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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the intelligence quotient (IQ) of employees is associated with their job satisfaction and performance. The moderating effect of personality type has also been explored. Drawing on trait theory, a conceptual model has been developed, which links personality dimensions to job performance through satisfaction. Primary data were collected from 378 respondents from 10 Universities situated in Lahore, Pakistan, for empirically testing our model. Findings reveal that IQ is a predictor of employee's job performance and job satisfaction. Moreover, this relationship is also moderated by the personality type (A/B) of the respondents. The study outcomes will be helpful for the management of the institutions to frame policy guidelines for hiring employees and have more informed decisions in terms of personality types and IQ of employees.
Intelligence quotient, job satisfaction, and job performance:
The moderating role of personality type
Muhammad Hamid Murtza
| Shahzad Ali Gill
| Hassan Danial Aslam
Amna Noor
School of Business Management &
Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University
of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Department of Political Science, The Islamia
University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur,
Muhammad Hamid Murtza, School of Business
Management & Administrative Sciences, The
Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Baghdad ul
Jadeed Campus, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Email:, hamid.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the intelligence quotient (IQ) of
employees is associated with their job satisfaction and performance. The moderating
effect of personality type has also been explored. Drawing on trait theory, a concep-
tual model has been developed, which links personality dimensions to job perfor-
mance through satisfaction. Primary data were collected from 378 respondents from
10 Universities situated in Lahore, Pakistan, for empirically testing our model. Find-
ings reveal that IQ is a predictor of employee's job performance and job satisfaction.
Moreover, this relationship is also moderated by the personality type (A/B) of the
respondents. The study outcomes will be helpful for the management of the institu-
tions to frame policy guidelines for hiring employees and have more informed deci-
sions in terms of personality types and IQ of employees.
Human resource is of pivotal importance in organizations for gaining
competitive advantage nowadays. Organizations tend to hire the most
competent people as they want to achieve their goals by adding effi-
ciency in their operations. Undoubtedly, the management of organiza-
tions must take into consideration the subjective qualities of
employees. To ensure efficiency and effectiveness in today's competi-
tive environment, organizations should evaluate the idiosyncratic
capabilities of their human resource. The impact of technological
advancements is undeniable but, in some way or the other, its usage
is dependent on the cognitive abilities of human resource profiting
from it. Acquiring technological or financial resources may not be that
challenging for organizations as developing human resource might be
for bringing change or gaining and sustaining the competitive advan-
tage. Organizations, therefore, must focus on uplifting the systematic
knowledge and intelligence quotient (IQ) level of their staff members.
The industrial psychologists have reached a consensus that indi-
viduals with higher intelligence have been found to assimilate job-
related expertise exceptionally well resulting into greater learning
experiences, various work-related developments, and improvised task
performance individually, as well as at the group level. The personal
ability to perceive, indoctrinate, and conclude a particular situation is
defined as intelligence and denoted as IQ (Reynolds, Chastain, Kauf-
man, & McLean, 1987). In simple words, IQ is a yardstick to check the
academic ability of an individual regarding rational usage of informa-
tion for answering a particular question. IQ score is denoted numeri-
cally, which bares how consistently a person is capable in attaining,
examining, and making use of any organized information. The impor-
tance of IQ amplifies due to the reason that it helps in identifying per-
sonal cognitive abilities. It does not merely identify the capacity to
tackle the information or its interpretation by someone, it reveals the
cognitive capacity developed by suitable preparation, thoughtful rea-
soning, and thinking and taking care of issues.
Allport and Odbert (1936) believed that the identity of an individ-
ual can be described by individual traits. Personality is a set of human
characteristics that can also be termed as personal attributes associ-
ated with various behavioral aspects. Each individual possesses a par-
ticular set of characteristics, which can be classified into repetitive
behavioral, rational, and sentimental patterns. Trait theory puts
emphasis on quantifying these characteristics. All these models of per-
sonal attributes and characteristics are named as Personality Traits.
People with varied set of characteristics react in a different way
whenever they encounter particular circumstances (Ashill, Semaan,
Gibbs, & Gazley, 2020). Human behavior is a product of personality
attributes resulting from interaction between various cognitive
Received: 4 June 2020 Revised: 16 July 2020 Accepted: 19 July 2020
DOI: 10.1002/pa.2318
J Public Affairs. 2020;e2318. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd 1of12
models (Kamdar & Van Dyne, 2007). Cattell (1973) has developed var-
ious personality factor models and found that each person can be
characterized as a unique combination of expression of these traits.
However, the studies have revealed that individual differences exist in
response to similar work conditions and situations, and these differ-
ences may be styled as the personality of individuals. These differ-
ences particularly refer to their type of personality. It may also be
defined as one's behavior toward a specific situation or circumstance.
It includes everything about an individual, particularly the prediction
of how s/he will react to a given circumstance. Eysenck (1991)
suggested that personality traits are the product of the brain. Current
research studies have divided individuals into these two basic types of
personality first—“Type A Personalityand Type B Personality. The
individuals who belong to Type A Personalitypossess the qualities
of being ambitious, determined, relatively more intimidate, and sensi-
tized very quickly over minor issues. They often exhibit impulsiveness
and inflexibility, resulting into frustration and anger. Stress, along with
achievement-driven mentality, also constitutes the salient attributes
of Type A Personality.According to this theory, the individuals hav-
ing Type B Personality,in general, experience reduced level of anxi-
ety by normally working calmly, enjoy making progress toward their
goals, and in case they fail to achieve the desired objective they do
not experience stressful situations.
This study reveals that no matter what type of organization you
are dealing with, whether academic institutions or business organiza-
tions, the performance of individuals has become the fundamental
element for achieving a competitive advantage. The study contributes
to the literature by testing whether the IQ of employees predicts their
job performance via satisfaction. It further explains the differences in
personalities of individuals, which may result into greater inspiration
and solid desire for achievement. The findings of this study may help
the management of organizations to frame policy guidelines regarding
hiring of employees and have more informed decisions in terms of
personality types and IQ of employees.
Figure 1 explains the theoretical model of our study:
IQ is defined as a total score derived from a set of standardized tests
designed to assess human intelligence(Neisser et al., 1996).
Wechsler (1958) described IQ as something that is used to assess the
capability of an individual to perceive, analyze, and explain a particular
situation. It is a cognitive ability of an individual that can be measured
and indicated in numerical terms. Sternberg (1985) termed IQ as a
capacity of one's mind that requires understanding and adaptation of
the context in which one exists. IQ is the cognizant brainpower of an
individual that empowers him/her to understand and examine logical
and hypothetical problems. From a wider perspective, it is an ability to
think rationally, which is widely applicable in some areas of daily life.
It also represents a consistent capability for almost all types of assign-
ments, operations, and jobs. This is why higher intelligence can be so
useful. It is not just the diverse knowledge that these individuals have
acquired. In fact, it demonstrates the ability to acquire the right skills
for training, thinking, and problem solving. Advanced intelligence can
be useful in almost any area. We all need to learn and solve problems,
especially when there are so many technological and social changes
are happening. A recent study on smartphone usage suggested that
appropriate utilization of smart devices can enhance the flexibility in
learning (Nand, Pitafi, Kanwal, Pitafi, & Rasheed, 2020). Smart people
are more beneficial for organizations, compared to individuals having
lower IQ, because they can learn and plan better.
