ArticlePDF Available

assessment-of-latch-scale-on-initiation-of-breastfeeding-among-immediate-postnatal-mothers-a-descriptive-study June 2020 1592228569 6816897

Authors:
Article

assessment-of-latch-scale-on-initiation-of-breastfeeding-among-immediate-postnatal-mothers-a-descriptive-study June 2020 1592228569 6816897

INTRODUCTION
Breastfeeding has the potential to save lots of neonatal,
infant and young child lives and to scale back morbidity
and mortality. it's estimated that promotion of exclusive
breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months, it means giving nothing to
neonate only breast milk except vitamins, minerals or
medicines, this might prevent 8% of worldwide annual child
mortality. Breastfeeding is ranked together of the safest and
most effective health interventions to realize the millennium
(1).
development goal four (MDG4): reduce child mortality
LATCH may be a tool supported observations and
descriptions of effective breastfeeding which include ve
(2).
characteristics of breastfeeding there's strong evidence to
su pport the pla ne t He alth Orga ni zatio n (W HO )
recommendations for ladies to breastfeed their infants
exclusively for the primary six months of life, with continued
breastfeeding together with the gradual introduction of
(3).
other sorts of nutrition beyond that point The objectives of
present study were to assess the LATCH score regarding
breastfeeding among study group, to nd out the
association between latch scale score with selected
demographic variables.
METHODOLOGY
A descriptive design was conducted on non probability
sample (purposive) which consisted of (60)immediate
postnatal mothers who have either normal vaginal delivery or
caesarean delivery . Data were collected for the quantity of 1
month . T he s tudy w as c onduct a t s elected h ospitals a t K anpur
( Rama hospital, C.H.C Kalyanpur ) . subjects were eligible to
participate within the study if they met the next selection
criteria: postpartum women who have either normal vaginal
delivery or caesarean delivery with healthy newborn; Normal
weight and newborns is rooming in with their mothers,
additionally participants were excluded from the study if their
mothers had any complications and multiple gestation births
twins, triple, etc; newborn with low birth weight; premature
baby (baby born before 37 gestational weeks) and infants
with any congenital malformation or genetic diseases which
can affect the study results. Questionnaire was used as a tool
of data collection to satisfy with objectives of the study which
consisted o f three par ts: i ncl udi ng demograp hic
characteristics, reproductive characteristics and LATCH
breastfeeding assessment tool is based on observations and
descriptions of effective breastfeeding, evaluates ve
characteristics of breastfeeding. A numerical score (0,1or 2) is
assigned to each measure for a possible total score 10, as
shown in table (1). Each letter of acronym denotes a category
for LATCH (L: represents how well the infant latches onto the
breast, A: represents audible swallowing noted, T: describes
the mother's nipple type, C: represents the mother's degree of
breast or nipple & general feeding comfort, H: evaluates the
number o f h elp t he m other m ust p osition h er b aby a t b reast a s
shown i n t able ( 1). D ata a re a nalyzed t hrough t he u se o f E xcel
(Statistical package). Through the appliance of descriptive
statistical data analysis include (Frequencies, Percentage,
Mean a nd S tandard D eviation) a nd I nferential s tatistical d ata
analysis include Chi-Square test for testing the varied among
several o bserved f requencies a nd t heir e xpected.
ASSESSMENT OF LATCH SCALE ON INITIATION OF BREASTFEEDING
AMONG IMMEDIATE POSTNATAL MOTHERS ;A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY
Original Research Paper
Mrs. Jasmi Johnson
Research scholar, Shri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, Uttar Pradesh,
India.
X 1GJRA - GLOBAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS
Nursing
The Present study is to assess the LATCH score regarding breastfeeding among immediate postnatal
mothers . A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on non probability sample (purposive
sample) of (60 )immediate postnatal women who have either normal vaginal delivery or cesarean section. A questionnaire was
used as a tool of data collection to fulll with objectives of the study and consisted of three parts, including demographic,
reproductive characteristics, LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were used
to analyze the data. Results: The results of the study revealed that the highest percentage (33.3%) of the sample their age was
ranged between (30-33) years, (30%) of them was graduated from secondary school, and (58.3%) of them were housewives,
(60%) had 1-2 birth, (63.33%) had delivered male newborn had (51.67%)high score of LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment and
that there is a signicant relationship (P= 0.05) between their ages ,no of parity with LATCH breastfeeding study sample .
