Article

Training Load and Performance Impairments in Professional Cyclists During COVID-19 Lockdown

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Abstract

Purpose: The COVID-19 outbreak has challenged professional athletes' training and competition routines in a way not seen before. This report aims to inform about the changes in training volume and intensity distribution and their effects on functional performance due to a 7-week home-confinement period in professional road cyclists from a Union Cycliste Internationale Pro Team. Methods: A total of 18 male professional cyclists (mean [SD] age = 24.9 [2.8] y, body mass = 66.5 [5.6] kg, maximal aerobic power = 449 [39] W; 6.8 [0.6] W/kg) were monitored during the 10 weeks before the lockdown (outdoor cycling) and the 7-week lockdown (indoor cycling turbo trainer). Data from the mean maximal power output (in watts per kilogram) produced during the best 5-minute and best 20-minute records and the training intensity distributions (weekly volumes at power-based training zones) were collected from WKO5 software. Results: Total training volume decreased 33.9% during the lockdown (P < .01). Weekly volumes by standardized zones (Z1 to Z6) declined between 25.8% and 52.2% (effect size from 0.83 to 1.57), except for Z2 (P = .38). There were large reductions in best 5-minute and best 20-minute performance (effect size > 1.36; P < .001) with losses between 1% and 19% in all the cyclists. Conclusions: Total indoor volumes of 12 hours per week, with 6 hours per week at low intensity (Z1 and Z2) and 2 hours per week at high intensity over the threshold (Z5 and Z6), were insufficient to maintain performance in elite road cyclists during the COVID-19 lockdown. Such performance declines should be considered to enable a safe and effective return to competition.

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... The enforced restricted training period prolonged itself well beyond the regular off-season breaks, where a fast decline of performance variables (endurance-and neuromuscular-related) is observed (Mujika and Padilla, 2000b;Silva et al., 2016). Several recent reports about training maintenance during lockdown or restraining measures show a non-negligible decrease in training activity, concerning duration, intensity and sport-specific movement patterns (Muriel et al., 2020;Zinner et al., 2020). In international professional cycling, for instance, a 7-week home confinement period led to a significant decrease in both training volume (about 34%) and power output performances (between 1 and 19%), even with home-based individual training, in a team of 18 cyclists (Muriel et al., 2020). ...
... Several recent reports about training maintenance during lockdown or restraining measures show a non-negligible decrease in training activity, concerning duration, intensity and sport-specific movement patterns (Muriel et al., 2020;Zinner et al., 2020). In international professional cycling, for instance, a 7-week home confinement period led to a significant decrease in both training volume (about 34%) and power output performances (between 1 and 19%), even with home-based individual training, in a team of 18 cyclists (Muriel et al., 2020). In high-level kayak and canoe, a retrospective comparison of wearable sensors data 4 weeks prior and 4 weeks following the local lockdown measures (Germany) revealed a reduced training time (−27.6%), ...
... As stated above, the enforced lockdowns or restriction measures negatively impacted the athletes' training routine (Muriel et al., 2020;Zinner et al., 2020). This prolonged interruption of regular training and competitions has dramatic detraining consequences on muscle-tendon properties (Kubo et al., 2010), aerobic capacities (Mujika and Padilla, 2000a) and neuromuscular qualities (Cohen et al., 2020;Girardi et al., 2020). ...
Article
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In regular times, implementing exercise-based injury prevention programs into the training routine of high-level and professional athletes represents a key and challenging aspect to decrease injury risk. Barriers to implementing such prevention programs have previously been identified such as lack of resources, logistic issues or motivation. The COVID-19 pandemic associated with restrictions on daily life dramatically impacted sports participation from training to competition. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such lockdown-like context has exacerbated the challenge to implement exercise-based injury prevention programs, potentially leading to a greater musculoskeletal injury risk. In this narrative review, recommendations are proposed for building an expertise-and evidence-based Standard Operating Procedure for injury prevention in lockdown-like contexts for high-level and professional athletes. The following recommendations can be provided: (1) assess the global and sport-specific risks in the light of the ongoing cause of isolation; (2) adapt remote training materials and programs; (3) ensure regular quality communication within the staff, between athletes and the staff as well as between athletes; (4) follow the athlete's mental well-being; and (5) plan for a safe return-to-sports Martens et al. Injury Prevention Post-Covid19 as well as for an ongoing monitoring of the load-recovery balance. These key domains should further be addressed to comply with local policies, which are subject to change over time in each individual country. The use of these recommendations may improve the readiness of athletes, coaches, physicians and all sports stakeholders for future lockdown-like contexts.
... For example, Ormsbee and Arciero (2012) reported significant increases in body fat percentage and body weight with a concomitant decrease in aerobic capacity after only 5 weeks of detraining following a competitive season. Recently, Muriel et al. (2020) were the first to quantify objective measures of training load during the COVID-19 lockdown period in elite cyclists. The authors noted 34% reductions in total training volume and reductions in weekly volumes across intensity zones ranging from 25 to 52% (effect size: 0.83-1.57) ...
... The authors noted 34% reductions in total training volume and reductions in weekly volumes across intensity zones ranging from 25 to 52% (effect size: 0.83-1.57) during the lockdown period, which contributed to reductions in maximal effort cycling performance (Muriel et al., 2020). Similarly, Zinner et al. (2020) observed reductions in overall weekly training time (−27.6%) ...
... It is possible that athletes at the elite level may have had better access to strength equipment, thereby allowing for increased opportunities for strength workouts. While a brief period of rest or detraining at certain time points throughout an annual training cycle is common practice, the unprecedented cessation of certain sport activities and robust disruption of training experienced by most athletes in 2020 will likely lead to notable decrements in training adaptations similar to those noted by Muriel et al. (2020). Further, the specific decreases in performance-related measures may be more pronounced in athletes lacking adequate home-based training equipment or those unable to complete sport-specific activities. ...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 government-enforced shutdown measures on the training habits and perceptions of athletes. A web-based electronic survey was developed and distributed online to athletes. The survey contained questions regarding currently available resources, changes in weekly training habits, and perceptions of training such as intensity, motivation, and enjoyment. A total of 105 (males: n = 31; females: n = 74) athletes completed the survey (mean ± SD age = 19.86 ± 2.13 years). Ninety-nine (94.3%) athletes continued to receive guidance from their primary sport coach or strength training staff. There was a significant ( p < 0.001) decrease (mean ± SD ) in self-reported participation time for strength training (−1.65 ± 4.32 h. week ⁻¹ ), endurance (−1.47 ± 3.93 h. week ⁻¹ ), and mobility (−1.09 ± 2.24 h. week ⁻¹ ), with the largest reduction coming from participation time in sport-specific activities (−6.44 ± 6.28 h. week ⁻¹ ) pre- to post-shutdown. When asked to rate their current state of emotional well-being using a visual analog scale of 0–100, with 100 being exceptional, the mean score was 51.6 ± 19.6 AU. Athletes experienced notable reductions in training frequency and time spent completing various training related activities. In the future, practitioners should have preparations in place in the event of another lockdown period or future pandemic to avoid or minimize significant disruptions in training. Special considerations may be needed when athletes are allowed to return to sport in the event of significant levels of detraining that may have occurred.
... To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of COVID-19 restrictions on a U23 elite cycling population. While there has been research conducted on professional cyclists by Muriel et al. [18], their findings were not in line with those of the present study. Muriel et al.'s study [18] reported a significant decline in training characteristics and physiological performance variables during the seven weeks of the COVID-19 confinement in a Spanish professional cycling team. ...
... While there has been research conducted on professional cyclists by Muriel et al. [18], their findings were not in line with those of the present study. Muriel et al.'s study [18] reported a significant decline in training characteristics and physiological performance variables during the seven weeks of the COVID-19 confinement in a Spanish professional cycling team. In contrast, the findings of the present paper show that the four-week COVID-19 restrictions did not have a negative effect on training characteristics and physiological performance variables, including 390/xxxxx www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk ...
