Technical ReportPDF Available

CBD as a ‘narcotic’? Food for thought.

  • Independent researcher

Abstract and Figures

Early July 2020, the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety announced that it might adopt a position in which food products containing cannabidiol (CBD) derived from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp plant) would not be authorized for sale in the European Union, being assimilated to medicines under control (“narcotic drugs”). The information was circulated to applicants for the registration of a CBD-containing product within the EU Novel Food regulations, but not all of them: only the applicants whose CBD was plant-derived received the advice. Applicants for CBD obtained by full chemical in vitro synthesis were not notified. The analysis over which the Commission bases its preliminary conclusions is well-intentioned, and acknowledges key elements such as the non-inclusion of CBD among the Schedules listing “narcotic drugs” within the international drug control Conventions (IDCC). The analysis is, however, incomplete, leading to misinterpretations of the letter and spirit of the IDCC. This note analyses the interpretation of the IDCC by the Commission, from a technical perspective.
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2 Riboulet-Zemouli
Eal Jl 2020, he Eea Cii Diecae-Geeal f Healh ad Fd Safe
(DG SANTE) aced ha i igh ad a ii i hich fd dc caiig
caabidil (CBD) deied f Cannabis sativa L. (he la) ld  be ahied f  
ale i he Eea Ui, beig aiilaed  edicie de cl (acic dg).
The ifai a ciclaed  alica f he egiai f a CBD-caiig dc
ihi he EU Nel Fd eglai, b  all f he: l he alica he CBD a
la-deied eceied he adice. Alica f CBD baied b fll cheical in vitro
hei ee  ified.
“The Commission [...] preliminarily concludes that [plant-derived CBD] must be qualified
as an extract from Cannabis [...], cannot be qualified as ‘food’ [...] and, consequently,
falls outside the scope of [the Novel Foods] Regulation”
The aali e hich DG SANTE bae i eliia ccli i ell-ieied, ad
ackledge ke elee ch a he -icli f CBD ag he Schedle liig
acic dg ihi he ieaial dg cl Cei (IDCC).
DG SANTE aali i, hee, iclee, leadig  iieeai f he lee ad
ii f he IDCC.
Thi e aale he ieeai f he IDCC b DG SANTE f a echical eecie,
fidig, ca  he eliia ccli, ha:
CBD,    ,    a a a ,  a a acic dg.    
Sbace ae cl ed i he cfeci f bh edical ad fd dc, bjec
 diffee eglai. The aalg ih chili ee-deied caaici i efl (. 78);
Sbace laced de cl     accdig  hei          
aa eie;
T par    hole: cl ha al  he whole (caabi & caabi ei) d    
 al  he  f i parts (CBD ad he hebal cd)  le, like f THC, he
part i ecificall lied i he Schedle. Oi-deied aaeie ide f a iighfl
aalg (ee . 10);
Thee i  ea  cide ha  a   WHO E C    
D D (ECDD) a CBD alie  fd (  a he -edical    
dc). The ce f he Cei, ad he adae f he ECDD, a   a        
a  . N  .
D   S C  CBD   3
Na . a  4
D a   5
S . aa 8
T    a     a 9
T aa C 11
C 12
 
CBD as a narcotic? Food for thought. 3
Dispositions of the Single Convention exempting CBD from control
Paie ca legall ahie he ei f dg f he ha edical ad cieific
e, ece i he a   -a   a        
eceiall    S C. 
Aicle 4, dicig he geeal bligai f cie a  he Sigle Cei 
Nacic dg f 1961 (C61), elai ha he eae  be ake        
a a   he dci, aface, e, i, diibi f,   
ade i, e ad ei f dg ae       C.
The Cea  C61, eaed b Uied Nai Secea-Geeal, elai ha he
ii  hich [hi aagah] i bjec, i.e. hich ae eceed f i alicai, ae
aicle 49, aicle 2, aagah 9 (ag he).