An individual's IQ is determined by multiple factors. These factors
include specialized knowledge, memorizing and vocabulary skills,
understanding of illustrations, and perceptual skills. Individuals with
good knowledge, reasoning ability, understanding of graphical repre-
sentations, and remembrance can get higher score in IQ tests. In addi-
tion to the genetic vulnerability, there are some other environmental
factors that play a pivotal role in this connection. These factors
include education, training, nutrition, mental weakness, or illness.
Intelligence has been widely perceived as a major driver of aptitude
and skills (Pomerantz & Saxon, 2001). Therefore, the managers are
always concerned about the IQ level of their employees while
selecting them for higher-level responsibilities. The performance of an
employee is considered to be a substantial measure that is related to
managerial accomplishments and organizational success (Mahlamäki,
Rintamäki, & Rajah, 2019). Measuring employees' performance is
important to achieve the goals set by an organization. The analysis of
employees' skills and measuring their productivity, in order to manage
effectively, improves the standards of an organization (Mero,
Motowidlo, & Anna, 2003) as the productivity and success of an orga-
nization is directly proportional to its employees' performance and
success. A successful employee will certainly produce great results.
FIGURE 1 Theoretical background
and hypotheses
This mainly involves their interaction, quality, and commitment with
their organization. Schmidt and Hunter (2000) have described that
employees' performance can be very precisely measured by intelli-
gence. Therefore, it has been observed that hiring on the basis of
intelligence has brought great developments and subsequently con-
tributed to value addition for organizations. Individuals with high IQ
tend to be more intelligent and can improvise quickly followed by bet-
ter job performance (I. W. Hunter & Korenberg, 1986; Ree, Carretta, &
Teachout, 1995). Jobs generally vary depending on the different IQ
ranges of the employees. Individuals with IQ ranging from 120 and
above are considered to be competitively proficient in almost all occu-
pations. It accounts for 10% of the population. On the other hand,
individuals with an IQ below 80 have less competitive job options. In
some countries, such as the United States of America (USA), there are
laws that prohibit anyone with an IQ below 80 from serving in the mil-
itary because of insufficient training capacity. But private employers
hire them for those jobs which that less cognitive ability. Individuals
having lower IQ level generally need a specific environment for socio-
economic growth. Contrary to this, individuals having higher IQ are
only subject to failure under abnormal circumstances. Empirical stud-
ies have validated that various personality characteristics like intelli-
gence and critical thinking resulted in higher performance at work.
However, it is hard to specify particular attributes that anticipate
higher performance in every occupation. Generally, hypothesizing
which personal characteristics or patterns of behavior may result in
performance in most of the professions is not judicious (Stewart &
Barrick, 2004). Personality characteristics of human beings differenti-
ate them from one another in a way that individuals with rich cogni-
tive resources outperform in various occupations those who lack
these resources. Personality characteristics are of ultimate importance
for anticipating personjob fit and other behavioral attributes
(Fretwell, Lewis, & Hannay, 2013).
Is there any importance of being intelligent to be successful in
life? Research in the past has found the relationship between IQ and
occupational achievement (Zagorsky, 2007). Brown and Reyn-
olds' (1975) examination of association among general aptitude and
earnings showed positive results. Nyborg and Jensen (2001) investi-
gated the relationship between IQ and work performance, and rev-
ealed that having equal scores of IQ, no difference was found
between the performance of black fellows to white.
Lynn, Vanhanen, and Stuart (2002) penned a book titled IQ and
the Wealth of Nationsthat takes GDP as representation of national
treasure. This book presented a detailed analysis of the national
wealth of 185 nations for the period from 1820 to 1998, representing
the intelligence quotient of populations has been a major factor for
the national difference in the economic growth for the gap in per-
capita income between rich and poor nations.Barber (2005) further
extended the investigation by incorporating individual-level intelli-
gence and education parameter to infer that individual-level education
increases critical thinking and decision making, ultimately contributing
not only to the performance of an individual but to the economy of
that nation as well. Dickerson (2006) added by investigating the rela-
tionship between IQ and gross domestic product (GDP) and found an
exponential impact between the two. These results showed more
impact than already reported. Whetzel and McDaniel (2006) studied
this relationship by enhancing the period of analysis till 2002 and
came up with more convincing results, cutting the IQ score to 90 by
applying a curvilinear model.
Intelligence of individuals is associated with better performance
and ultimately resulting in financial wellbeing of the nations, Stanley
and Danko (1996) have argued in their most popular book titled The
Millionaire Next Doorthat mere IQ is not the only predictor of the
financial well-being. It further says that It is seldom luck or inheri-
tance or advanced degree or even intelligence that enables individuals
to perform better to amass fortune. However, it is worth mentioning
that this is merely a statement and no evidence has been given to sup-
port this idea.
IQ is considered to be a renowned forecaster of educational and
work-related success globally (Neisser et al., 1996). It is evident from
the past research that the relationship between intelligence and
acquiring a job is proven; however, the youth struggling to get a job
has overlooked it (Rehermann & Mortensen, 2010). Most of the indi-
viduals consider non-cognitive elements, for example, family back-
ground and social status, as a barrier to success in their educational
and professional careers (Rustin, 2015). Caspi, Wright, Moffitt, and
Silva (1998) found that low IQ level is substantially related to lower
qualifications and greater risk of remaining unemployed. All countries
have particular contextual factors related to education system plus
elasticity in the job market, which can modify the function of intelli-
gence in forecasting educational and professional achievements
(Zagorsky, 2007). The countries where free education is provided to
students of all grades, the state provides finances for research and
development, and comparatively high attention is provided to the stu-
dents to fulfil their unique educational requirement, IQ could play a
greater role for educational and professional achievements in compar-
ison to socioeconomic issues. Strenze (2007) reported that IQ is a
consistent forecaster for educational and professional achievements
and low IQ is related with the greater risk of unemployment.
Byington and Felps (2010) suggest that IQ facilitates individuals
to enhance their learning capabilities while attending work-related
training programs. Schmidt and Hunter (2004) have studied general
mental ability in practical life. This study reveals that generally cogni-
tive capabilities of individuals anticipate occupational achievements
and work accomplishments. Furthermore, these findings endorse pre-
vious recommendations by Spearman regarding significance of gen-
eral mental abilitiesin predicting undertakings of the individuals. Ree
and Earles (1992) have also pointed out the significance of adopting
intelligence-based criteria for hiring individuals in order to ensure
maximum performance in academia and industrial sector.
Schmidt (2002) while introducing performance appraisal mechanism
emphasized that the cognitive capabilities of individuals are critically
associated with their performance at the workplace.
Gottfredson (2002) reported cognitive intelligence to be a signifi-
cant predictor of job performance, explaining 25% of variance.
Schmidt and Hunter (2004) have also reported the same finding that
correlation between general intelligence and job performance ranged
from 0.31 to 0.73, showing a positive relationship. They have also
considered intelligence as an excellent predictor of performance at
workplace. Kuncel, Ones, and Sackett (2010) found IQ forecast job
performance much better than talent, personality trait, and disposi-
tion, which have been experienced. According to the results reported
by J. E. Hunter and Hunter (1984), cognitive intelligence is of signifi-
cant importance for calculating the work performance of individuals.