... The study's participants living in northern European countries could continue their normal training habits (mobility restrictions), while participants living in southern European countries were restricted to indoor training (home confinement). These differences underpin why the subjects in Muriel et al.'s study [18] indicated reduced training volume because they were forced to train indoors (home confinement). Washif et al. [4] undertook a worldwide online survey with 12,526 athletes, including male and female professional and amateur athletes. ...
Article
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Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mobility restrictions caused many athletes to adjust or reduce their usual training load. The aim of this study was to investigate how the COVID-19 restrictions affected training and performance physiology measures in U23 elite cyclists. Methods: Twelve U23 elite cyclists (n = 12) participated in this study (mean ± SD: Age 21.2 ± 1.2 years; height 182.9 ± 4.7 cm; body mass 71.4 ± 6.5 kg). Training characteristics were assessed between 30 days pre, during, and post COVID-19 restrictions, respectively. The physiological assessment in the laboratory was 30 days pre and post COVID-19 restrictions and included maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), peak power output for sprint (SprintPmax), and ramp incremental graded exercise (GXTPmax), as well as power output at ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Results: Training load characteristics before, during, and after the lockdown remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05) despite large effects (>0.8) with mean reductions of 4.7 to 25.0% during COVID-19 restrictions. There were no significant differences in maximal and submaximal power outputs, as well as relative and absolute V̇O2max between pre and post COVID-19 restrictions (p > 0.05) with small to moderate effects. Discussion: These results indicate that COVID-19 restrictions did not negatively affect training characteristics and physiological performance measures in U23 elite cyclists for a period of <30 days. In contrast with recent reports on professional cyclists and other elite level athletes, these findings reveal that as long as athletes are able to maintain and/or slightly adapt their training routine, physiological performance variables remain stable.
... The decrease in physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated in the current study was in line with our first hypothesis (H1) and agreed with previous investigations [1,4,9,32,[36][37][38][39][40][41][42]. The systematic review by Stockwell, et al., (2021), utilized 45 articles that assessed physical activity during COVID-19 in healthy adults, to conclude that all the studies reported total physical activity to decrease during COVID-19 [37]. ...
... Two studies found a decrease in participants physical activity only in the most active groups, whereas the moderate-and low-active groups increased their overall physical activity [2,6]. Overall, the current investigation agrees with most previous studies that, in healthy adults, during the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a reduction in overall physical activity [1,4,9,32,[36][37][38][39][40][41][42]. The present investigation is important to add to the body of literature on this topic because, of the 66 total studies cited in the systematic review by Stockwell, et al., (2021), only four utilized objective measures of physical activity [1,[38][39][40]. ...
... Overall, the current investigation agrees with most previous studies that, in healthy adults, during the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a reduction in overall physical activity [1,4,9,32,[36][37][38][39][40][41][42]. The present investigation is important to add to the body of literature on this topic because, of the 66 total studies cited in the systematic review by Stockwell, et al., (2021), only four utilized objective measures of physical activity [1,[38][39][40]. Therefore, objective measures of physical activity are warranted to reduce errors of subjective assessments such as user bias and difficulty with recall [43][44][45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on mood and objective physical activity. A sample of 78 college students in Spain completed an assessment of mood using the valid Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire and had their physical activity tracked objectively using a validated wrist-worn accelerometer (Xiaomi Mi Band 2) for one week before being under COVID-19 lockdown (T1) and for one week during COVID-19 lockdown (T2). Paired samples t-tests revealed significantly greater (p = 0.027) POMS Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) Score T2 (mean ± SD) (22.6 ± 28.0) compared to T1 (17.7 ± 22.6) (lower score represents better mood) and significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) POMS Vigor Score T2 (14.1 ± 5.0) compared to T1 (18.2 ± 4.5) (lower vigor score represents lower mental and physical energy levels). Additionally, Total Objective Steps was significantly less (p ≤ 0.001) lT2 (15,841.9 ± 17,253.2 steps) compared to T1 (64,607.0 ± 50,525.2 steps). Regression analyses demonstrated significant negative relationships of Total Objective Steps and POMS Depression (p = 0.014, Beta = −0.277, t = −2.511), POMS Anger (p = 0.040, Beta = −0.233, t = −2.091), and POMS TMD (p = 0.007, Beta = −0.302, t = −2.754) T2. The regressions also revealed a significant positive relationship (p = 0.012, Beta = 0.283, t = 2.57) of Total Objective Steps and POMS Vigor T2. These data suggest that being in a lockdown due to a pandemic may have negative physical and mental health-related consequences and that engaging in physical activity may reduce these deleterious mental health-related consequences during lockdowns and quarantines.
... These power meters have previously been used in studies reported on in scientific literature. [16][17][18][19][20][21] All power meters were factory calibrated at least once per season. A zero offset was performed before each session in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. ...
... Finally, the use of 5 different power meters could have potentially confounded our results, although the power meters used here have been previously used in the scientific literature and are widely used among professional cyclists. [16][17][18][19] Practical Applications ...
Purpose: To present normative data for the record power profile of male professional cyclists attending to team categories and riding typologies. Methods: Power output data registered from 4 professional teams during 8 years (N = 144 cyclists, 129,262 files, and 1062 total seasons [7 (5) per cyclist] corresponding to both training and competition sessions) were analyzed. Cyclists were categorized as ProTeam (n = 46) or WorldTour (n = 98) and as all-rounders (n = 65), time trialists (n = 11), climbers (n = 50), sprinters (n = 11), or general classification contenders (n = 7). The record power profile was computed as the highest maximum mean power (MMP) value attained for different durations (1 s to 240 min) in both relative (W·kg-1) and absolute units (W). Results: Significant differences between ProTeam and WorldTour were found for both relative (P = .002) and absolute MMP values (P = .006), with WT showing lower relative, but not absolute, MMP values at shorter durations (30-60 s). However, higher relative and absolute MMP values were recorded for very short- (1 s) and long-duration efforts (60 and 240 min for relative MMP values and ≥5 min for absolute ones). Differences were also found regarding cyclists' typologies for both relative and absolute MMP values (P < .001 for both), with sprinters presenting the highest relative and absolute MMP values for short-duration efforts (5-30 s) and general classification contenders presenting the highest relative MMP values for longer efforts (1-240 min). Conclusions: The present results--obtained from the largest cohort of professional cyclists assessed to date-could be used to assess cyclists' capabilities and indicate that the record power profile can differ between cyclists' categories and typologies.
... For collegiate athletes, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic altered training and competition [1,2]. Team outbreaks [3], unplanned lockdowns [2], frequent quarantines [4] and delays associated with routine testing, masking, and social distance protocols [4,5] severely undermined both training quality and quantity. ...
... The Long-Distance swimmers, however, performed worse (i.e., swam slower). This performance decline in the Long-Distance swimmers was expected, as a previous report conducted on 18 professional cyclists documented a 33.9% decrease in total training volume which resulted in a 1% and 19% decrease in 5-minute and 20-minute time-trial performance time, respectively [1]. A typical Long-Distance swim race, similarly, lasts between ~4 to ~15 minutes (Tables 1-4). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant training disruptions during the 2020-21 season due to lockdowns, quarantines, and strict adherence to pandemic protocols. The main purpose of this study was to determine how pandemic training restrictions affected training volume and performance in one collegiate swim team. Cumulative training volume data, across a 28-week season, were compared between a pandemic (2020-2021) versus non-pandemic (2019-2020) season. Swimmers were categorized into three groups (Sprinters, Mid-Distance, and Long-Distance) based on training group. Performance times in 25 swimmers who competed in Regional Championships, during both the non-pandemic and pandemic year, were compared via 1-way ANOVA. 26 male and 22 female swimmers commenced the 2020-21 (pandemic) season, with 23% of swimmers voluntarily opting out. Three COVID-19 cases were confirmed (2%) by the medical staff with no long-term effects. Significant reductions in average swim volume were verified in Sprinters (32,867±10,135 vs.14,800±7,995yards;p<0.001), Mid-Distance (26,457±10,692 vs.17,054±9.923yards;p<0.001), and Long-Distance (37,600±14,430 vs.22,254±14,418yards;p<0.001) swimmers (non-pandemic vs. pandemic season, respectively). In the Regional performance analyses, the Sprinters swam faster (n=8;-0.5±0.6secs), while Mid-Distance (n=10;0.17±2.1secs) and Long-Distance (n=7;6.0±4.9secs) swimmers swam slower (F=11.76;p=0.0003;r2=0.52). Thus, the pandemic caused significant reductions in swim training volume, with Sprinters performing better and Long-Distance swimmers performing worse at Regional Championships.