Aicle 2, dicig bace de cl, ecifie i i aagah 9 ha Pa a     
  a     C    a   
   a a   .
The UN Seceaia i f he ii ha i ca [...] be eclded ha a dg fallig de he
ieaial acic egie [...] igh be eeded f ide e i idial cee he
ha he f haaceical facie.
The 1971 Cei  Pchic bace (C71) hich l cl THC, iclde
iila diii eeig dg ed f idial e (C71, A. 4(b)),
cbaed i he 1988 UN Cei agai illici affickig.
Addiiall, C61 Aicle 28, dicig he cliai f he caabi la, add ha hi
C a  a  he cliai f he caabi la   a      
 (fibe ad eed) ad hiclal e.
The Cea elai ha a Pa eiig he cliai f he la f he dg, b
al eiig cliai elehee    ,  al [cl]     
he fe, b   he lae.
Se hae aged ha he eei l ce fibe ad eed  a ai diied
b he UN Seceaia he claifig ha he a   a  a        
[a a ], a    he e eied i aagah 2 [i.e., a    
 ( a ) a a ]       
 . 
I el ha he cliai, dci, aface, e, i, diibi f, ade i,
e ad ei f caabi ad all i ce, f he ha edical ad cieific
e, i ee f he gie f cl f C61.
1 Uied Nai Secea-Geeal (1973). Commentar on the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961
(Prepared b the Secretar-General in accordance with paragraph 1 of Economic and Social Council
resolution 914D(XXXIV) of 3 August 1962). Ne-Yk: Uied Nai; . 113114.
2Ibid., . 110111.
3Ibid., . 72.
4Ibid., . 314.
5Ibid., . 312.
4 Riboulet-Zemouli
Cannabis plant. Ph: Gi Bale / Ulah
“Narcotics” vs. “narcotic drugs”
Deiai a beee EU dce, aleaiel ig he  acic  he
eei acic bace. I hld be ed hee ha he Cei i, abe all,
a ea eglaig dg, i.e. edicie. Nacic i eel a adjecie aached  dg.
Uig Nacic Cei iead f Cei  Nacic Dg ca lead 
ideadig ih egad  he ce f cl f he Cei.
The UN Seceaia ide e claificai, elaiig ha he e fia (i
Fech) ad eefaciee (i Saih) ae cle-d ha ced  he a  
a a + ,   acic . The eece f he  dg (i.e. edical    
dc) algide he adjecie acic i ieeial  he ii f he Cei,
hich fce  dg ad edical e.
I ee ha he  acic i EU egla lagage ced  he eei
acic dg i ieaial la, i.e., a ceai e f edicie. Thi aea f iace i
Ccil Diecie 65/65/EEC  edicial dc i hich acic ae l cideed a
a be f edicial dc (ee Aicle 16).
6Ibid., . 910.
CBD as a narcotic? Food for thought. 5
Defining and delimiting “food”
DG SANTE’s preliminary conclusions
“The definition of ‘food’ set out in Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 , to which  
Articles 2 and 3 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 make reference, when defining the scope
of application of the novel food regime, excludes (under lit. g) substances that are
‘narcotic or psychotropic’ within the meaning of the applicable United Nations Single
Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 (hereafter ‘Narcotics Convention’).”
D i he eaig f he alicable [C61] i clea egh: a   a     
S I a II,  aa  ,   a   . I i   
elici i he Cei, aiclal:
- i Aicle 1(1)(j), defie dg a a f he bace i Schedle I ad II, hehe
aal  heic,
- ad i Aicle 2(9), ecifie ha cie ae  eied  al he ii f
hi Cei  dg hich ae cl ed i id f he ha edical 
cieific e.