Spector (1997) found job satisfaction as a sign of subjective qual-
ity of life of a professional. It is equally good for the employees' well-
being and organizational productivity. It is argued that job satisfaction
comprises both environmental and personal characteristics (Judge &
Larsen, 2001). In addition to the contextual elements, personality fea-
tures are also related to job satisfaction. For better understanding of
particular circumstances and personal characteristics, Akkerman, Kef,
and Meininger (2018) studied job satisfaction among people with vul-
nerable intellectual capacity and found negative relationship between
low intelligence and job performance. This discussion leads us to
assume the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1 There is a positive relationship between IQ and job
Hypothesis 2 There is a positive relationship between IQ and job
2.1 |Mediating role of job satisfaction
In terms of definition, satisfaction is a state in which a person feels
glad, happy, and good or wherein someone achieves some specified
goal or when something occurs which a person wanted to occur
(Dinham & Scott, 1998). Judge, Cable, Boudreau, and Bretz Jr (1995)
explain that various factors determine an employee's attitude, which
lead to inner satisfaction. Loi and Ngo (2010) also contend that satis-
faction is of immense importance for workers and an organization for
sustainable competitive advantage in every profession. Organizational
objectives are easy to achieve when human resource is satisfied with
their job. Studies in the past report an association between work sat-
isfaction and overall performance of an organization (Edmans, 2012;
Maharani, Troena, & Noermijati, 2013). Various evidence exists to
substantiate the argument that job dissatisfaction has led to the loss
of skilled labor (Aydogdu & Asikgil, 2011; Chen, Zhao, Liu, &
Wu, 2012; Delobelle et al., 2011; Mobley, Horner, &
Hollingsworth, 1978). The findings of meta-analysis have revealed
that unsatisfied employees tend to remain absent and there is a
greater likelihood that they may quit their jobs (Anderson &
Geldenhuys, 2011). In particular circumstances, more experienced and
satisfied individuals have shown more commitment toward their job
and performed better as compared to less satisfied individuals
(Singh & Das, 2013).
Researchers have established the significance of satisfied work-
force with regard to their performance since as early as 1940s, and
various methodologies have been used so far to assess the link
between the two (Brody, 1945). Scholars have argued that a happy
worker is a productive worker; however, evidence is not conclusive in
this regard(Cranny, Smith, & Stone, 1992). Researchers have devel-
oped various scales to measure job satisfaction; some have adapted
the already established measures. Studies have been conducted by
using self-reported evaluations to measure job performance, and, in
contrast, some research evaluated the same by using supervisor and
peer reports (Davar & Bala, 2012). Vroom (1964) supported the idea
that improved job performance is the ultimate result of job satisfac-
tion since this belief is supported by the natural instinct of human
behavior. Strauss (1968) mentioned that the early human relationists
viewed the moraleproductivity relationship quite simple: higher
morale would lead to improved productivity. Manjunath and
Shashidahra (2011) studied job satisfaction among agrarian scientists
and discovered substantial correlations with their scientific productiv-
ity. Petty, McGee, and Cavender (1984) conducted a meta-analysis on
the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. They
included 16 published studies from five journals for the period
19641983. The result indicated consistent and higher correlations
between job satisfaction and job performance as compared with the
results of the previous studies. Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) fur-
ther analyzed 74 published studies on job satisfaction and job perfor-
mance and found a significant positive relationship.
Bateman and Organ (1983) theoretically explained the relation-
ship between job satisfaction and job performance using social
exchange theory. Organ and Ryan (1995) explored job satisfaction as
an antecedent of job performance. Their research also indicated that
contextual job performance (OCB) is also predicted by job satisfaction.
Various researchers have emphasized that often work productivity of
task performance is increased when employees like their job most and
feel satisfied (Edwards, Bell, Arthur, Winfred, & Decuir, 2008). Keep-
ing in view the robustness of the relationship between job satisfaction
and job performance, organizations have opted to make strategies
that influence both and result into more pleased and productive work-
force (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001). Job satisfaction was
found to have significant contributions for workers' well-being, as well
as organizational effectiveness (Lim, 2008). Peng (2014) studied the
relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction with task
and contextual job performance. The results of the study revealed
that intrinsic as well as extrinsic satisfaction has significant contribu-
tion for improvising task and contextual performance. Job satisfaction
and performance of workers have also been critically evaluated in var-
ious organizational settings. Cummings (1970) pointed out three most
important perspectives regarding this relationship. Job performance is
caused by satisfaction, job satisfaction is caused by performance, and
reward is of both, that is, satisfaction and performance. Mirvis (1980)
provided resounding results regarding the relationship between job
satisfaction and performance of bank cashiers. Interestingly, more sat-
isfied cashiers never came up with showing shortage of cash and they
also showed fewer turnover intentions. Kornhanuser and Sharp (1976)
carried out various studies to find out the relationship between satis-
faction and performance in different industries. They found a positive
relationship between these variables in almost 30 studies. Currall,
Towler, Judge, and Kohn (2005) found that productivity and output of
organizations are measured through the performance of its
employees. Satisfied worker makes great output, which leads to the
ultimate performance of the organizations. Sousa-Poza and Sousa-
Poza (2000) studied the antecedents and outcomes of well-being of
workers and found that higher job satisfaction leads toward better
performance at the workplace. Nanda and Browne (1977) while
studying job satisfaction and productivity of employees reported vari-
ous employee performance pointers and established that employee
productivity is significantly affected by motivation and job satisfac-
tion. Those who perform better will be more demanding in terms of
financial emoluments and other benefits. Retaining the high-performing
resource is becoming more difficult for the management of organiza-
tions (Rai, 2004). Those employees that show low satisfaction are less
committed to their job and, therefore, affect organizational objective
achievement, resulting in reduced performance (Meyer, 2002).
Yoke and Panatik (2016) studied the role of occupational satisfac-
tion as a mediator in the relationship between emotional intelligence
and job performance in education sector. The result of the study pro-
vided significant support to the notion that the premeditated relation-
ship between emotional intelligence and job performance is mediated
by satisfaction. The intrinsic factors demonstrated more support in
comparison to extrinsic factors of job satisfaction. Nisar and
Rasheed (2020) studied that job satisfaction mediates the relationship
between stressful situation at workplace and performance. Fishbein
and Ajzen (1981) found that the behavior of an individual is a product
of attitude, which is based upon his well-being. Higher level of human
intelligence develops the capacities of an individual, which ultimately
result in positive attitude (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). The mediating role
of satisfaction among the relationship between IQ and job perfor-
mance is possible because the study of job satisfaction around nomo-
logical network proved its function as a mediator in the association
between several antecedents and behavior at workplace (Crede,
Chernyshenko, Stark, Dalal, & Bashshur, 2007). Here, we assume the
following hypotheses;
Hypothesis 3 There is a positive relationship between job satisfaction
and job performance.
Hypothesis 4 Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between IQ
and job performance.
2.2 |Moderating role of personality types
The significance of personality traits cannot be ignored while studying
the performance of individuals (Owens, Irwing, & Clarke, 2019), since
specific attributes of personality are associated with certain jobs.
Type A Personalityis attributed with a cluster of behaviors which
include increased competitiveness, strife for achievement, aggression,
impatience, restlessness, hyper alertness, explosive speech stylistics
and chronic sense of urgency(Rose, 1987). Type B Personalityis
marked with more contemplation and a will to take time to ponder
alternatives. They usually feel there is plenty of time(Frost &
Wilson, 1983). The literature suggests that there are three attributes
of Type A Personality: (a) Competitive and achievement-oriented,
(b) hurried and timebound, and (c) aggressive and assertive. Evidence
has shown that Type Aindividuals have better work performance,
professional attitude, and better quality of work as compared with
Type Bindividuals (Helmreich, Spence, & Pred, 1988). Carver and
Glass (1978) found that Type A Personalityhas further two dimen-
sions, which include success-endeavor and impatience. Al-
Mashaan (2003) reported that Type A Personalityexhibited high sat-
isfaction with their job. The cause of low satisfaction is considered to
be due to environmental factors. However, individual characteristics
also play an important role in satisfaction within the same environ-
ment (Omundson, Schroeder, & Stevens, 1996). Omundson
et al. (1996) also found that Type A Personalityhas a significant pos-
itive relationship with job satisfaction. Gondal and Husain (2013) con-
ducted comparative analysis between IQ scores and emotional
perspective of intelligence for predicting achievements at the work-
place. The results reveal insignificant correlations between IQ and
performance in comparison to emotional intelligence. This study
emphasized the need to create an emotionally intelligent workforce
rather than depending upon intelligence test scores for creating a
competitive advantage in the industry's high growth rate.