... Training volume and intensity among professional cyclists during a 7-week home confinement was reduced alongside maximal power output during 5and 20-minute trials. 12 Weight-categorized athletes experienced challenges in maintaining optimal body mass and composition during lockdown. 13 Aquatic sports were almost completely "prohibited" and thus, likely, severely compromised. ...
... Jad Adrian Washif, 1 Øyvind Sandbakk, 2 Stephen Seiler, 3 Thomas Haugen, 4 Abdulaziz Farooq, 5 Ken Quarrie, 6 Dina C. Janse van Rensburg, 7,8 Isabel Krug, 9 Evert Verhagen, 10 Del P. Wong, 11 Iñigo Mujika,12,13 Cristina Cortis, 14 Monoem Haddad, 15 Omid Ahmadian, 16 Mahmood Al Jufaili, 17 Ramzi A. Al-Horani, 18 Abdulla Saeed Al-Mohannadi, 19 Asma Aloui, 20,21 Achraf Ammar, 22,23 Fitim Arifi, 24,25 Abdul Rashid Aziz, 26 Mikhail Batuev, 27 Christopher Martyn Beaven, 28 Ralph Beneke, 29 Arben Bici, 30 Pallawi Bishnoi, 31 Lone Bogwasi, 32 ...
Article
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Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes’ knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns, with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May-July 2020) assessing knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward training. Sports were classified as Team sports (45%), Endurance (20%), Power/technical (10%), Combat (9%), Aquatic (6%), Recreational (4%), Racquet (3%), Precision (2%), Parasports (1%), and Others (1%). Further analysis by sex was performed. Results: During lockdown, athletes practiced bodyweight-based exercises routinely (67% females; 64% males), ranging from 50% (Precision) to 78% (Parasports). More sport-specific technical skills were performed in Combat, Parasports, and Precision (~50%) than other sports (~35%). Most athletes [range: 50% (Parasports) to 75% (Endurance)], performed cardiorespiratory training (trivial sex differences). Compared to pre-lockdown, perceived training intensity was reduced by 29–41%, depending on sport (largest decline: ~38% in Team sports, unaffected by sex). Some athletes (range: 7–49%) maintained their training intensity for strength, endurance, speed, plyometric, change-of-direction, and technical training. Athletes who previously trained ≥5 sessions/week reduced their volume (range: 18–28%) during-lockdown. The proportion of athletes (81%) training ≥60-min/sessions reduced by 31–43% during-lockdown. Males and females had comparable moderate levels of training knowledge (56 vs 58%) and beliefs/attitudes (54 vs 56%). Conclusions: Changes in athletes’ training practices were sport-specific, with little-to-no sex differences. Team-based sports were generally more susceptible to changes than individual sports. Policy makers should provide athletes with educational resources to facilitate remote and/or home-based training during lockdown-type events.
... For collegiate athletes, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic altered their training and competition [1,2]. Team outbreaks [3], unplanned lockdowns [2], frequent quarantines [4], and delays associated with the routine testing, masking, and social distance protocols [4,5] severely undermined both training quality and quantity. ...
... The long-distance swimmers, however, performed worse (i.e., swam slower). This performance decline in the long-distance swimmers was expected, as a previous report conducted on 18 professional cyclists documented a 33.9% decrease in total training volume, which resulted in a 1% and 19% decrease in 5-min and 20-min time-trial performance time, respectively [1]. Similarly, a typical long-distance swim race lasts between~4 and~15 min (Tables 1-4). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant training disruptions during the 2020–2021 season, due to lockdowns, quarantines, and strict adherence to the pandemic protocols. The main purpose of this study was to determine how the pandemic training restrictions affected training volume and performance in one collegiate swim team. Cumulative training volume data across a 28-week season were compared between a pandemic (2020–2021) versus non-pandemic (2019–2020) season. The swimmers were categorized into three groups (sprinters, mid-distance, and long-distance) based on their training group. The performance times of 25 swimmers who competed in the regional championships, during both the non-pandemic and pandemic year, were compared via one-way ANOVA. Twenty-six male and 22 female swimmers commenced the 2020–2021 (pandemic) season, with 23% of the swimmers voluntarily opting out. Three COVID-19 cases were confirmed (2%) by the medical staff, with no long-term effects. Significant reductions in the average swim volume were verified in sprinters (32,867 ± 10,135 vs. 14,800 ± 7995 yards; p < 0.001), mid-distance (26,457 ± 10,692 vs. 17,054 ± 9.923 yards; p < 0.001), and long-distance (37,600 ± 14,430 vs. 22,254 ± 14,418 yards; p < 0.001) swimmers (non-pandemic vs. pandemic season, respectively). In the regional performance analyses, the sprinters swam faster (n = 8; −0.5 ± 0.6 s), while the mid-distance (n = 10; 0.17 ± 2.1 s) and long-distance (n = 7; 6.0 ± 4.9 s) swimmers swam slower (F = 11.76; p = 0.0003; r2 = 0.52). Thus, the pandemic caused significant reductions in swim training volume, with sprinters performing better and long-distance swimmers performing worse at the regional championships.
... The PO was registered during all stages (including time trials), with each team using a different power meter (Shimano Dura-Ace FCRC9100-P; Shimano, Sakai, Japan for PT cyclists, and SRAM Red; Quarq, Spearfish, SD for WT cyclists; both registering at 1 Hz). Both power meters have been previously used in the scientific literature, [10][11][12][13] although how they compare to each other in terms of accuracy has not been studied. A zero-offset was performed for all power meters attending to manufacturers' instructions before each stage, and PO data were visually checked for potential spikes and manually corrected when necessary. ...
... The use of a different power meter for each team could have resulted in a systematic bias. It must be noted, nonetheless, that both power meters have been previously used in the scientific literature, [10][11][12][13] and that even in the case of a systematic bias in the absolute PO registered, this might not affect other measures of relative intensity (ie, TSS, PO zones). Another potential limitation is the determination of FTP, which was computed based on the best 20-minute effort performed during the approximately 4 weeks preceding La Vuelta. ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the physical demands and performance indicators of male professional cyclists of 2 different categories (Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour [WT] and ProTeam [PT]) during a cycling grand tour. Methods: A WT team (n = 8, 31.4 [5.4] y) and a PT team (n = 7, 26.9 [3.3] y) that completed "La Vuelta 2020" volunteered to participate. Participants' power output (PO) was registered, and measures of physical demand and physiological performance (kilojoules spent, training stress score, time spent at different PO bands/zones, and mean maximal PO [MMP] for different exertion durations) were computed. Results: WT achieved a higher final individual position than PT (31 [interquartile range = 33] vs 71 [59], P = .004). WT cyclists showed higher mean PO and kilojoule values than their PT peers and spent more time at high-intensity PO values (>5.25 W·kg-1) and zones (91%-120% of individualized functional threshold power) (Ps < .05). Although no differences were found for MMP values in the overall analysis (P > .05), subanalyses revealed that the between-groups gap increased through the race, with WT cyclists reaching higher MMP values for ≥5-minute efforts in the second and third weeks (Ps < .05). Conclusions: Despite the multifactorial nature of cycling performance, WT cyclists spend more time at high intensities and show higher kilojoules and mean PO than their PT referents during a grand tour. Although the highest MMP values attained during the whole race might not differentiate between WT and PT cyclists, the former achieve higher MMP values as the race progresses.