A dg, f he Cei, i a bace ed f edical ad cieific e ha i
laced de cl. The alifie dg hece de  efe  he cheical cii f
a bace  eaai, b  i a f lacee i he Schedle I  II ad  i  
e f e. A addii, delei,  chage i Schedlig ill hae a a ceece ha
a aicla bace a h bece  ceae  be a dg. I a iila fahi, a      
bace ceae  be a dg ifa i  eeig e   f he cieia: liig i he
Schedle + e f edical ad cieific e. T C     
a    a a,         
  .
The l cideai f cheical cii i he eiale ade beee aal ad
heic, b, agai, i alie l (1) if he bace i lied i he Schedle ad (2) if i i
ed f edical  cieific e.
7Ibid., . 10.
6 Riboulet-Zemouli
Hemp cake. Ph: K8 / Ulah
Nii ad alieai ae  edical  cieific e ad, heefe,       
  a   a, S a a    
a   aa [C61].
Diecie 2001/83/EC  edicial dc f ha e eaicall cide acic
bace a edicial dc f ha e, aiclal i i aicle 71, 87, ad 96.
Aicle 71(2) ackledge he eiece f eei e acic dg b biig 
ecial edical ecii l he acic bace ee i a -ee
ai i edicial dc. I de  eed eglai  ee aiie f
chedled bace.
Regulation (EC) No 178/2002
“‘food’ (or ‘foodstuff’) means any substance or product, whether processed, partially
processed or unprocessed, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be ingested by
humans. ‘Food’ includes drink, chewing gum and any substance, including water,
intentionally incorporated into the food during its manufacture, preparation or treatment.
[...] ‘Food’ shall not include: [...] (d) medicinal products within the meaning of Council
Directives 65/65/EEC and 92/73/EEC; [...] (e) cosmetics within the meaning of Council
Directive 76/768/EEC; [...] (g) narcotic or psychotropic substances within the meaning of
the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and the United Nations
Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971.
The defiii f fd i Reglai (EC) N 178/2002 ae ha acic bace (i i
 g), b al (-acic) edicial dc ( d) a ell a ceic ( e), ca be
cideed a fd.
Aicle 2 f Reglai (EC) 178/2002 de  dialif cd ed f he e
 be ed i fdff, i dialifie dc hich ae eaed de a diffee eglai
 be ld a ch a fd  fdff. Theefe, acic bace cl ed i
CBD as a narcotic? Food for thought. 7
id f he ha edical ad cieific e (icldig fd idie) ae 
dg ihi he eaig f C61.
A ieeig aallel i ffeed b Ccil Diecie 76/768/EEC  ceic hich li i
i Ae II (bace hich ceic dc   cai) acic, aal ad
heic : All bace lied i Table I ad II f he igle Cei  acic dg. I   
i ia  e ha hi lae diecie al ide f a geeal ecli f all
edicial dc f e i ceic. Hee, f bh acic ad -acic
edicial dc, he ecli i baed  he e ad ce f e, ad  l 
he ee cheical cii f bace de cideai.
I i eable, Ccil Diecie 76/768/EEC ae ha i eglai elae l 
ceic dc ad   haaceical ecialiie ad edicial dc, ha f
hi e i i ecea  defie he ce f he Diecie b deliiig he field f
ceic f ha f haaceical ad elai ha ch deliiai fll i    
aicla f he deailed defiii f ceic dc, hich efe bh  hei aea f
alicai ad  he e f hei e.
Agai, aa  aa a    ae he ai a f  a        
ceic. The a     ag he defiig chaaceiic.
Thi aach eche ha f C61 decibed abe. I al ake ee becae,      
   a a  aa,  a a, , a, a    a
   ,    a  a.
Chilli peppers. Ph: Ri Lecae / Ulah
A gd ad clea eale i ided  he ce age f he Fech Phaaceia eci
 egeable bace hich ae ha Pla he Fech ae i gaed  i hi
dce hae bee ideified a ibl al beig ed a fd ad/ cdie. Thee
ae eeal eale f la ed f diffee e, ih diffee alicable eglai
deedig  he aea f alicai ad e.