Wolfe and Kim (2013) conducted another study to work out the
potential association among emotional intelligence (EI) and length of ser-
vice as determinants of satisfaction at workplace. The results disclosed
that various determining factors of satisfaction were predicted by the EI.
Watson and Humrichouse (2006) maintain that the concept of
Type A Personalityhas developed over the years, associating very
distinctive personality characteristics toward it. These characteristics
include but not limited to crave for maximizing achievements, due dili-
gence in time scheduling, being logical, and using resentment while
dealing with stressful situation. Carver and Glass (1978) while study-
ing the antecedents of anger and vexation established that personal
attributes take charge of the various situations observed in individuals
with personality type A.
Individuals having the characteristics of type A personality gen-
erally exhibit forceful determination toward their lifestyle and rou-
tine behavior (Watson & Humrichouse, 2006). Personality A
individuals are considered more dynamic, aggressive, industrious,
goal oriented, conscientious, and extraordinarily devoted to their
professional life (Nahavandi, Mizzi, & Malekzadeh, 1992). Some of
the other attributes associated with them are that they go the extra
mile to achieve their self-established, relatively uncompromising, and
hard-hitting goals by giving maximum output with minimum possible
resources. Nahavandi et al. (1992), after studying the behavioral
aspects of various executives, opined that type A individuals out-
perform others in various occupations. Talking about the aspirations
of higher ranks in professional life, this study discovered type A indi-
viduals to be more passionate and rational. However, it was also rev-
ealed that in case they do not achieve their desired objective they
also become violent.
Mahajan and Rastogi (2011) argued regarding personality differ-
ences with a view that both personality characteristics of A and B are
contrasting, and generally type B individuals are found to be relaxed
and serene. They do not like to cause agitation or hasslewhether it
is a matter of time management or their professional conduct. As far
as setting goals and achievement of work-related objective are con-
cerned, they put their utmost energy to accomplish the task with a
balanced approach rather than become relentless or extraordinarily
conscious about meeting deadlines as type A do (Mahajan &
Rastogi, 2011). Watson and Humrichouse (2006) distinguished both
types of personalities by arguing that individuals possessing type A
characteristics show unwavering leadership qualities that enable them
to take up administrative assignments in an effective manner. Con-
versely, type B individuals perceive things from different perspective,
taking lenient view over governing people preferring collaborative
decision making. Spector and O'Connell (1994) identified two signifi-
cant attributes associated with type A personality that segregate them
from others. The element of intolerance in their personality often
results in impatience, and the element of achievement results in moti-
vation to achieve their objective. A study on personality differences
and leadership style found that there is a significant impact of person-
ality differences of a leader on the performance of employees (Akhtar,
Maik, Butt, Ishfaq, & ur Rehman, 2019).
There exists inconsistency in the findings regarding the relation-
ship between IQ and employees' satisfaction. In this regard, some
writers (Liu & Jung, 1980; Pike, 1994) found support for association
between IQ and satisfaction at workplace; however, (Bean &
Bradley, 1986) some have not found such association altogether. On
the other hand, Centra and Rock (1971) relate their finding to those
who validate that IQ is associated with better performance and
rewards ultimately resulting in satisfied labor. Likewise, some
researchers discovered various demographical and socioeconomic
parameters also contributing majorly toward satisfaction (Rienzi, Allen,
Sarmiento, & McMillin, 1993) in particular occupations. Motlagh and
Abbaspour (2013) studied satisfaction among university employees
and reported significant associations among academic achievement,
satisfaction, and performance. Okpara, Squillace, and Erondu (2005)
stated that there exists a relationship among the attempts of teaching
staff, for their improvised performance, and satisfaction at workplace.
The academic background of teachers and professional development
contributed toward better learning, performance, and satisfaction.
The fundamental concept of that studied model shows that advance-
ment in acumen contributed in better performance, which leads
toward higher satisfaction of teachers. Paul and Phua (2011) while
studying various parameters related to satisfaction among teachers of
public establishment determined that the satisfaction level of partici-
pants varied according to age, gender, socioeconomic status, and the
number of years a worker spent in the institution. These arguments
helped us to assume the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 5 Personality type moderates the indirect relationship
between IQ and job performance (via job satisfaction) such that
the relationship is stronger for personality Type A than for person-
ality Type B.
3.1 |Procedures and participants
We collected the data required for this study through a survey con-
ducted in Lahore city, Pakistan. We distributed 500 questionnaires
among the faculty members of universities in Lahore, the provincial
capital of the Punjab province of Pakistan during 2019, and received
378 (75.6% response rate) useable responses.
Participants of the study consisted of five age groups. The first
group included participants of age below 30, which are 02%. The sec-
ond group included participants of age between 31 and 35, which are
39.7%. The third group included participants of age between 36 and
40, which are 27.3%. The fourth group included participants of age
4145, which are 24%, and the fifth group included participants
above 46 years, which are 7% of the sample size. The number of male
respondents was 326, which is 86.2% and female respondents are
52, which is 13.8%. The average tenure/work experience of the par-
ticipants was 4.5 years.
3.2 |Measures
3.2.1 |Intelligence quotient
We used a standardized IQ test designed by Carter (2014), asking
10 questions from each employee to identify the IQ score. The respon-
dents were asked MCQs relating to the measurement of IQ and their
score was calculated by keeping in view the correct answers.
3.2.2 |Personality type
We used a questionnaire consisting of 20 items to assess the person-
ality type of the employees who comprised the subjects of the study.
This questionnaire was adopted from the book titled Executive
Healthcomposed by Dr. Howard Glazer. This questionnaire con-
tained two columns of opposite behaviors and the respondents were
asked to rate themselves according to their opinion about themselves.
The respondents who scored 80 and above were grouped in column
Type-Aand the respondents whose score was below 80 were
grouped in column Type-B.
3.2.3 |Employee performance
The five-point Likert scale (Goe, Holdheide, & Miller, 2011) question-
naire has been adopted for measuring the employees' performance.
The respondents were given five options from Unacceptable = 1 to
Outstanding = 5. For this study, the internal reliability of this ques-
tionnaire was 0.77.
3.2.4 |Job satisfaction
For measuring job satisfaction, five-point Likert scale questionnaire
was adopted (Spector, 1985). The respondents were given five
options from strongly disagree = 1 to strongly agree = 5. For this
study, the internal reliability of this questionnaire was 0.70.
3.2.5 |Control variables
Age, gender, and average tenure/work experience were used as con-
trol variables of the study. These control variables have contributed
toward explaining the performance and satisfaction of employees in
various studies, previously.
SPSS PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2015; Rockwood & Hayes, 2017) was
applied to test our conceptual research model. In carrying out the
analysis of the results of this study, we followed the suggestion of
Aiken, West, and Reno (1991) in this regard.