Conclusion: Nearly half of study sample had high score of LATCH breastfeeding assessment.
ABSTRACT
KEYWORDS : Breastfeeding, Immediate Post Natal Mothers, Initiation And LATCH Scale .
VOLUME-9, ISSUE-6, JUNE-2020 • PRINT ISSN No. 2277 - 8160 • DOI : 10.36106/gjra
Dr. Prof. S. N
Nanjunde Gowde*
Principal ,Anil Baghi college of Nursing, Ferozepur, Punjab, India.
*Corresponding Author
Score value
0
1
2
L Latch
Too sleepy or reluctant and No latch
obtained
Repea ted attempts , Must hol d
nipple in mouth and Must stimulate
to suck
Grasps breast, Tongue down and
forward, Lips anged, Rhythmic
suckling
A Audible Swallowing
None
A few with stimulation
Spontaneous, intermittent (less
than 24 hours old), Spontaneous,
frequent (greater than 24 hours old)
T Type of Nipple
Inverted
Flat
Everted (after stimulation)
C Comfort Level
(Breast/Nipple)
Engorged, Cracked, bleeding, large
blisters or bruises, Severe discomfort
Filling, Small blisters or bruises,
Mothe r comp lains of pinchi ng
Mild/moderate discomfort
Soft, Tender, Intact nipples (no
damage)
H Hold Positioning
Full assi st (sta ff holds infant at
breast)
Minimal assist (i.e. elevate head of
bed, place pillows), Teach one side,
mother does other. Staff helps ,
mother takes over feeding.
No assist from staff. Mother able to
position/hold infant.
2 X GJRA - GLOBAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS
Assessment of LATCH Tool Regarding Initiation Of
Breastfeeding Among Immediate Postnatal Mothers
III. RESULTS
Tabl e( 2 ): D i st ri b uti on Of S o cio -d e mog ra p hic
Characteristic For Study Sample.
Table (2) shows that the highest percentage (33.3%) of study
sample was at age group (30-33) years, (30%) was
graduated from Secondary school, and (58.3%) of them
were housewives. The highest percentage (68%) was from
urban area. (60%) of them was living in the extended
families and (88.3%) o f stud y sample was low
socioeconomic status.
Table (3): Distribution Of Reproductive Characteristic For
Study Sample.
Table (3) shows that the highest percentage (60) of study
sample were primipara. The majority for study sample (50%)
did not have any previous abortion. The highest percentage
(81.67%) did not have previous stillbirth. (60%) had 1-2 alive
children. The highest percentage (65%) was delivered
normally and (35%) had cesarean section. Concerning
the current of type of delivery: The highest percentage
(51.67%) had a cesarean section . the highest percentage
(63.33%) of study sample had born a female baby. while the
lowest percentages (36.67%) had born a male baby.
Table (4): LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool for Study
Sample (n =60).
There is no association of latch assessment tool score with
demographic variables, except age and no. Of parity of
mothers
V. RECOMMENDATIONS
ŸProviding information for antenatal mothers during
ANC visits about importance of initiation of
breastfeeding and benets of breastfeeding
ŸImplementing LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool for
mothers after childbirth.
ŸDistrib ution of breastfeed ing pamphlet of t he
instructional material to all mothers having C/S or
normal vaginal delivery in the institution
ŸThis study can be conducted as an interventional study
ŸA comparative study can be conducted among mothers
undergone normal Vs caesarean
REFERENCES
[1] Engebretsen I., Shanmugam R., Sommerfelt A., Tumwine J. & Tylleskär T.:
Infant feeding modalities addressed in two different ways in Eastern
Uganda, International Breastfeeding Journal, 2010, 5(2): 1-12. Available at:
http://www.international breastfeedingjournal.com/content/5/1/2
[2] Riordan J., Bibb D., Miller M. & Rawlins T.: Predicting breastfeeding
duration using the LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool, J Hum Lact.,
2001, 17(1):20-23.