The chili ee la (Capsicum annuum L.) ad i -acic caaici cd  
(eible f he ge ad h f e chilli ee fi) i e f hee. Capsicum  
ad caaici ae ed a fd ad fdff, cdie ad ice. B he ae al ed a
igedie i ceic, a a cdig hebal dc ad API f edicial flai,
8 Phaace faaie (jaie 2020). Liste A des Plantes Mdicinales. Pai: ANSM.
9 See f iace he e f Caaici i he CIg Daabae:
8 Riboulet-Zemouli
a ell a i he cfeci f he idial dc like lice-gade ad eal
defee a. 
I each f hee aea, alhgh he ae dc / bace i deal ih, diffee la,
le ad adad al f diffee e, egadle f hich al i he aea.
Thee ae eial ha ad adee effec aciaed ih caaici ad chilli ee.
Accdig  Aedi, caaici ca cae aie bchcici ad idce
cghig, eeciall i idiidal ih eee aha, eiall iggeig faal cie hich
i a aj ble ih he e f ee a a ai-i age. Hee, dici 
he eglai cceig he e f caaici i a hld  ad ill  affec fd
eglai,  he e f caaici i edicie.
The eac a   a  CBD.
Synthetic vs. natural
DG SANTE’s preliminary conclusions
Article 1(1)(b) of the Narcotics Convention defines the term ‘Cannabis’ as meaning ‘the
flowering or fruiting tops of the cannabis plant (excluding the seeds and leaves when not
accompanied by the tops) from which the resin has not been extracted, by whatever
name they may be designated’. Article 1(1)(j) qualifies as ‘drugs’ in the framework of the
Narcotics Convention any of the substances falling within the scope of Schedules I and
II of the Narcotics Convention. Schedule I of the Narcotics Convention includes  
‘Cannabis and cannabis resin, and extracts and tinctures of cannabis’.
The lee fge  e ha aicle 1(1)(j) f C61 al ecifie aal ad heic
ei f he bace ae cideed alike. Accdig  hi defiii, DG SANTE hld
hae e i cicai,  l  alica f la-deied CBD, b al f
alica f in vitro CBD fdff    e.
I aea ha hee i lile gd  jif a diici beee bace laced de
cl accdig  hei heic  aal chaaceiic.
10 See f eale Eea Phaaceia, gah f Caic, Caic leei, efied
ad adadied, Caic f eac, adadied, ad Caic ice, adadied.
11 I hld be ed ha, i addii, he chili ee la f eal, he-bd cliai,
ei ad ci, i all  bied  a  f eglai, egadle f i e
f e  cliai.
12 Aedi G (2008). Caaici ad Caaiciid. I: Fa E ad Taglialaela-Scafai O (Ed).
Modern Alkaloids: Structure, Isolation, Snthesis and Biolog. 73109. Weihei: Wile.
CBD as a narcotic? Food for thought. 9
The whole is different than the sum of its parts
DG SANTE’s preliminary conclusions
Although cannabidiol that can be obtained from the Cannabis sativa L plant are not
explicitly mentioned in the schedules of the International Drug Control Conventions, they
are, in the Commission’s preliminary view, covered by the description of the production
method laid out in Schedule I of the Narcotics Convention (i.e. ‘extracts and tinctures of
cannabis’). It follows that cannabidiol, when extracted from ‘cannabis’, has to be
considered as a substance falling within the scope and under the control mechanisms of
that Convention and that is qualified as ‘drug’ thereunder.
Thi aali i iled i  i he i cide ha:
- CBD ld be a eac ad ice f caabi
- CBD ld be de cl eel f beig a f a clled bace.
I i ladak Herbal medical products, Gaedcke ad Seihf if ha i i a deciie    
aec ha he la  a f a la hich ae ed f haaceical e ae
egaded a a acie bace i i eie ecifig ha hebal edicial dc, i
hi egad, ae ala ie f a be f bace. Sch a aach i idel
acceed ag ciei ad ke iii ch a he Gea Cii E ad he
Ccil f Ee Eea Phaaceia Cii.