... Forty-five studies examined PA changes in healthy adults, with only four studies 31 Of the studies that measured PA change in the form of time spent on PA, all but one study 70 reported overall decreases in the amount of PA pre-COVID-19 versus post-COVID-19 lockdown. When stratifying across different forms of PA, two studies 27 28 reported increases in time spent in 'leisure-time PA' and one study 85 reported increases in time spent in 'endurance training' in elite cyclists, although total PA still decreased in all three studies. All other studies reported time spent in all subtypes of PA-for example, light, moderate, vigorous and walking-(if specified) decreased. ...
... There were also large decreases in both the training volume and training intensity of elite athletes while in lockdown, which has led to relative decreases in sportspecific physical performance tests post-lockdown. 85 This decrease in athletic readiness for competition should be noted and considered by practitioners who are working with elite athletes, especially regarding training loads and competition scheduling postlockdown. ...
Article
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Objective In March 2020, several countries banned unnecessary outdoor activities during COVID-19, commonly called ‘lockdowns. These lockdowns have the potential to impact associated levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Given the numerous health outcomes associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour, the aim of this review was to summarise literature that investigated differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before vs during the COVID-19 lockdown. Design, data sources and eligibility criteria Electronic databases were searched from November 2019 to October 2020 using terms and synonyms relating to physical activity, sedentary behaviour and COVID-19. The coprimary outcomes were changes in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour captured via device-based measures or self-report tools. Risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results Sixty six articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (total n=86 981). Changes in physical activity were reported in 64 studies, with the majority of studies reporting decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviours during their respective lockdowns across several populations, including children and patients with a variety of medical conditions. Conclusion Given the numerous physical and mental benefits of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour, public health strategies should include the creation and implementation of interventions that promote safe physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour should other lockdowns occur.
... These power meters have previously been used in studies reported on in scientific literature. [16][17][18][19][20][21] All power meters were factory calibrated at least once per season. A zero offset was performed before each session in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. ...
... Finally, the use of 5 different power meters could have potentially confounded our results, although the power meters used here have been previously used in the scientific literature and are widely used among professional cyclists. [16][17][18][19] Practical Applications ...
Article
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Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the influence of fatigue on the record power profile of professional male cyclists. We also assessed whether fatigue could differently affect cyclists of 2 competition categories. Methods: We analyzed the record power profile in 112 professional cyclists (n = 46 and n = 66 in the ProTeam [PT] and WorldTour [WT] category, respectively; age 29 [6] y, 8 [5] y experience in the professional category) during 2013-2021 (8 [5] seasons/cyclist). We analyzed their mean maximal power (MMP) values for efforts lasting 10 seconds to 120 minutes with no fatigue (after 0 kJ·kg-1) and with increasing levels of fatigue (after 15, 25, 35, and 45 kJ·kg-1). Results: A significant (P < .001) and progressive deterioration of all MMP values was observed from the lowest levels of fatigue assessed (ie, -1.6% to -3.0% decline after 15 kJ·kg-1, and -6.0% to -9.7% after 45 kJ·kg-1). Compared with WT, PT cyclists showed a greater decay of MMP values under fatigue conditions (P < .001), and these differences increased with accumulating levels of fatigue (decay of -1.8 to -2.9% [WT] with reference to 0 kJ·kg-1 vs -1.1% to -4.4% [PT] after 15 kJ·kg-1 and of -4.7% to -8.8% [WT] vs -7.6% to -11.6% [PT] after 45 kJ·kg-1). No consistent differences were found between WT and PT cyclists in MMP values assessed in nonfatigue conditions (after 0 kJ·kg-1), but WT cyclists attained significantly higher MMP values with accumulating levels of fatigue, particularly for long-duration efforts (≥5 min). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of considering fatigue when assessing the record power profile of endurance athletes and support the ability to attenuate fatigue-induced decline in MMP values as a determinant of endurance performance.
... We hypothesized that the amount of physical activity in adolescent athletes has drastically reduced due to school closures, self-restraint, and suspension of practice. In elite athletes, significant total training volume and performance decreased during the lockdown [13]. Some experts have noted the decline in physical activity among young athletes in a socially distanced world [14] and have reported that prolonged restrictions may result in widespread attrition of youth from sport [15]. ...
... In contrast, there were no differences between the two groups regarding height, weight, body composition, flexibility, upper-limb muscle strength, and jumping ability, which indicate the performance of total body movement. To date, the influence of COVID-19-related sports disruptions on fitness has been reported only in elite adult athletes [13,21]. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first one to be conducted on adolescent athletes. ...
Article
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We assessed whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related disruptions impacted the physical fitness of adolescent athletes. We reviewed the age-, sex-, and sports category-matched data of 78 adolescent athletes (divided into two groups: 2019 group = 37; 2020 group = 41) from the clinical database and investigated their height, weight, body composition, flexibility muscle strength, and jump height. We also provided questionnaires to the teams’ coaches to collect data on the duration of practice suspension due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the practice hours per week in August 2019, immediately after the suspension ended, and in August 2020; and the guidelines for the players after resuming their practice. For data analyses, we considered p ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. The strength of knee flexion and extension was significantly lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group; there was no difference in the other physical fitness parameters. The practice duration in August 2019 and August 2020 was the same. COVID-19-related interruptions did not alter the athletes’ jump height, upper-limb strength, and flexibility but reduced lower-limb muscle strength. We recommend that basic strength training protocols be followed to prevent sports-related injuries after such unexpected practice interruptions.
... Not only is low physical activity a risk factor for obesity but it is also an important modulator of risk conferred by excess weight (12), and so the potential effect of lockdowns on sedentary behavior may act as a multiplier for poor outcomes. activity and sedentary behavior (24,36,(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44). All of the 18 studies were longitudinal and used self-reported measurements, except for Wang et al. (35), who used an accelerometer sensor to record daily step counts. ...
... All of the 18 studies were longitudinal and used self-reported measurements, except for Wang et al. (35), who used an accelerometer sensor to record daily step counts. A total of 16 studies reported a reduction in physical activity during COVID-19, with 1 study showing an increase in activity (46) and 1 showing no change at all (40). A study in German schoolchildren aged between 4 and 17 y found an increase in active days per week, with an 11.1% increase in adherence to WHO physical activity guidelines (46). ...
Article
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Obesity is increasingly prevalent worldwide. Associated risk factors, including depression, socioeconomic stress, poor diet, and lack of physical activity, have all been impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This systematic review aims to explore the indirect effects of the first year of COVID-19 on obesity and its risk factors. A literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 to identify relevant studies pertaining to the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (PROSPERO; CRD42020219433). All English-language studies on weight change and key obesity risk factors (psychosocial and socioeconomic health) during the COVID-19 pandemic were considered for inclusion. Of 805 full-text articles that were reviewed, 87 were included for analysis. The included studies observed increased food and alcohol consumption, increased sedentary time, worsening depressive symptoms, and increased financial stress. Overall, these results suggest that COVID-19 has exacerbated the current risk factors for obesity and is likely to worsen obesity rates in the near future. Future studies, and policy makers, will need to carefully consider their interdependency to develop effective interventions able to mitigate the obesity pandemic.
... Several researchers have suggested negative effects of self-isolation following the COVID-19 lockdown (Mohr et al., 2020;Sarto et al., 2020), suggesting that it may result in lower training volume and quality, and in turn, decreased physical fitness (Girardi et al., 2020;Sarto et al., 2020). Indeed, a number of studies have reported reduced physical activity (Xiang et al., 2020;Zheng et al., 2020) and training hours during the COVID-19 lockdown (Mon-López et al., 2020;Zinner et al., 2020), and there are already findings of decreased cycling performance in cyclists (Muriel et al., 2020) and reduced hamstring strength in football players (Moreno-Pérez et al., 2020). However, some have presented the potential of maintaining physical fitness in multidisciplinary sports such as football, by performing circuitbased training (Latella and Haff, 2020). ...