[3] Forster D., McLachlan H. and Lumley J.: Factors associated with
breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women,
International Breastfeeding Journal, 2006, 1(18): 1-12. Available at:
http://www.international breastfeedingjournal.com/content/1/1/18
[4] Peterson C. & DaVanzo J.: Why are teenagers in the United States less
likely to breast-feed than older women, Demography, 1992, 29: 431-450.
[5] Chaves R., Lamounier J. & César C.: Factors associated with duration of
breastfeeding, J de Pediatria, 2007, 83(3):241-246.
VOLUME-9, ISSUE-6, JUNE-2020 • PRINT ISSN No. 2277 - 8160 • DOI : 10.36106/gjra
Variables
Study Sample (n=60)
Age / years
%
18-21
5.0
22-25
25.0
26-29
33.3
30-33
23.3
34-37
11.7
38-41
3.3
Educational level
Primary school graduate and less
13.3
Intermediate school graduate
26.7
Secondary school graduate
30.0
Institute graduate
16.7
College graduate & more
13.3
Occupation
Employed
41.7
House wife
58.3
Place of residence
urban
32
Rural
68
Type of family
Nuclear
40
Extended
60
Variables
Study Sample (n=60)
No. of parity
No.
%
1
36
60
2-4
24
40
5 and above
0
No. of abortion
None
30
50
1-2
25
41.67
3
5
8.33
No. of stillbirth
Non
49
81.67
1-2
11
18.33
No. of Alive children
1-2
36
60
3-4
24
40
5 and above
0
Type of previous delivery
NVD
39
65
C/S
21
35
Current of type of delivery
NVD
29
48.33
C/S
31
51.67
Gender of the baby
Male newborn
22
36.67
Female newborn
38
63.33
%
No.
Classication
8.33
5
(Poor) 0-3 score
40
24
(Moderate) 4-7 score
51.67
31
(High) 8-10 score
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Durations of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and predominant breastfeeding (PBF) from two different assessments, among the same mother-infant population, were investigated to determine the degree to which the assessments yielded overlapping results. Thirty Ugandan mother-infant pairs were followed up weekly from birth to three months of age with weekly short-time feeding recall: the 24-hour recall asked prior to the 1-week recall. In addition, at week 6 and 12 dietary recalls since-birth were conducted. Variables for the duration of EBF and PBF were created from the short-time feeding recalls and the dietary recalls since-birth, respectively. Mean durations of EBF and PBF from the two assessments were compared with Kaplan Meier analysis at week 6 and 12. Reproducibility of dietary recall instruments was also assessed. At six weeks postpartum the mean durations of EBF were 0.50 weeks (95% CI: 0, 1.02) according to the weekly short-time recalls and 1.51 weeks (95% CI: 0.66, 2.35) according to the recall since-birth (Mantel-Cox test, p = 0.049). The mean durations of PBF were 4.07 weeks (95% CI: 3.38, 4.77) according to the frequent short-time recalls and 4.50 weeks (95% CI: 3.93, 5.07) according to the recall since-birth, (Mantel-Cox-test, p = 0.82). At twelve weeks the mean durations of EBF were 0.5 weeks (95% CI: 0, 1.1) according to the weekly short-time recalls and 1.4 weeks (95% CI: 0.1, 2.7) according to the recall since-birth (Mantel-Cox-test, p = 0.15). The mean durations of PBF were 5.2 weeks (95% CI: 3.9, 6.5) according to the weekly short-time recalls and 6.6 weeks (95% CI: 5.4, 7.8) according to recall since-birth (Mantel-Cox-test, p = 0.20). Reports of feeding categories and early feeding practices showed high reproducibility. Comparing duration of EBF and PBF in this group of mother-infant pairs showed overlapping results from the weekly short-time assessment and the recall since-birth at twelve weeks, with the latter yielding slightly longer duration of the respective feeding modalities. The retrospective recall since-birth could be assessed as a cost-reducing tool compared to the frequent follow-up addressing duration of respective infant feeding modalities for evaluation of programmes promoting safer infant feeding practices. The study was part of formative studies for the ongoing study PROMISE EBF registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00397150.