Accdig  hi aach, fleig  fiig caabi  ld be a igle bace. A
a eac ( ei) baied f ch hle-la caabi ld be cideed a diffee
bace. Ad a efied cceae eac f ha a ei ld be e ahe bace.
Sch a aach i efleced i he IDCC ad he a i hich Cannabis deiaie ae      
Bed edicie, hi aali i al idel acceed ag chei, a Weibeg elai
i Water is  H2O.,Siilal, i ca be aed ha CBD is  Cannabis resin, ad CBD is          
14 15
Extracts and tinctures. 
Eac ad ice f caabi,  e ideed caabi ei ae a f caabi fleig
ad fiig . Ye, he ae diffee eiie, diffee legal bjec, bjec  diffee
gie f cl he he ae a f he hle, ad he he ae ilaed. O hi
aicla ie, he Uied Nai Seceaia elai ha caabi ei i a dg ihi
13 Gaedcke F ad Seihff B (2003) Herbal Medicinal Products, Scientific and Regulator Basis for
Development, Qualit Assurance and Marketing Authorisation. Sga: Medha GbH Scieific
14 Weibeg M (2006). Wae i not H2O. I: Baid D, Scei E ad McIe L (Ed). Philosoph of
chemistr: snthesis of a new discipline. Ne-Yk: Sige. 337345.
15 See al h://bae.blg.c/2011/10/ae-i--h2.hl
16 See al . 10 i: Rible-Zeli K (2020). Caabi lgie I: Cceal ie ih Cannabis
ad caabiid eilg. Drug Science, Polic and Law 2020; i e.
10 Riboulet-Zemouli
he eaig f he Sigle Cei. I i defied eaael f caabi. Lae  i i
ecified ha he ei, hee, bece caabi ei l he eaaed f he
la; ih ch eaai i eai a a f he caabi la, ad if i he  a, f
caabi. 
The eac ae lgic alie f eac ad ice, hich, alhgh ee defied i he
C61, ae cideed  be dg diffee f caabi  caabi ei, hich ideed he
legall ae accdig  he Secea-Geeal' ffice.
THC, lied i he Schedle f he C71, i bil al legall a diffee dg.
I    a  a pars  aa a    hole, 
   a, a a     a...  
Ial, a aallel ih aaeie, a acie cd deied f Oi ad  lied
i he Schedled,  hich ieaial cl de  al. Paaeie, alhgh deied
f i i he ae fahi a CBD i deied f caabi  caabi ei, i  a
clled bace he eaaed f i.
I hld al be ed ha eac ad ice f caabi de  dee he
decii f [a] dci ehd. Mehd f bei (dci, eaai, eaci,
aface) ae defied i C61 Aicle 1, a eed a i he able bel. Hee hee
ehd ae lied i he Cei i de  al ecific cl alg he dci
chai ihi he haaceical ec. The d  affec he a f cl f a dg, hich
deed  (1) i lacee   i a Schedle ad (2) i e f dci ad e.
Saring maerial
Mehod of obenion (Article of C61)
Reling drg
cannabis plant
Production (Art. 1(t))
cannabis plant
Production (Art. 1(t))
Separation (Art. 1(c))
cannabi rein
Manufacture (Art. 1(t))
Extraction (Art. 1(b))
Manufacture (Art. 1(t))
erac and incre
cannabis plant
Manufacture (Art. 1(t))
cannabi rein
Manufacture (Art. 1(t))
crde cannabi rein
Manufacture (Art. 1(t), 1(j))
refined cannabi rein
not a scheduled drug
, in vitro
Manufacture (Art. 1(t), 1(j))
cannabi rein
Manufacture (Art. 1(t), 1(j))
erac and incre
The products in bold are those defined as drugs in the Convention (Art. 1[j]), as of August 2020.