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IntroductionThe COVID-19 outbreak with partial lockdown has inevitably led to an alteration in training routines for football players worldwide. Thus, coaches had to face with the novel challenge of minimizing the potential decline in fitness during this period of training disruption.Methods In this observational pre- to posttest study involving Norwegian female football players (18.8 ± 1.9 years, height 1.68 ± 0.4 m, mass 61.3 ± 3.7 kg), we investigated the effects of a prescribed home-based and group-based intervention, implemented during the COVID-19 lockdown, on maximal muscular force production and high velocity variables. Specifically, maximal partial squat strength one repetition maximum (1RM), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 15 m sprint time were assessed 1 week prior to the lockdown and 12 weeks after the onset of lockdown. We also collected training content and volume from the prescribed training program and self-reported perceived training quality and motivation toward training.ResultsWe observed no change in 1RM [pretest: 104 ± 12 kg, posttest: 101 ± 11 kg (P = 0.28)], CMJ height [pretest: 28.1 ± 2.3 cm, posttest: 26.8 ± 1.9 (P = 0.09)], and 15 m sprint time [pretest: 2.60 ± 0.08 s, posttest: 2.61 ± 0.07 s (P = 0.52)].Conclusion Our findings suggest that a prescribed home-based and group-based intervention with increased training time devoted to strength, jump, and sprint ability, and regulated to obtain a sufficient infection control level is feasible and effective to preserve strength, jumping, and sprinting abilities of high-level female football players during a ∼ 3-month period of a pandemic-induced lockdown.
... Several researchers have suggested negative effects of self-isolation following the COVID-19 lockdown (Mohr et al., 2020;Sarto et al., 2020), suggesting that it may result in lower training volume and quality, and in turn, decreased physical fitness (Girardi et al., 2020;Sarto et al., 2020). Indeed, a number of studies have reported reduced physical activity (Xiang et al., 2020;Zheng et al., 2020) and training hours during the COVID-19 lockdown (Mon-López et al., 2020;Zinner et al., 2020), and there are already findings of decreased cycling performance in cyclists (Muriel et al., 2020) and reduced hamstring strength in football players (Moreno-Pérez et al., 2020). However, some have presented the potential of maintaining physical fitness in multidisciplinary sports such as football, by performing circuitbased training (Latella and Haff, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak with partial lockdown has inevitably led to an alteration in training routines for football players worldwide. Thus, coaches had to face with the novel challenge of minimizing the potential decline in fitness during this period of training disruption. Methods: In this observational pre-to posttest study involving Norwegian female football players (18.8 ± 1.9 years, height 1.68 ± 0.4 m, mass 61.3 ± 3.7 kg), we investigated the effects of a prescribed home-based and group-based intervention, implemented during the COVID-19 lockdown, on maximal muscular force production and high velocity variables. Specifically, maximal partial squat strength one repetition maximum (1RM), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 15 m sprint time were assessed 1 week prior to the lockdown and 12 weeks after the onset of lockdown. We also collected training content and volume from the prescribed training program and self-reported perceived training quality and motivation toward training. Results: We observed no change in 1RM [pretest: 104 ± 12 kg, posttest: 101 ± 11 kg (P = 0.28)], CMJ height [pretest: 28.1 ± 2.3 cm, posttest: 26.8 ± 1.9 (P = 0.09)], and 15 m sprint time [pretest: 2.60 ± 0.08 s, posttest: 2.61 ± 0.07 s (P = 0.52)]. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a prescribed home-based and group-based intervention with increased training time devoted to strength, jump, and sprint ability, and regulated to obtain a sufficient infection control level is feasible and effective to preserve strength, jumping, and sprinting abilities of high-level female football players during a ∼ 3-month period of a pandemic-induced lockdown.
... Irrespective of athlete classification, changes (i.e., reduced) in multiple training variables can compromise an athlete's functional performance, especially if the training intensity is not maintained [30,31,33]. For example, among professional cyclists, changes in training volume and intensity distribution during a 7-week lockdown caused a large reduction in 5-and 20-min (maximal effort) cycling performance [39]. Total training volume decreased (− 34%), and the weekly volume of different standardized zones (i.e., zone 1 [low intensity] to zone 6 Table 3 Comparison of knowledge and beliefs/attitudes related to training interruptions during lockdown among athlete classification from world class to recreational (n = 12,495) ...
Article
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Objectives: Explore training-related knowledge, beliefs and practices of athletes and the influence of COVID-19-related lockdowns. Methods: Athletes [n = 12,526 classified: world-class (13%), international (21%), national (36%), state (24%), and recreational (6%)] completed an online survey (50 d; 17th May to 5th July 2020) exploring their training behaviours (training knowledge, beliefs/attitudes, and practices), including specific questions (intensity, frequency and session duration) on their training pre- vs. during-lockdown (March to June 2020). Results: Athletes (85%) wanted to ‘maintain training’ and disagreed (79%) with the statement ‘okay to not train during lockdown’ (greater prevalence, for both, in higher-level athletes). ‘Coaching by correspondence (remote coaching)’ was considered sufficient by athletes (60%; highest amongst world-class athletes). During lockdown, less than 40% were able to maintain sport-specific training [e.g., long endurance (39%), interval training (35%), weightlifting (33%), plyometric exercise (30%)] at pre-lockdown levels (higher among world-class, international and national athletes), with most (83%) training for ‘general fitness and health maintenance’ during lockdown. Athletes trained alone (80%), focused on body-weight (65%) and cardiovascular (59%) exercise/training during lockdown. Compared to pre-lockdown, reduced training frequency (5-7 sessions/wk. to ≤4 sessions/wk.), shorter training sessions (≥60-min to <60-min), and lower sport-specific intensity (~38% reduction) were reported for most athletes, irrespective of athlete classification. Conclusions: COVID-19 related lockdown saw marked reductions in athletic training specificity, intensity, frequency, and duration with notable within sample differences (by athlete classification). Higher classification athletes had the strongest desire to ‘maintain’ and greatest opposition to ‘not training’ during lockdown. These higher classification athletes retained training specificity to a greater degree than others, likely due to preferential access to limited training resource. Higher classification athletes considered ‘coaching by correspondence’ as sufficient compared to lower classification athletes. These lockdown-mediated changes in training are not conducive to maintenance, or progression of, athlete physical capacities (likely detrimental to athlete mental health also). The data can be used by policy makers and the athlete’s multidisciplinary team to modulate their practice, with a degree of individualization, in the current and continued COVID-pandemic-related turbulence/climate. Further, the data may drive training-related educational resources for athletes and their multidisciplinary teams. Such upskilling would allow athletes to evidence-inform their training modifications in response to germane situations (e.g., COVID-like, injury, and illness).
... Portable power meter devices overcome important drawbacks of laboratory testing, allowing the use of cyclists' own bicycles, so that decisive metrics such as the crank width (Q-factor), crank length, and geometry-related variables are replicated in the test [3]. Commercial indoor stationary cycle training, cycling treadmills, or rollers are a valid and reliable alternative to recreate outdoor cycling conditions, both for testing [4][5][6] and training [7]. While these tools simulate outdoor cycling, they do not allow recording during real outdoor environments (e.g., missing air drag and downhill sections or increasing dehydration), which may alter the metrics [8,9] and limit to apply the results to real-life situations. ...