Article
Full-text available
Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially) six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as a cohort using logistic regression to identify which factors predicted women continuing to feed any breast milk at six months postpartum. The original trial included 981 primiparous women attending a public, tertiary, women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 1999-2001. The trial evaluated the effect of two mid-pregnancy educational interventions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. In the 889 women with six month outcomes available, neither intervention increased breastfeeding initiation nor duration compared to standard care. Independent variables were included in the predictive model based on the literature and discussion with peers and were each tested individually against the dependent variable (any breastfeeding at six months). Thirty-three independent variables of interest were identified, of which 25 qualified for inclusion in the preliminary regression model; 764 observations had complete data available. Factors remaining in the final model that were positively associated with breastfeeding any breast milk at six months were: a very strong desire to breastfeed; having been breastfed oneself as a baby; being born in an Asian country; and older maternal age. There was an increasing association with increasing age. Factors negatively associated with feeding any breast milk at six months were: a woman having no intention to breastfeed six months or more; smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day pre-pregnancy; not attending childbirth education; maternal obesity; having self-reported depression in the six months after birth; and the baby receiving infant formula while in hospital. In addition to the factors commonly reported as being associated with breastfeeding in previous work, this study found a negative association between breastfeeding outcomes and giving babies infant formula in hospital, a high maternal body mass index, and self-reported maternal depression or anxiety in the six months after the baby was born. Interventions that seek to increase breastfeeding should consider focusing on women who wish to breastfeed but are at high risk of early discontinuation.
Article
Full-text available
To determine rates of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding and to identify variables that interfere with breastfeeding in the municipality of Itaúna, MG, Brazil. A longitudinal study was undertaken enrolling 246 women who gave birth at the maternity unit of the Manoel Gonçalves Hospital, in Itaúna, MG. The mothers and their infants were seen monthly for the first 12 months after birth or until they stopped breastfeeding. Survival analysis procedures were used to study the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding. The impact on breastfeeding duration of a series of co-variables was assessed by means of Cox regression modeling. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was 5.3%, and for breastfeeding at 12 months it was 33.7%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 40 days, and median breastfeeding duration was 237 days. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a negative association (p<0.05) between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the following variables: intended breastfeeding duration (<12 months), birth weight of child (<2,500 g) and use of a pacifier. Shorter breastfeeding duration was associated (p<0.05) with maternal age (< 20 years), number of prenatal consultations (<5 and >9 consultations), use of alcohol or tobacco, delay before first feed (>6 hours) and use of a pacifier. Breastfeeding rates in Itaúna (MG) are well below those recommended by the World Health Organization. The principal variables with a negative relationship with duration of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding are related to mother and baby health care and, therefore, interventions are possible.
Article
Teenage mothers are much less likely than older mothers to breastfeed their infants. The lower breastfeeding rate among teenagers aged 16-19, compared with women aged 20-29, is due almost entirely to the fact that teenage mothers tend to have characteristics associated with a lower likelihood of breastfeeding among all women, such as lower educational level, lower income, and being unmarried. Even so, nearly 40% of the difference between teenage mothers aged 15 or less and mothers aged 20-29 remains unexplained by these factors and may be due to developmental aspects of adolescence, such as greater egocentricity and greater concern about body image.
Article
The authors tested the validity of the LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool, controlling for intervening variables in 133 dyads. LATCH scores, mother's evaluation of an index feed, and intended duration of breastfeeding were assessed postpartum and followed 6 weeks. Women breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum had higher LATCH scores (mean +/- SD = 9.3 +/- 0.9) than those who weaned (mean +/- SD = 8.7 +/- 1.0), due to only one measure, breast/nipple comfort. Women who weaned before 6 weeks reported lower breast/nipple comfort (1.5 +/- 0.5) than those who were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks (1.7 +/- 0.5, P < .05). Total LATCH scores accounted for 7.3% of variance in breastfeeding duration. Total LATCH scores positively correlated with duration of breastfeeding (n = 128; r = .26, P = .003) and to mothers' scores (n = 132; r = .58, P = .001). Correlations among LATCH measures ranged from .02 to .51. The LATCH tool is a useful identifies the need for follow-up with breastfeeding mothers at risk for early weaning because of sore nipples.