetland has potentially abundant biodiversity of flora and fauna occupying some important medicinal herbs, forests, fishes, and others which we have aforementioned in the ecology of Chandubi Wetland. It is one of the potential ecotourism destinations and it gets the easily available logistic benefit of being near to the state capital Guwahati, Assam. It has been a challenge for us to evaluate a monetary figure for Chandubi Wetland. The valuation of ecosystem services nowadays is a pertinent tool not only to signify the importance of wetlands in human well‐being but also incorporates stakeholder engagement prioritizing nature's externalities when we exclude a significant role of the ecosystem in the process of valuation. Chandubi Wetland is one of the beautiful forms of nature's creation which had a seismic origin. So far, we have not many records of the valuation of wetland ecosystems in Assam. One of such rare papers likewise “Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Benefits of Son Beel Wetland in Assam, India: A Case Study of Natural Solutions to Climate Change and Water (Kumar et al. 2020)” is only available as a case study for us in the state of Assam, India. We conducted a comprehensive valuation study approach including GIS study, social, economic, and ecological study understanding abundant biodiversity in Chandubi Wetland during 2018–2020. This particular paper signifies the role of Chandubi Wetland in offering multiple ecosystem services that ensure climate security, water security, vulnerability reduction against water‐related disaster risks, etc. Economic valuation in India is in a state of brainchild and it's been emerging spontaneously when wetlands ecosystem services are being recognized globally as an important resilient infrastructure of climate change and disaster risk reduction. Governments are considering wetlands as an indirect and direct source of potable drinking water.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Son Beel wetland is facing ecosystem marginalization where ecosystem services aren’t being priced & reflected in decision making which proves complete market failure. Agricultural produce from converted lake does not reflect values lost due to flood protection, fisheries, biodiversity etc. People who deteriorate are not the same whose livelihoods are affected leading to continued degradation of the wetland. Wetlands governance has so far been failing to address sectoral policies providing incentives leads to wetlands depletion. Son Beel is the home to diversity of fishes in particular to an important habitat for small & tinny fishes. There are about 500 families engaged in the net building & designing and these fisher folk communities are linked this wetland to local market networks. It has been estimated by state government report and records that there are more than 35,000 families directly dependent on the Beel for traditional fishing system. Evergreen Forest comprises 40% peripheral area of the Beel. Son Beel is an important habitat for some reptiles and other various aquatic species. This wetland is home for migrant Siberian birds for 3 months every year. Son Beel is abundantly rich in fish biodiversity and around 69 different fish species are found among which small fishes are the most (D.Kar et. al, 2006). The economic value is the monetary value of goods & services offered by wetlands in which people’s preferences are expressed through choices & trade-offs. Total Economic Value (TEV) is the sum of the values of all wetland ecosystem services flows from providers to beneficiaries over the given spatial & temporal scales. Economic valuation is a powerful tool since it provides means to measure & quantify trade-offs between multiple wetland uses (Barbier et al., 1997) via monetary matrices. Valuation of wetland ecosystem in India has some major gaps likewise; the confusion of terminologies between intermediate & final ecosystem services, has led to double-counting that can inflate values that can seriously impact the credibility of economic valuation. (Johnston & Russel, 2011). The gap of methodological challenges in linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services is a serious constraint to current valuation process. Lack of clear guidance on relating ecological compensation programmes to conservation targets is a major loophole in ecosystem valuation in India. We tried the best to mitigate these gaps in the ecosystem valuation of Son Beel Wetland. Major aim & objective of our valuation is to provide useful information inputs to the wetland governance to sustain wetland for multiple benefits. Development of ecological production functions & non market valuation methods need ecological & social data which is currently unavailable in India. We shall produce this paper before the State Government of Assam to take adequate measures in protection & conservation of wetlands. We estimated monetary value of Son Beel is from a minimum of $88/Hectare/year to maximum of $29,716/Hectare/Year. Son Beel provides a wide range of natural capital flow in terms ecosystem services for the life & livelihood of people & community. We need to ensure that wetland conservation, wise use & restoration are an integral part to SDGs planning & implementation. Integrating wetlands services & benefits in Nationally Determined Contributions for the Paris Agreement on Climate Change is critical for achieving SDGs. Placing a value on nature’s ecosystem services shouldn’t be misconstrued as ‘putting a price on nature. The authors will strongly recommend the site should declare as Ramsar site of Wetland or such constructive steps should take by the authorities for its better conservation.
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Green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained importance due to its eco-friendly, low toxicity and cost effective nature. This study deals with the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the bark extract of Amentotaxus assamica. The AgNPs have been synthesised by reducing the silver ions into stable AgNPs using the bark extract of Amentotaxus assamica under the influence of sunlight irradiation. The characterisation of the biosynthesised AgNPs was carried out by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The UV-vis spectrum showed a broad peak at 472 nm. Also, the XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of the AgNPs. Moreover, the SEM analysis revealed that the biosynthesised AgNPs were spherical in shape. Also, dynamic light scattering techniques were used to evaluate the size distribution profile of the biosynthesised AgNPs. Furthermore, the biosynthesised AgNPs showed a prominent inhibitory effect against both Escherichia coli (MTCC 111) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 97). Thus the biosynthesis of AgNPs from the bark extract of Amentotaxus assamica is found to eco-friendly way of producing AgNPs compared to chemical method.