Table adaed f Riboulet-Zemouli, 2020.16 
17 Uied Nai Secea-Geeal (1973). Commentar on the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs,
1961 (Prepared b the Secretar-General in accordance with paragraph 1 of Economic and Social Council
resolution 914D(XXXIV) of 3 August 1962). Ne-Yk: Uied Nai; . 5.
18Ibid., . 5.
19Ibid., . 314.
CBD as a narcotic? Food for thought. 11
The applicable Convention
The efeece  he alicable Cei ilie DG SANTE' eecai ha he e f
C61,  he aee (he Schedle), a chage. Accdig  he Jaa 2019
a   W Ha Oaa ECDD, hich ill be diced i   
Decebe 2020, a ible chage i ideed i igh. Hee,  a     
   agai, a   a a    ad  fd,     
fdff, feed  he idial dc ihi he eaig f he C61.
Theefe, he ecedai f WHO ha cce CBD l cce edicie.
Peaai i  be ded i he eaig f he Cei, a a edical dc
caiig a dg (i hi cae, THC).
The e ecedig he ecedai i cleal ad a       
a aaa aa, ice i jifie he ecedai b eiig  
edicie ih chacie effec ha ae dced a eaai f he caabi
la ad cai ace a f dela-9-eahdcaabil, giig a eale he
caabidil eaai aed f he eae f childhd-e eile, Eidile.
Fd caiig CBD  he -edical dc (e.g. ceic) ae ee diced b
he ECDD aee leadig  he ecedai.
Sch edical eaai (caiig edial CBD ad  e ha 0.2 % THC)
ld  be de cl if he ecedai ee aded. N    a    
 a.
Plants on displa. Ph: 2k / Ulah
20 Lee f WHO Diec-Geeal  UN Secea-Geeal fllig he 41 ECDD eeig
21 The ecedai e ha a fe be added  Schedle I f he 1961 Sigle Cei
 Nacic Dg  ead: Peaai caiig edial caabidil ad  e ha 0.2
ece f dela-9-eahdcaabil ae  de ieaial cl.
22 WHO Ee Ciee  Dg Deedece (2019) Fort-first report. WHO Technical Report Series
1018. Geea: Wld Healh Ogaiai.
12 Riboulet-Zemouli
The a f CBD dc aie accdig  he e f dci ad e f hee
dc. Cl l al ih egad  edical ad cieific e.
The chage ilied b WHO ECDD ecedai ae eiheal, ad l cce he
cae CBD dc ae ed i edicie, a a edical dc (dg),  i eeach.
O he eei f idial e ee i he C61, i a eied [...] dig he
dici f he daf f he aagah de cideai, ha he ii [eeig
idial e] a f  iediae acical iace, b had bee ieed 
aiciae ible fe deele. I 1973 he UN Seceaia hgh ha hee  
deele aea ill  be    a   f hi iig. W a   1973      
a; hee deele, called aa  -a , aa  a   
 aa, a a ,     C61.
Name ed b EU
Name ed in C61
of e
C61 a
of conrol
Preparations of hemp
floer (flowering
/fruiting tops)
Preparations of
Medical &
Exempt from
Preparations of hemp
Crude “cannabis resin”
“Extract and tinctures of
Medical &
Exempt from
Preparations of refined
CBD erac with % of
THC  0.2
Refined “cannabis resin”
“Extract and tinctures of
Medical &
Exempt from
Preparations of refined
CBD erac with % of
THC < 0.2
Extract and tincture of
Medical &
Controlledc /
Exempt from
Exempt from
a If WHO ECDD ecedai #5.4 i aded, eac ad ice f caabi ld be called eaai
f caabi.
b Ude Schedle I gie a f Ag 2020, igh be clled de a Schedle III gie (deedig 
jidici) if WHO ECDD ecedai #5.6 i aded.
c Ude Schedle I gie a f Ag 2020.
d Sa f cl if WHO ECDD ecedai #5.5 i aded.