Article
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This study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the recently developed Assioma Favero pedals under laboratory cycling conditions. In total, 12 well-trained male cyclists and triath- letes (VO2max = 65.7 ± 8.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed five cycling tests including graded exercises tests (GXT) at different cadences (70–100 revolutions per minute, rpm), workloads (100–650 Watts, W), pedaling positions (seated and standing), vibration stress (20–40 Hz), and an 8-s maximal sprint. Tests were completed using a calibrated direct drive indoor trainer for the standing, seated, and vibration GXTs, and a friction belt cycle ergometer for the high-workload step protocol. Power output (PO) and cadence were collected from three different brand, new pedal units against the gold-standard SRM crankset. The three units of the Assioma Favero exhibited very high within-test reliability and an extremely high agreement between 100 and 250 W, compared to the gold standard (Standard Error of Measurement, SEM from 2.3–6.4 W). Greater PO produced a significant underestimating trend (p < 0.05, Effect size, ES ≥ 0.22), with pedals showing systematically lower PO than SRM (1–3%) but producing low bias for all GXT tests and conditions (1.5–7.4 W). Furthermore, vibrations ≥ 30 Hz significantly increased the differences up to 4% (p < 0.05, ES ≥ 0.24), whereas peak and mean PO differed importantly between devices during the sprints (p < 0.03, ES ≥ 0.39). These results demon- strate that the Assioma Favero power meter pedals provide trustworthy PO readings from 100 to 650 W, in either seated or standing positions, with vibrations between 20 and 40 Hz at cadences of 70, 85, and 100 rpm, or even at a free chosen cadence.
... For example, power metres mounted on the bicycle or in the pedals enable real-time measurement of power output. [41][42][43] These data, along with other metrics such as heart rate and GPS, 44 can be used to generate a range of summary measures of training load, such as the Training Stress Score (TSS), 11 and the Training Impulse (TRIMP). 45 46 These are commonly used by cyclists and coaches to analyse and plan training and competition and have the potential to be used in studies investigating the relationship between cycling loads and injury risk. ...
Article
In 2020, the IOC released a consensus statement that provides overall guidelines for the recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injury and illness in sport. Some aspects of this statement need to be further specified on a sport-by-sport basis. To extend the IOC consensus statement on methods for recording and reporting of epidemiological data on injury and illness in sports and to meet the sport-specific requirements of all cycling disciplines regulated by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). A panel of 20 experts, all with experience in cycling or cycling medicine, participated in the drafting of this cycling-specific extension of the IOC consensus statement. In preparation, panel members were sent the IOC consensus statement, the first draft of this manuscript and a list of topics to be discussed. The expert panel met in July 2020 for a 1-day video conference to discuss the manuscript and specific topics. The final manuscript was developed in an iterative process involving all panel members. This paper extends the IOC consensus statement to provide cycling-specific recommendations on health problem definitions, mode of onset, injury mechanisms and circumstances, diagnosis classifications, exposure, study population characteristics and data collection methods. Recommendations apply to all UCI cycling disciplines, for both able-bodied cyclists and para-cyclists. The recommendations presented in this consensus statement will improve the consistency and accuracy of future epidemiological studies of injury and illness in cycling.
... These studies have also tended to focus on overall physical activity levels, with little attention to date on specific activities such as walking. In a recent systematic review 19 , of the included 45 studies that explored changes in physical activity behavior in healthy adults, only four used device-based measures, and the sample sizes for the four studies ranged from 18 to 2289 adults [20][21][22][23] . Furthermore, the lack of specificity in distinguishing between utilitarian and recreational walking weakens the power of previous walking behavior analyses, with subsequent implications on policy recommendations. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is causing mass disruption to our daily lives. We integrate mobility data from mobile devices and area-level data to study the walking patterns of 1.62 million anonymous users in 10 metropolitan areas in the United States. The data covers the period from mid-February 2020 (pre-lockdown) to late June 2020 (easing of lockdown restrictions). We detect when users were walking, distance walked and time of the walk, and classify each walk as recreational or utilitarian. Our results reveal dramatic declines in walking, particularly utilitarian walking, while recreational walking has recovered and even surpassed pre-pandemic levels. Our findings also demonstrate important social patterns, widening existing inequalities in walking behavior. COVID-19 response measures have a larger impact on walking behavior for those from low-income areas and high use of public transportation. Provision of equal opportunities to support walking is key to opening up our society and economy. Mobility restrictions implemented to reduce the spread of COVID-19 have significantly impacted walking behavior. In this study, the authors integrated mobility data from mobile devices and area-level data to study the walking patterns of 1.62 million anonymous users in 10 US metropolitan areas.
... Although these platforms for training have been considered successful for health purposes, their use in competition has raised several doubts. In this regard, practice seems insufficient to maintain performance among elite cyclists during the pandemic due to the changes in training volume and intensity distribution (Muriel et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Indoor cycling has been a trend during the COVID-19 pandemic due to the lockdowns and social distancing measures imposed by most countries. Virtual cycling (eCycling) has grown exponentially, and its popularity among amateur and professional cyclists is shown by the fact that they regularly participate in virtual competitions in which people from all over the world interact via streaming. Although eCycling is derived from a traditional sport and adapted to a virtual platform, its future success once real competitions are reinstated has been seriously questioned. This virtual cycling modality has been openly criticized for the potential differences when competing and that it does not represent the true essence of cycling. These questions and the lack of clear guidelines for its competition suggest that eCycling has to go a long way before being considered a sport. This manuscript aims to present some challenges and opportunities regarding how virtual racing could be sustainable over time once the COVID-19 lockdown is over and demonstrate that eCycling was not just filling a short-term void left by real cycling during this pandemic.
... 16 Professional cyclists confined for 7 weeks have also been analyzed and marked changes in training intensity distribution have been reported despite the accessibility to computerized training simulation tools and the possibility to perform quasi-normal training (albeit without road access). 17 Surprisingly the findings indicate that this group of athletes had a significant reduced training volume (-33.9%) during this time when compared to typical road access. ...
Article
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) it the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the World Health Organisation declared the outbreak a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020, cases have been increasing around the World with more than 3M deaths recorded and a daily number of COVID-19 cases >20 times higher than when the Olympics were postponed, at the time of writing. Governments adopted various lockdown measures forcing isolation for many weeks/months depending on the evolution of the disease in each country. The rapid transmission of the disease forced the Tokyo2020 Olympics to be postponed for one year. Travel restrictions, quarantine requirements and isolation have been the norm for many athletes in preparation for the Olympic Games. Also, due to the measures put in place to reduce the spread of the disease, sporting facilities have been closed and competitions cancelled forcing athletes and their staff to find alternative solutions to maintain performance and continue preparing for the Olympics. This unique challenge is affecting the whole World, and while vaccination programmes start to be deployed, in a few months the World will see the first Olympic Games' edition during a pandemic. The aim of this special paper is to consider the various challenges posed by the COVID pandemic and provide information for coaching support staff to improve the preparation for Tokyo Olympics as well as consider the possible performance implications of this unique Olympic edition.
... Recent scientific data have demonstrated that COVID-19-induced quarantine produces more detrimental effects on performance than traditional off-season in professional soccer players [22]. Similarly, 5and 20-min cycling performance in professional cyclists significantly declined up to 19% after lockdown [23], while only two weeks of detraining seems to be enough for reducing cardiopulmonary function in well-trained endurance athletes [24]. ...
Article
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COVID-19-induced quarantine may lead to deleterious effects on health status as well as to impaired performance and increased injury risk when re-starting training after lockdown. We investigated the physical activity (PA) habits of recreational runners in Spain during a 48-day home quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic and the characteristics of the first outdoor running session after confinement. A cross-sectional study, including a self-reported running questionnaire completed after the first outdoor running session after quarantine, was performed. Three hundred recreational runners (74% males; 60% 18–40 years old; most typical running experience >3 years, 10–30 km weekly running distance distributed in 3–4 sessions) were considered for analysis. Advanced runners ran, at least, 4 days/week and participated in running events. They performed significantly longer and more non-supervised weekly training sessions during confinement (p < 0.01 for both) than novice and amateur runners. Most runners performed their first outdoor running session on asphalt (65.3%) and ran 5 to 10 km (61%) at a pace above 5 min/km (60%), reporting no pain before (77%), during (64%), and 24 h after (76%) the session. Advanced runners performed a significantly longer running session, at a higher pace, and covered a greater distance (p < 0.01 for all) than novice and amateur runners, while enjoyment and motivation tended to be significantly higher when runners’ level increased (p < 0.05). Higher training levels prior to and during confinement may lower the collateral effects (e.g., detraining, injury risk) of home quarantine when runners return to previous PA levels.