4.1 |Descriptive statistics
Table 1 exhibits mean, SD, and inter-correlation among the constructs
used in this study. IQ is positively associated with job satisfaction
(r = 0.637, p= .01) and employee performance (r = 0.460, p= .01).
Similarly, job satisfaction is positively associated with employee per-
formance (r = 0.471, p= .01). Demographic variables were not signifi-
cantly associated to any of the study variables. Therefore, they were
not included in any analysis.
4.2 |Hypothesis testing
For testing our fully hypothesized research model, we utilized SPSS
PROCESS macro Model 14. PROCESS results are given in Tables 1
and 2. These results are consistent with our preliminary analysis, as IQ
has shown a positive relationship with job satisfaction (B = 0.03,
t = 17.42, p= .001) and employee performance (B = 0.01, t = 2.67,
p= .053). Similarly, job satisfaction (B = 0.83, t = 9.30, p= .001) has
shown a positive association with employee performance. These
results confirm our hypotheses, H1, H2, and H3.
We also calculated the indirect effects of IQ on employee perfor-
mance through job satisfaction. The results demonstrate that there is
a mediation role of job satisfaction in the indirect relationships
between IQ (estimate of indirect effect = 0.0021, 95%, CI [0.004,
0.01]) and employee performance. Thus, our hypothesis H4 is
For moderated mediation model, we further calculated the condi-
tional indirect effects of IQ on employee performance through job
satisfaction across the levels of our moderator, that is, personality
type. As reported in Table 1, we have found that the conditional indi-
rect effects of IQ on employee performance through job satisfaction
is strong (magnitude indirect effect = 0.031, 95% CI [0.024, 0.037])
when personality level is high (at +1 SD), that is, Personality Type A
than when it is low (at -1SD), i.e., Personality Type is B(magnitude
indirect effect = 0.024, 95% CI [0.015, 0.31]). This supports our H5.
The instant research was conducted to investigate whether IQ of
employees is associated with their job satisfaction and performance,
keeping in view their personality dimensions, IQ in the universities of
provincial capital of the Punjab province of Pakistan. A theoretical
model was established to have an understanding of the association
between IQ with job satisfaction and performance. It was further pro-
posed that the personality types of employees have a moderating
effect on job satisfaction and performance. Based on the analysis of
this study, it has been disclosed that the hypothesized theoretical
model has found support. The result of moderated-mediation analysis
proved that participants having higher IQ perform better than those
with lower IQ. These findings are similar to the outcomes of the previ-
ous study conducted by Byington and Felps (2010) and Schmidt and
Hunter (2004). The institutional learning and knowledge help the
human resource of organizations to enhance their analytical and
problem-solving skills. The employees with higher IQ levels get more
benefits in terms of capacity building as they have the tendency to
learn more. The opportunities for growth and capacity building in an
organization are provided on the basis of IQ reflective criteria. It is
TABLE 1 Mean, SDs, and inter-correlations
Variable Mean SD 123
1. IQ 85.27 12.81
2. Personality 3.63 1.59 .30**
3. Employee performance 3.49 1.11 .46** .41**
4. Job satisfaction 3.34 .67 .63** .47** .63**
Note: N = 378. Significant at*p< .05(two-tailed) and **p< .01 (two-tailed).
hereby argued that individuals having higher IQ possess greater
problem-solving skills, which enable them to perform their jobs in a
better way. This research provides the evidence that workers having
superior IQ perform better compared with workers with lower level of
IQ. Based upon the results of the performance reports of the
employees in educational institutions, it is further argued that perfor-
mance is strongly predicted by IQ of the employees. The organizations
do recognize the importance of intelligence test scores in anticipating
subjective qualities of employees for hiring at various positions.
Therefore, it is emphasized that in order to achieve competitive
advantage of human resource, hiring policies should be made by tak-
ing into consideration the subjective attributes regarding mental
capacity of the applicants.
The results of this study also exhibit that the intelligence attri-
butes help individuals to better learn, understand, and resolve job
related-problems, which lead to better performance, and ultimately
resulting in satisfied worker. Previous research also came up with the
same findings (Liu & Jung, 1980). In other words, it can be interpreted
that better IQ may become the source of satisfaction at particular
organizations where learning contributes toward achieving objectives.
Evidence also exists where researchers have already identified satis-
faction of individuals result into innovative ideas, better teamwork,
and increased profitability (Eskildsen & Dahlgaard, 2000; Li-Ping Tang,
Kim, & Shin-Hsiung Tang, 2000). Personality types A/B have got sub-
stantial importance in the literature related to stress. This research
study has also examined Type A/B individuals regarding the relation-
ship between personality and performance. Glass and Carver (1980)
found that individuals with Type A personality are hyperreactive to
the stressful situations that are not under their control. However,
under the routine circumstances being more competitive, they out-
perform Personality B employees. Ganster, Fusilier, and Mayes (1986)
also found same correlations in their study, as it states that Type B
personality individuals are less responsive to stressful situations at
job. Consistent with these findings, this study is of the view that Type
A personality individuals perform better than personality B employees
in normal conditions. The organizations can hold emotional intelli-
gence trainings for the employees to make them more emotionally
stable so that they can perform better. This study holds implications
for human resource managers to identify the personality complica-
tions in the employees and by providing them suitable trainings they
make them productive employees.
5.1 |Limitations and future directions of the study
Like other empirical studies, there are some limitations associated
with this research. The research design to take up this study was
cross-sectional; therefore, generalizations of the results may be made
carefully. It is also recommended to go for a longitudinal design to
understand the phenomenon more clearly. Time- and finance-related
constraints restricted researchers to collect data beyond a certain
number of higher educational institutes. A more vastly randomized
sample may bring varied findings. Participants of the study also lack
female representation, which was almost about 14%. Increased female
representation may also have different implications regarding gender.
The measures of this study also brought a particular contextual factor
with them. Replacement of these measures with more robust tools
may also produce new insights.
In future, researchers could investigate the relationship between
IQ and job performance for workers of different ages in the regions
where there have been major shifts toward or away from stratification
of educational or workplace resources based on IQ. The implications
of the phenomenon under consideration of intelligence and perfor-
mance are not limited to the particular field, or division, or
TABLE 2 Results of moderated mediation
Mediator Dependent variable
Job satisfaction Employee performance
Constant .41 .43
IQ 2.85 0.17 17.01*** 2.20 .38 7.42***
.03 .00 17.42*** .01 .00 2.67**
Job satisfaction ——.83 .09 9.30***
Indirect effects Effect SE LLCI ULCI
IQ to job satisfaction through employee performance .0021 .0015 .004 .01
Conditional indirect effects at specific value of moderator (SS) at ± 1 SD
95% CI
Dependent variable Effect SE Lower limit CI Upper limit CI
IQ? Job satisfaction? (-1SD) .024 .004 .015 0.031
Employee performance (+1SD) .031 .004 .024 .037
Note: N = 378. Significant at *p< .05 and **p< .01.
geographical boundaries. Future research on other than educational
institutions or within educational sector, particularly distance learning
institutes, may provide new understandings to the subject. The instru-
ment used in the present study is a standardized test for measuring
IQ. In future, the researchers may use different instruments and con-
sequently the results may be different and worthier to be generalized.
In the present study, personality types (A and B) have been studied
and more research might be conducted on other personality traits of
the teaching faculty employed in different universities of Pakistan.