23 Uied Nai Secea-Geeal (1973). Commentar on the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs,
1961 (Prepared b the Secretar-General in accordance with paragraph 1 of Economic and Social Council
resolution 914D(XXXIV) of 3 August 1962). Ne-Yk: Uied Nai; . 72
Technical Report
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On 21 April 2021, the herbal medicines “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” definitively ceased to appear in Schedule IV of the 1961 Single Convention on narcotic drugs (C61), where they had been listed since the entry into force of that treaty in 1964. The process to scientifically review and reschedule Cannabis-related controlled drugs had been launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 2 December 2016 and went through a number of hindrances until it finally got submitted to a unique voting process on 2 December 2020 at the United Nations Commission on narcotic drugs (CND). This report reviews the scientific assessments of Cannabis-related controlled drugs and cannabidiol (CBD) by the WHO’s Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) and subsequent political discussions at CND that culminated with the 2 December 2020 vote, changing the scheduling of “cannabis” and “cannabis resin” under the C61. A digest of the four years of proceedings (2015-2021) is presented, showcasing elements that provide an understanding about the length and complexity of the processes involved. The report introduces previously-unpublished minutes, complements of information, details on stakeholders and their role, and highlights a number of bureaucratic and diplomatic issues; it compares the efforts undertaken by WHO and CND in terms of method, transparency, and involvement (or not) of interested parties, beyond governments. [ Suggested citation: Riboulet-Zemouli, K., Krawitz, M.A., and Ghehiouèche, F. (2021). History, science, and politics of international cannabis scheduling, 2015–2021. Vienna: FAAAT editions. ISBN: 979-10-97087-50-0 ]
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This comprehensive volume marks a new standard in scholarship in the still emerging field of the philosophy of chemistry. With selections drawn from a wide range of scholarly disciplines, philosophers, chemists, and historians of science here converge to ask some of the most fundamental questions about the relationship between philosophy and chemistry. What can chemistry teach us about longstanding disputes in the philosophy of science over such issues as reductionism, autonomy, and supervenience? And what new issues may chemistry bring to the forefront now that it has joined physics and biology as a serious topic for philosophical reflection? This newest addition to the prestigious Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science series marks the true arrival of philosophy of chemistry within the corpus of the philosophy of science.
Pflanzliche Arzneimittel, wissenschaftliche und regulatorische Grundlagen für Entwicklung
  • F Gaedcke
  • B Steinhoff
Gaedcke F und Steinhoff B (2003) Pflanzliche Arzneimittel, wissenschaftliche und regulatorische Grundlagen für Entwicklung, Qualitätssicherung und Genehmigung für das Inverkehrbringen. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.
Cannabis'-Ontologien I: Konzeptionelle Probleme mit der Terminologie von Cannabis und Cannabinoiden. Arzneimittelwissenschaft, -politik und -recht 2020
  • S Siehe Auch
Siehe auch S. 10 in: Riboulet-Zemouli K (2020). 'Cannabis'-Ontologien I: Konzeptionelle Probleme mit der Terminologie von Cannabis und Cannabinoiden. Arzneimittelwissenschaft, -politik und -recht 2020; in der Presse.
Schreibens noch in der Zukunft liege
Schreibens noch in der Zukunft liege ". Wir sind nicht mehr im Jahr 1973 ;
Cannabidiol für nichtmedizinische Zwecke" bezeichnet werden, scheinen von den Autoren von C61 vorweggenommen und eindeutig ausgenommen worden zu sein
  • Diese Entwicklungen
Diese Entwicklungen, die als "Cannabidiol für nichtmedizinische Zwecke" bezeichnet werden, scheinen von den Autoren von C61 vorweggenommen und eindeutig ausgenommen worden zu sein.