... In line with our findings, recent evidence has also reported a significant reduction of training 172 volume (-34%) and endurance performance (9-12%) in professional cyclists during 7 weeks of 173 COVID-19 lockdown. 9 Another study recently reported that 63 days of lockdown induced a 174 greater impairment of physical performance (sprinting and jumping) and body composition in 175 professional soccer players than 23 days of complete rest during the off-season. 10 In turn, the 176 study by Cohen et al. reported that although some neuromuscular properties (e.g., yielding 177 eccentric rate of force development) were impaired in professional soccer players after 15 weeks 178 of isolated training due to jump height remained unaltered. ...
Purpose: To describe the effects of COVID-19 lockdown and a subsequent retraining on the training workloads, autonomic responses and performance of a group of elite athletes. Methods: The training workloads and heart rate variability (HRV, assessed through the LnRMSSD) of seven elite badminton players were registered daily during 4 weeks of normal training (baseline), 7-10 weeks of lockdown, and 6-8 weeks of retraining. Physical performance was assessed at baseline and after each phase by means of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and the estimated squat 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Results: A reduction in training workloads was observed in all participants during the lockdown (-63.7%), which was accompanied by a reduced HRV in all but one participant (-2.0%). A significant reduction was also observed for CMJ (-6.5%) and 1RM performance (-11.5%), which decreased in all but one participant after the lockdown. However, after the retraining phase all measures returned to similar values to those found at baseline. At the individual level there were divergent responses, as exemplified by one athlete who attenuated the reduction in training workloads and increased her performance during the lockdown, and another one who markedly reduced his workload and performance and got injured during the retraining phase. Conclusions: Although there seems to be a large inter-individual variability, COVID-19 lockdown is likely to impose negative consequences on elite athletes, but these detrimental effects might be avoided by attenuating reductions in training workloads and seem to be overall recovered after 6-8 weeks of retraining.
... In particular, the Referees Technical Committee from the Royal Spanish Football Federation provided specific guidelines and set up online conferences to maintain the physical fitness of professional referees. Despite these efforts, during COVID-19 home confinement, referees were likely exposed to some level of detraining that could induce negative consequences in physiological systems due to the insufficient stimuli and the absence of organized training and competition [5][6][7][8]. This was due to the lack of conditions in most homes to perform the specific actions of football refereeing. ...
Article
To investigate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on match-play metrics in professional football referees during official matches of the Spanish professional leagues. Forty-two professional football referees from the First (n = 20) and Second Division (n = 22) were monitored during 564 official games using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. Data of matches before lockdown were compared to matches after resumption of the competition. Compared to pre-lockdown, in the referees of the First Division there was a decrease in the total running distance and the distance covered at all speed thresholds > 6 km ·h-1 after lockdown (P < .05). In the Second Division referees, the post-lockdown measurement only showed a decrease in the running distance at 21–24 km·h-1 (P < .05), with no changes in the other speed thresholds. The postlockdown measurement showed an increased distance covered at < 6 km·h-1 and the number of accelerations or both First and Second Division referees (P < .05). Referees’ match activity was reduced due to the COVID-19 ockdown, while the effect on running parameters was more pronounced in First Division referees.
... Eine Befragung der Sportverbände von DOSB und Deloitte (2021) zeigt, dass über 90% der befragten Verbände eine Einschränkung bei der Angebotsvielfalt verzeichnen. Des Weiteren rechnen gut zwei Drittel (68%) mit einem Rückgang der Mitglieder in den Vereinen und 85% mit einem Rückgang der Trainings-und Wettkampfstrukturen. Diese Ergebnisse wurden auch in einer Studie von Feiler und Breuer (2021) (Esht et al., 2021;Muriel et al., 2020;Valenzuela et al., 2021). Diese Effekte waren konstant in unterschiedlichen Ländern und über verschiedene Sportarten zu beobachten. ...
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Im Rahmen des vom Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft geförderten und von der Stiftung Deutsche Sporthilfe unterstützten Projekts wurde im März und April 2021 eine Online-Befragung von deutschen Nachwuchsleistungs- und Spitzensportler:innen durchgeführt. Ziel dieser Befragung war die Erfassung der ökonomischen Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung stand zum einen die Quantifizierung der Einkommens- und Ausgabenentwicklung der Athlet:innen im Jahr 2020 und zum anderen die Schätzung des Einflusses der ökonomischen Auswirkungen auf die Lebenszufriedenheit der Athlet:innen. Insgesamt haben an der Befragung 1.654 Athleten und Athletinnen erfolgreich teilgenommen. Dies entspricht einer Rücklaufquote von 42,5% der von der Deutschen Sporthilfe insgesamt geförderten Athlet:innen. Die Befragung baut da- bei auf einer vorherigen Erhebung von Breuer et al. (2018) auf, so dass ein Vergleich der Kohorten für die Jahre 2017 und 2020 möglich ist.
... Another big challenge that elite athletes face is resuming highintensity training after being affected by the coronavirus. It has been shown that a high level of stress and anxiety during the infection may lead to athletes making wrong decisions about the best training intensity after returning to the athletic field [17]. As the sudden onset of intense exercise and training is associated with immunodepression [18], returning to sports activities and competition events should be supervised closely by their coaches and teams. ...
Article
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Elite athletes use high-intensity training to maintain their fitness level. However, intense training can harm the immune system, making athletes suspectable to COVID-19 and negatively affecting their performance. In addition, the diet of athletes should be appreciated more as it is another influencer of the immune system, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic. The other important issue elite athletes face currently is vaccination and its possible intervention with their training. The present study attempts to discuss the impact of different training intensities, nutritional strategies, and vaccination on the immune system function in elite athletes. To this end, Scopus, ISC, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1988 to 2021 using the related keywords. The results of our review showed that although high-intensity exercise can suppress the immune system, elite athletes should not stop training in the time of infection but use low- and moderate-intensity training. Moderate-intensity exercise can improve immune function and maintain physical fitness. In addition, it is also better for athletes not to undertake high-intensity training at the time of vaccination, but instead perform moderate to low-intensity training. Furthermore, nutritional strategies can be employed to improve immune function during high-intensity training periods.
... PO was registered with two different power meters (Shimano Dura-Ace FCRC9100-P, Shimano, Sakia, Japan; and Power2Max Type SNieder Seifersdorf, Waldhufen, Germany; both registering at 1 Hz) each of which has been previously used in the scientific literature (18)(19)(20)(21). All individual devices were factory-calibrated at least once per season, and a zero-offset was performed before each training session or competition attending to manufacturers' instructions. ...
Article
Introduction: Acute altitude exposure influences exercise performance, although most research, especially regarding altitude natives, comes from laboratory data in non-athletes. Purpose: We analyzed the influence of altitude on real-world cycling performance in top-level professional cyclists attending to whether they were altitude natives or not. Methods: 33 male cyclists (29 ± 5 years) were studied and were classified as lowlanders (N = 19) or altitude natives (N = 14) attending to the altitude of their place of birth (431 ± 380 and 2583 ± 334 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.), respectively). Both groups included top-3 finishers (including winners) in the general classification of Grand Tours and major races. Using data from both training and competitions during years 2013-2020 (8 ± 5 seasons/cyclist), we registered participants' mean maximal power (MMP) for efforts lasting 5 seconds, 30 seconds, 5 minutes and 10 minutes, respectively, at altitudes ranging from 0-500 to >2000 m a.s.l. Results: A significant altitude*MMP interaction effect (two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA) was found in lowlanders (p < 0.001) but not in altitude natives (p = 0.150). In lowlanders, individual performance decreased in a dose-response manner with increasing altitudes compared to sea (or near-sea) level (0-500 m a.s.l.) whereas this trend was much less evident in natives. A significant altitude*MMP*group effect was found (p < 0.001), with non-significant (and overall trivial-to-small differences) between lowlanders and altitude natives for any effort duration at altitudes ≤1500 m a.s.l. but with significant differences at higher altitudes (≥1501 m a.s.l.). Conclusions: Acute altitude exposure influences real-world performance differently in low landers and altitude natives, which might confer a competitive advantage to the latter, particularly in races including efforts at >1500 m a.s.l.