5.2 |Policy implications
The IQ measures can be used to enhance and improve the overall
effectiveness of the human resources (HR). The HR managers of the
organizations should look into the selection of employees based on
IQ-based criteria because individuals with high IQ possess institution-
ally endowed tools and competencies. The findings of the personality
dimensions would provide guidance for designing and implementing
the systems where the nature of the job involves interaction with
others. The employee's indifferences about job satisfaction, which
have been identified in the research, may be applied to other facets of
life. This study will help institutions to have an idea about assessing
more competent employees in terms of IQ and personality. This study
has defined how IQ level and personality type help employees per-
form better in the institution. The federal and provincial authorities
responsible for selection of public servants and other recruiting agen-
cies facilitating private sector may introduce IQ-based criteria of
selection of personnel as policy matter. The employees can also seek
help from this study to become more dedicated toward their work
and professionally successful by having greater inspiration and solid
desire for achievement.
Intelligence quotient may indubitably be a significant component for
predicting employees' job performance but some of the highly quali-
fied individuals with brilliant academic record still lack problem-solving
and analytical capabilities. One of the many causes of this deficiency
is low IQ. It does not indicate that the qualification or academic record
should completely be overlooked. However, it shows that IQ is also
an important concept that can enhance the performance of individuals
and organizations as well. This study has also examined the personal-
ity differences regarding performance and satisfaction. Consistent
with previous studies, personality plays an important role in determin-
ing the performance and satisfaction of employees, which has impor-
tant implications for the practice of personnel selection.
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Mr. Muhammad Hamid Murtza is Assistant Professor in School of
Business Management & Administrative Sciences, Islamia Univer-
sity of Bahawalpur. He has served leading public and private Uni-
versities of Pakistan on various administrative positions for more
than 10 years. He is PhD scholar and his area of interest include
organizational behavior and project management.
Mr. Shahzad Ali Gill is Assistant Professor (Public Administration)
in the Department of Political Science, the Islamia University of
Bahawalpur. He is also enrolled in PhD (Management) in School
of Business, Management & Administrative Sciences. His areas of
interest include public policy management, public administration,
organizational behavior, project management, organizational
resource planning & development, youth policies, youth empow-
erment, sustainable development and strategic communication.
Dr. Hassan Danial Aslam, an Asian scholar and Management Con-
sultant, is serving as Assistant Professor in The Islamia University
of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. He is author of various research papers
in international refereed journals which include the critical areas
of performance evaluation & development of teachers in higher
education of Pakistan. He has been working as education consul-
tant and human resource advisor in various institutes of Asia and
Dr. Amna Noor is the Head of the Finance Department at School
of Business, Management & Administrative Sciences. She joined
the Islaima University of Bahwalpur in 2005 as a lecturer in
Finance. She was awarded with Faculty development scholarship
to support her higher studies. She holds MSc in Investment and
Finance from Queen Mary University of London and PhD in
finance from University of Glasgow. Her research interests
include corporate finance, especially within the sub-field of
Mergers and Acquisitions and Capital Structure as well as Behav-
ioral Finance.
How to cite this article: Murtza MH, Gill SA, Aslam HD,
Noor A. Intelligence quotient, job satisfaction, and job
performance: The moderating role of personality type. J Public
Affairs. 2020;e2318.
12 of 12 MURTZA ET AL.
... Individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to advance professionally and earn higher incomes (Schmidt and Hunter, 2004;Schmidt, 2009). Numerous meta-analyses show a positive relationship between intelligence and job performance (Hunter, 1986;Schmidt and Hunter, 1998;Gottfredson, 2003;Kuncel et al., 2004;Schmidt, 2009;Wai, 2014;Schmidt et al., 2016;Murtza et al., 2020), where the strength of the relationship may be overestimated due to the methods used (Richardson and Norgate, 2015). Meta-analyses show a higher correlation during training (r = 0.63) than after training (r = 0.55), but intelligence remains the best predictor of job performance even with increasing work experience (Schmidt and Hunter, 2004). ...
... Thus, general intelligence predicts occupational performance better than special talents as well as non-cognitive factors such as occupational interest and other personality traits (Hunter, 1986;Ree et al., 1994;Schmidt andHunter, 1998, 2004;Gottfredson, 2003;Schmidt et al., 2016). Additionally, intelligence correlates positively with job satisfaction in most studies (Wulff et al., 2009;Thompson and Lane, 2014;Murtza et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, they frequently hold positions with personnel responsibility. This confirms previous results of meta-analyses on the occupational situation of highly intelligent individuals (Kuncel et al., 2004;Schmidt and Hunter, 2004;Schmidt, 2009;Herrnstein and Murray, 2010;Pässler et al., 2015;Schmidt et al., 2016;Murtza et al., 2020). It seems that gifted people also realize their potential at work. ...
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A person's intelligence level positively influences his or her professional success. Gifted and highly intelligent individuals should therefore be successful in their careers. However, previous findings on the occupational situation of gifted adults are mainly known from popular scientific sources in the fields of coaching and self-help groups and confirm prevailing stereotypes that gifted people have difficulties at work. Reliable studies are scarce. This systematic literature review examines 40 studies with a total of 22 job-related variables. Results are shown in general for (a) the employment situation and more specific for the occupational aspects (b) career, (c) personality and behavior, (d) satisfaction, (e) organization, and (f) influence of giftedness on the profession. Moreover, possible differences between female and male gifted individuals and gifted and non-gifted individuals are analyzed. Based on these findings, implications for practice as well as further research are discussed.
... Additional research is needed to clearly understand how other factors, such as personality traits can directly or indirectly affect graduates' perceived employability. There is a growing interest in the career development literature that highlighted personality traits exhibited varying effects on academic performance (Kim et al., 2017) and job satisfaction (Murtza et al., 2020). However, effectiveness of this factor in graduates' employability is yet to be fully explored. ...
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As a newly rising economic power, China is considered to have a huge job market. However, many graduates in China experience substantial pressure in getting a job upon graduation, as a university degree is no longer a “golden ticket” to employment. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying factors that influences fine arts graduates’ perceived employability, by incorporating the human capital theory and self-determination theory. Using an online survey, data was collected from 430 final year fine arts students from Guangxi, China. The findings showed that self-directed learning and career adaptability positively impacts perceived employability. While these relationships are found stronger when if graduates continue to receive advice and assistance from their lecturers. Altogether, these outcomes offer several implications that useful for academics and practitioners to manage employability issues more effectively.
... Kepuasan kerja memiliki peran yang penting pada keberhasilan suatu organisasi atau perusahaan. Hal ini disebabkan variabel ini merupakan salah satu variabel kunci dalam menentukan tinggi rendahnya kinerja karyawan (Iaffaldano and Muchinsky 1985;Locke 1970;Rezaee et al. 2018;Mittal and Bhakar 2018;Murtza et al. 2021;Eliyana and Sridadi 2020). Namun, para manajer tidaklah cukup hanya memperhatikan kepuasan kerja karyawannya saja, karena kepuasan kerja turut dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal, salah satunya adalah keletihan berlebih sehubungan dengan pekerjaan, atau yang dikenal sebagai burnout (Khamisa et al. 2015;Appelbaum et al. 2019). ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1) Menganalisis pengaruh langsung variabel self-efficacy terhadap variabel kepuasan kerja; 2) Menganalisis pengaruh langsung variabel burnout terhadap variabel kepuasan kerja; 3) Menganalisis mediasi variabel burnout antara self-efficacy dan kepuasan kerja. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian korelasional dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan SEM-PLS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel self-efficacy memiliki pengaruh dan signifikan terhadap variabel kepuasan kerja (? = 0.553, p < 0.001). Sementara untuk variabel burnout memiliki pengaruh yang negatif dan signifikan terhadap variabel kepuasan kerja (? = -0.489, p < 0.001). Selanjutnya, variabel burnout juga diketahui memoderasi self-efficacy terhadap kepuasan kerja, dengan ? = 0.395, p < 0.001. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, peneliti menyarankan para pengambil kebijakan di organisasi bisnis untuk menghindari burnout di lingkungan karyawan adalah dengan tidak memberikan beban kerja yang berlebihan. Selain itu, dilakukannya retreat kantor secara berkala juga dapat menjadi upaya oleh para petinggi organisasi bisnis untuk mencegah terjadinya burnout. Selain itu agar para supervisor atau manajer untuk memberikan pujian kepada para karyawannya, ketika karyawannya tersebut melakukan hal yang baik atau memiliki prestasi di tempat kerja.