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In this paper, we report an environmentally friendly, fast and cost-effective method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous Mimosa pudica root extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using UV-visible spectrophotometer peak at 430 nm. The presence of functional groups in the plant extracts were identified by FTIR analysis. Spherical shaped, crystalline in nature and 35-42.5 nm sized particles were recorded using TEM and XRD analysis. The surface morphology of the AgNPs was identified by using SEM while the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) confirmed the presence of silver metal ion. The aqueous root extract of M. pudica exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (B. subtilis) and gram negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) microorganisms. Moreover, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a substantial enhancement of peak current using synthesized AgNPs-assembled-glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as compared to bare-GCE. The present AgNPs-assembled-GCE displayed very high sensitivity and excellent linearity to the detection of dopamine (DA) which is a neurotransmitter released by the brain.
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The objective of the present work is to develop a procedure for obtaining ZnO nanoparticle via complex formation with plant extracts. Mimosa pudica leaves and coffee powder were utilized as template for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticle.. After the complex formation, calcination of the complexes at the temperature related to thermal transformation was conducted. DTA-TGA, XRD and DRUV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis were utilized to study the effect of synthesis route to the physicochemical character and methylene blue photooxidation was chosen as reaction model to evaluate the photoactivity. The results show that the materials have crystallite size of around 27. 14 Å and 46.94 Å from the utilization of Mimosa pudica and coffee powder extracts respectively. Photocatalytic activity is related to the crystallite size as well as band gap energy values.
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An aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica was used to synthesise iron oxide nanoparticles. The formation of iron oxide nanoparticles was observed on exposure of the aqueous root extract with the ferrous sulphate solution. The iron oxide nanoparticles were characterised using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analyser (PDA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). UV-Vis is a spectrum of iron oxide nanoparticles showed a sharp peak at 294 nm due to the surface plasmon resonance. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the attachment of bioactive molecules of plant on the iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces. The phase and crystal structure were determined through XRD. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) illustrated that the iron oxide nanoparticles were spherical in shape with 67 nm of surface volume mean diameter. Magnetisation measurements indicates that the synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature.
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Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by novel simple green chemistry procedure using Achyranthes aspera leaf extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The present study focuses on larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mg/ml) and the aqueous extract (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25mg/ml) were tested against the fourth instar larvae for 24h exposure. The maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 2.48; LC90 8.14mg/ml) and Ae. aegypti (LC50 3.68; LC90 8.92mg/ml) whereas aqueous extract found to be effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus at a higher concentration. The synthesized AgNPs from A.aspera were highly potent than aqueous extract against all the three tested vectors. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD. This revealed a peak at 452nm in leaf extract of A.aspera, indicating the production of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable with the respective nanometers and the XRD spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ion and it was compared with the standard spectrum peaks. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks of organic molecules.
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The spatial soil resource information generated through remote sensing and ground survey was combined with other related data in GIS to derive a land use plan for Majuli Island in the Brahmaputra valley, Assam. Six landforms were delineated in floodplains. About 43% of the area was under sand bars concentrated in the Brahmaputra river bed, 16% of the area was under active floodplains and 14% under swamps. The hydric soils on floodplains were Inceptisols and Entisols with shallow ground water, stratified textures and a depleted grey matrix of < 2 chroma. Thirteen soil series were described and used to derive a soil map with twenty five mapping units. These mapping units were evaluated for rice-based cropping systems. It was found that 35% of the area could be suitable for cultivation as against the current practice of 7%. It is recommended that the bils should be spared for the migratory birds. The paddy fallows were found suitable for growing cow pea, peas and French bean, whereas swamps were suitable for paddy-fish integrated farming.
Recent years have witnessed tremendous growth of nanotechnology based drug delivery system which reduces drug toxicity and side effects and increases the therapeutic index of the drug. Aim of the study is to develop a biodegradable, non-toxic nanoparticle, solely from natural polymers. Zein - pectin nanoparticle comprising of a hydrophobic zein core and a hydrophilic pectin shell was developed by ultrasonication method. SEM images confirm the nanosize of the nanoparticle. UV- Visible and FT-IR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of zein, pectin and the encapsulation of the model drug quercetin in the nanoparticle. Zein is a prolamine class of protein found in wheat, maize etc and pectin is a polymer of galacturonic acid units found in plant cell wall.
A single step green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using Cassia tora leaves extract as reducing agent by a simple and ecofriendly method in room temperature. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In UV-Vis spectroscopy results, the λmax observed at 425 nm. The AgNPs synthesized were spherical, hexagonal and irregular in shapes. The EDAX and XRD spectrum confirms that the presence of silver ions and crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. FTIR showed the functional groups such as C=O, N-H and C-N groups involved in the reduction of Ag+ to Ag. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and it showed percentage inhibition in concentration dependent manner. The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis in different extents and the higher activity was observed in Escherichia coli