... Many scholars examined the association of "emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and work-life balance" (Sajuyigbe et al., 2022;and Kumarasamy et al., 2022;). Findings concluded a positive correlation between them likewise, several more researchers came to the same conclusion (Sajuyigbe et al.,2022;Kumarasamy et al., 2022;Gandhi, 2022;Murtza et al., 2021;. ...
An equilibrium state is a pivotal and major aspect of a human being's life. It is effortful to maintain balance in all walks of life including work, family and self. This desire to attain balance made an individual more competitive and ‘fittest for survival’ on the job as well as in family life. All the regulators and ethical practicing organizations sternly emphasize maintaining the balance between work and life. In this research, we aimed to investigate the link between “work-life balance (WLB) and job satisfaction (JS)” in the employees of various banks. The study further aimed to investigate the mediational role of emotional intelligence (EI) with the other two variables; WLB and JS. Three different reliable and valid measures: Work-life Balance (Fields, 2002), Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (Spector, 1997), and Emotional Intelligence (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee 2000) were used for data collection. The sample was recruited across Pakistan and consisted of N=198 employees from various banks (Quetta: n=32, Islamabad: n=34, Karachi: n=32, Lahore: n=34, Sahiwal:n=31, and Peshawar: n=35). The sample's age varies from 28 to 58 years with working experience of five years or above in the banking industry. Data analysis revealed a substantial relationship between the balance in work and life, satisfaction with the job, emotional intelligence, and well-being. Results highlighted that both WLB and EI are positive predictors of employee job satisfaction. EI significantly mediates the relationship between WLB and JS. Our findings concluded that employees in banks would be encouraged to develop/enhance their EI. This enhancement in EI would not only influence the WLB but also elevates job satisfaction. Thus, the outcome would be more productivity, relaxed and satisfied employees. Keywords: Employees, Work-life Balance, Job Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, Mediational Model and Productivity
... Furthermore, according to Malik, Chishti, and Shahzad (2016), nine facets of JS include pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, rewards, operation procedure, co-workers relations, the work itself and communication. Murtza, Gill, Aslam, and Noor (2020) define IQ as 'a total score derived from a set of standardised tests designed to assess human intelligence'. These researchers also address a quota which describes IQ as something that is used to assess the capability of an individual to perceive, analyse and explain a particular situation. ...
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Any educational system strongly requires teachers’ commitment. Meanwhile, job satisfaction (JS) apparently reinforces their organisational commitment (OC), and also OC will probably, in turn, lead to JS even more. Additionally, unilateral focus on intelligence quotient (IQ) cannot definitely nurture the scientific and practical capabilities of students proportionally. Thus, simultaneous attention needs to be paid to emotional intelligence (EI) and social intelligence (SI) along with IQ. This study aims to find reasonable relationships among the variables ‘OC’, ‘JS’, ‘IQ’, ‘EI’ and ‘SI’ by introducing a model containing recent findings based on the web mining and text mining methods and by considering a set of related components determined for each variable. Finally, it has been concluded that focusing on both OC and JS in teachers will accelerate the triple competencies of the students in IQ, EI and SI. Keywords: Organisational commitment, job satisfaction, intelligence quotient, emotional intelligence, social intelligence;
... Aptitudes enable the estimation of intelligence quotient (IQ), which is the predominant measure of intelligence in the field of psychology (see Flynn, 2007;Nisbett et al., 2012). Although cognitive models predicting intelligence are diverse and based on various paradigms, most agree that IQ is highly correlated with school performance (e.g., Guez et al., 2018;Józsa & Barrett, 2018) and hard skills (as indicators of job performance) (e.g., Gellatly et al., 1991;Schmidt & Hunter, 2004;Byington & Felps, 2010;Murtza et al., 2021). ...
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Soft skills represent psychological attributes that inform how people learn, think, and act. Measuring soft skills is important because they are variables that allow students to predict their professional future and career orientation. There is often a lack of instruments for evaluating soft skills in educational settings. In this study, we present the development of the SKILLS and Attitudes in the ONE Questionnaire (SKILLS-in-ONE). This test examines the most frequent soft skills in the educational sector in a practical manner. A total of 1496 students responded to the SKILLS-in-ONE. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for different samples of students. The reliability was calculated using several internal consistency indices. Strong statistical evidence supporting the construct validity of the test was obtained. Reliability was acceptable for all scales. In conclusion, the SKILLS-in-ONE, consisting of 74 items, provides a valid and reliable measure of the 13 most common soft skills in the educational context, and measures three personal styles of a new hypothetical theoretical model.
... Individuals' job demands, when exceeding from available resources, cause psychological and physical tensions, therefore, refers to workrelated stress (Cherniss, 1980). Work-related stress is harmful to any individual (Murtaza, Gill, Aslam, & Noor, 2020) and police employees in particular as this can lead to metabolic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, such as burnout (Johnson, Todd, & Subramanian, 2005), low job performance (Goodman, 1990), psychological disorder (He, Zhao, & Archbold, 2002), WFC (Li, Cheung, & Sun, 2019), and even suicide (Violanti, 1997). Literature has shed light on several workplace stressors that negatively impact on police such as weak supervisory support and contentious performance rating, poor communication between officers and administrators (Morash et al., 2008), the dangerous nature of the work environment He, Zhao, & Archbold (2002), handling disrespectful citizens (Cheong & Yun, 2011), irregular shift work and heavy workload (Violanti & Aron, 1994). ...
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Police employees have to work extra during uncertain situations as they are responsible to maintain law and order. Currently, this department is facing a similar situation because of COVID‐19. Therefore, this study aims at investigating how police employees' perceptions of workload imbalance their family roles and further increase their job stress and dissatisfaction. The study collected cross‐sectional data from 247 constables performing their duties during lockdown because of COVID‐19. Hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling. The findings revealed that police constables' perception of workload cause work–family conflict, job stress and job dissatisfaction. In addition, work–family conflict mediates the associations of workload with job stress and job dissatisfaction. The study collected data from a single source, though Harman's single factor confirmed the absence of common method variance. This study extends the conservation of resource theory and has implications for the management and policymakers.
Muhasebe işlevinin sorunsuz işlemesinde insan faktörü göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı zekâyı muhasebe açısından ele almak ve kavramsal bağlamda entelektüel, duygusal ile uyumsal zekânın muhasebe uygulamalarını nasıl etkileyebileceğini, muhasebe uygulamalarıyla ilişkilerini incelemektir. Beş bölümden oluşan bu çalışmanın ilk bölümünde entelektüel zekâ, duygusal zekâ ve uyumsal zekâ açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Ardından literatürde bu zekâlar ile muhasebeyi ele alan çalışmalar incelenmiştir. Yapılan literatür incelemesinin sonuçlarına göre entelektüel zekâ ile muhasebenin kaydetme, sınıflandırma, özetleme, raporlama, analiz, yorumlama gibi temel ve geleneksel işlevlerinin daha kolay anlaşılarak yerine getirilebileceği; duygusal zekânın muhasebeyi anlama, kavrama açısından entelektüel zekâya yardımcı olarak kolaylaştırıcı bir rol üstlenebileceği düşünülmektedir. Duygusal zekâdan muhasebenin yönetilmesinde daha fazla yararlanılabilmektedir. Uyumsal zekâ muhasebede her an yaşanabilecek her türlü değişime esnek, yaratıcı, meraklı olarak, stratejik düşünerek, müzakereye girerek, etkili iletişime geçerek, dayanma gücü göstererek uyum sağlama çabası içerisindedir. Entelektüel zekânın, duygusal zekânın ve uyumsal zekânın birbiriyle rekabet halinde değil, birbirini tamamlayıcı olduğu ifade edilebilir. Muhasebe mesleği için gelecekte hem duygusal zekânın hem de uyumsal zekânın daha fazla önem arz edebileceği düşünülmektedir.
Conference Paper
Today digital labor increasingly advocates for the inclusion of people who are excluded from society in some way. The proliferation of crowdsourcing as a new form of digital labor consisting mainly of microtasks that are characterized by a low level of complexity and short time periods in terms of accomplishment has allowed a wide spectrum of people to access the digital job market. However, there is a long-recognized mismatch between the expectations of employers and the capabilities of workers in microwork crowdsourcing marketplaces. Cognitive personalization has the potential to tailor microtasks to crowd workers, thus ensuring increased accessibility by providing the necessary coverage for individuals with disabilities and special needs. In this paper an architecture for a crowdsourcing system intended to support cognitive personalization in the design of microtasks is introduced. The architecture includes an ontology built for the representation of knowledge on the basis of the concepts of microtasks, cognitive abilities, and types of adaptation in order to personalize the interface to the crowd worker. The envisioned system contains a backend and a frontend that serve as an intermediary layer between the crowdsourcing platform and the workers. Finally, some results obtained to evaluate the proposed system are presented.
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Well-being and cognition are linked in adulthood, but how the two domains interact during development is currently unclear. Using a complex systems approach, we preregistered and modeled the relationship between well-being and cognition in a prospective cohort of 1,136 children between the ages of 6 to 7 years and 15 years. We found bidirectional interactions between well-being and cognition that unfold dynamically over time. Higher externalizing symptoms in childhood predicted fewer gains in planning over time (standardized estimate [β] = −0.14, p = .019), whereas higher childhood vocabulary predicted smaller increases in loneliness over time (β = −0.34, p ≤ .001). These interactions were characterized by modifiable risk and resilience factors: Relationships to parents, friendship quality, socioeconomic status, and puberty onset were all linked to both cognitive and well-being outcomes. Thus, cognition and well-being are inextricably intertwined during development and may be malleable to social and biological factors.
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To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.
Purpose Despite major market-orientated reforms to enhance the competitive advantage of Russian domestic firms, the antecedents and consequences of frontline employee (FLE) customer orientation (CO) remain poorly understood. Acknowledging this paucity of research, the authors draw upon a hierarchical model of personality to examine personality trait determinants of CO and job performance in the context of the Russian financial services sector. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected from 186 FLEs using a self-administered survey questionnaire and analyzed using AMOS. Findings The results identify which basic personality traits matter in translating FLE CO behavior into higher job performance in the Russian retail-banking sector. Research limitations/implications Limitations of the study include the generalizability of the findings within one organizational context. Future research should examine whether the found associations hold true for FLEs working in other service sectors in other parts of the country. Practical implications Study findings differ significantly to Western-based research and provide valuable insight into the process that motivates Russian FLEs in a commercial retail setting to perform better in their jobs. Originality/value This is the first empirical study that employs a hierarchical model of the effects of basic personality traits on FLE CO and job performance in a former socialist/communist economy. We also advance existing research on FLE CO by distinguishing between two types of CO behavior. Findings provide an understanding of those personality traits that affect the ability of Russian FLEs to better satisfy customer needs and to interact and serve customers in an enjoyable way.
As the number of smartphone users have increased worldwide, research on the usage of the smartphone has received scholarly attention. However, different results were found in previous studies in different contexts. The main research question is whether adopting smartphones by students improve learning or generates interference. The purpose of this study is to examine the usage of smartphone among university students in Pakistan. Using a survey approach, data were collected from different universities/colleges of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. total, 585 entries was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 software. Results of analysis, validated most of the hypothesis showing the intention of Pakistani students towards smartphone usage for academic purpose. In addition, findings confirm that students' self‐efficacy related to a smartphone works as a moderating role of intention to use a smartphone for learning and actual usage of the smartphone. The current study has several implications in terms of smartphone usage and student academic performance. Limitations and implications of the study are also discussed in the last section.
The purpose of this research is to explore the impact of occupational stress on job performance of police employees. We theorized and tested the role of career satisfaction in the relationship between occupational stress and job performance as an underlying psychological mechanism. Primary data have been collected from 271 police employees working at AJ&K Pakistan. Results of this research study have shown that occupational stress is negatively related to career satisfaction, in‐role performance, and extra‐role performance of police employees. Moreover, career satisfaction mediates the relationships between occupational stress and in‐role and extra‐role performance of police employees. This research study has called researchers' and policy makers' attention towards an important issue of occupational stress in the police profession. The research will play an important role in compelling the top management, authorities, policy makers, and government officials of police to ponder over the issues of occupational stress aimed at enhancing the job performance including in‐role and extra‐role performance of police employees.
Key account management (KAM) has strengthened its relevance as a managerial process in business-to-business (B2B) markets. In many companies, the success of KAM initiatives often rely on individual-level achievement, that is, the performance of key account managers. Despite the relevance of research on individual-level KAM, these topics are largely neglected. This research addresses the problem by developing and testing a structural equation model of personality, motivation, and key account manager job performance. Our results show that two motivational constructs—learning orientation and performance orientation—play major roles in key account manager job performance. In addition, relationships between personality traits and motivational constructs are observed: Extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability are found to have significant relationships to motivational constructs. Two of the personality traits, extraversion and conscientiousness are linked to both learning orientation and performance orientation. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications of our findings and finally provide future research directions.
An overt behavior pattern called Type A has been implicated in the etiology of coronary heart disease. Pattern A is often characterized in terms of 3 components: competitive achievement striving, time urgency, and aggressiveness. The noncoronary-prone Pattern B is defined as the relative absence of Type A characteristics. Experimentation has shown that 2 of the components of Pattern A--achievement striving and time urgency--emerge only when appropriate situations confront susceptible individuals. The present research was designed to show that the aggressiveness component is also elicited when the Type A individual is challenged by appropriate environmental circumstances. Male undergraduates were exposed to a situation that did or did not threaten their sense of competence and mastery. An opportunity was then given to administer an electric shock to a confederate involved in the threat. In Study 1 with 23 As and 25 Bs as determined by the Jenkins Activity Survey, the instigation procedure increased aggression among As but did so to a lesser degree among Bs. In Study 2 with 38 As and 43 Bs, a similar instigation difference between As and Bs occurred, along with a larger difference in a frustration-only condition. Findings are discussed in terms of Pattern A as a response style for maintaining and asserting control over the physical and social environment. Consideration is also given to possible associations between Pattern A traits and biochemical processes that characterize coronary disease. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).