... It is apparent that the effects of lockdown are more severe and multifaceted than just a scheduled absence from training activities, and they can act as a negative stressor for many athletes indicating that special considerations are needed when athletes return to sport in the event of significant levels of detraining [24][25][26]. Regarding this, decrements in performance have been extensively proven during and after training restriction due to the ongoing pandemic conditions in age-group athletes, in individual and team sports, in sprint and endurance disciplines, at amateur and elite level [24,[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. ...
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the 2019–2020 season, swimming competitions and training have been limited leading to a setback in performances. The study analyzed if, during the subsequent season, swimmers’ have been able to regain the lost performance. Swimming time trends were analyzed comparing Tokyo with Rio Olympics and with mathematically predicted results. The gap between the gold medalist and the last finalist, and the differences between men and women have also been considered. Swimming competition results of females and males, in 100 m and 200 m Freestyle and Backstroke, were collected from the Olympics’ official website. Results showed that at Tokyo Olympics almost all swimmers’ times improved as compared to Rio’s. Analysis of performance trends highlighted that performance progression does not proceed in a linear fashion and that is best predicted by more recent results. Women’s progression was higher than men’s and the gap between the first and last finalist constantly decreased, except for the Tokyo Olympics. In conclusion, the unprecedented Tokyo Olympic Games and qualification year seems not to have disrupted all Olympic swimmers’ performance, suggesting that stakeholders support and athlete’s coping ability might safeguard the subsistence of performance.
... Ces restrictions ont inévitablement impacté la pratique des activités physiques en extérieur officiellement interdite en mars et avril 2020. Ainsi, le volume d'entrainement de 18 cyclistes professionnels résidant en Espagne a diminué de 33,9 % pendant le confinement durant lequel seul un entrainement sur home-trainer était envisageable (Muriel et al., 2020). C'est seulement à partir du 1 er mai pour l'Espagne et du 4 mai pour l'Italie que la population a enfin pu sortir pour effectuer des déplacements dans le cadre d'une activité physique de plein air. ...
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Carlyne Arnould Compte rendu d’une auditrice sur deux conférences à visées différentes, mais complémentaires : clinique (les 8es Journées francophones de kinésithérapie) et recherche (le 33e meeting de l’European Academy of Childhood Disability). Zoom sur trois thématiques : les « mots en F », les thérapies intensives, et la réalité virtuelle Fabien Buisseret – Frédéric Dierick – Wesley Estievenart – Renaud Hage – Sébastien Leteneur – Olivier Nocent – Laura Ramonfosse NOMADe à mi-parcours : présentation de deux réalisations Caroline Givord Thérapies intensives et apprentissage moteur chez l’enfant atteint de paralysie cérébrale : création d’un cours à option en Master de kinésithérapie et Bac 3 en ergothérapie Cécile Leroy Partage d’une soumission de projet recherche-développement auprès de l’ARES : développement de la réhabilitation communautaire au Burundi Benjamin Letroye Focus sur un projet d’accompagnement sportif au laboratoire Forme et Fonctionnement Humain : évaluer et améliorer sa performance sportive grâce à un test à l’effort ouvert à tous ! Louis Meurisse – Julien Falgayrat – Nicolas Draye – Guillaume Henry – Mikaël Scohier L’intégration de nouvelles technologies dans le métier de l’ergonomie : l’intelligence artificielle au service de la cotation des contraintes posturales Annick Boullar Des laboratoires flambants neufs pour les formations scientifiques de biologie médicale et d’agronomie sur le campus de Montignies-sur-Sambre Guillaume Henry Un soutien technique et scientifique au sein du Laboratoire FFH ! Oui, mais qui est-il et que fait-il ? Geoffroy Saussez Utilisation d’un dispositif virtuel nouvellement développé pour améliorer les capacités motrices et fonctionnelles des enfants atteints de paralysie cérébrale Vanessa Gelhay Les techniques -omiques et la bioinformatique dans les analyses environnementales : comprendre les successions microbiennes du cycle de l’azote du sol pour limiter les émissions du gaz à effet de serre protoxyde d’azote à partir des effluents d’élevage Mallorie Jadouille Les axes d’interventions possibles de l’ergothérapeute auprès des parents et de leur nouveau-né prématuré dans un service de néonatalogie en Belgique Léa Cochaux Modifications posturales immédiates induites par deux types de porte-bébé chez de jeunes mamans Clément Cunin & Antoine Martin Comparaison de la cinématique sagittale entre un tapis roulant motorisé et un tapis incurvé non-motorisé lors d’une marche à vitesse spontanée Julie Dhenin Effets d’un confinement sur la pratique sportive de cyclistes et coureurs à pied amateurs : analyse des données Strava® d’utilisateurs belges et français Frédéric Cnocquart Du soin au management institutionnel : quand les valeurs de la profession infirmière transcendent celles de la direction Marine Lebrun Trouver sa voie après un double diplôme d’ergothérapeute et de kinésithérapeute Alexandre Dricot Le kinésithérapie... évolue !
... We combined PA data in pre-COVID and during-COVID periods with information about the demographics to estimate the effects of disease prevention and government restriction orders on the level of PA. There is little research using a device-based measure of PA related to COVID-19, although we found some [20][21][22][23]. These four works were not comparable to our article (two-year period, average age 84.5 and 204 participants). ...
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Social workers require a better understanding of the impact of pandemic measures on the level of physical activity of their clients to better target client activation. In this retrospective tracker-based study (two years of measurement), we examined changes in the physical activity of the elderly population (204 participants with an average age of 84.5 years) in the Czech Republic as a result of measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Physical activity was statistically compared according to the physical, demographic and social conditions of the participants. In addition to observing the expected activity decrease during the COVID-19 pandemic, we made several hypotheses based on the sex, age group, body mass index, type of housing (apartment or house) and size of the city of residence. We found that 33% of the 204 participants had increased levels of physical activity in the period following the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Central Europe. We found that the size of the city where the seniors lived and the type of housing did not affect the general level of physical activity. When comparing physical acquisition rates in each month of 2019 and 2020, we saw the largest declines in April and May 2020, that is, one month after the start of the lockdown.
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Durability and repeatability (i.e., the ability to sustain high power output values under fatigue and to endure repeated high-intensity efforts, respectively) are emerging as cycling performance determinants. We aimed to analyze whether these markers differ between professional cyclists of two competition levels (WorldTour [WT] and Proteam [PT]) during a Grand Tour. We studied 8 WT and 7 PT cyclists who competed in ‘La Vuelta 2020’. Durability was assessed with the mean maximal power (MMP) values attained between 5 sec–30 min after different levels of mechanical work done (0–35 kJ·kg-1). Repeatability was assessed as the ability to repeat efforts >95% MMP. Although no differences were found for durability during the whole race (p=0.209), a significant interaction effect was found in separate analyses by week (p=0.011). Thus, during the first week and in the ‘fresh’ state (0 kJ·kg-1), WT cyclists solely attained significantly higher MMP values for 30-min efforts. However, these differences enlarged with accumulating levels of fatigue (e.g., significantly higher MMP values in WT cyclists for 30-sec, 1-min, 5-min, 20-min and 30-min efforts after 35 kJ·kg-1). On the other hand, no between-group differences were found in repeatability for the whole race (p=0.777) or in separate analyses by week (p=0.808). In summary, the present results support the role of durability (but not of repeatability) as a performance indicator during professional cycling races.
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A kutatás a "Korszerű egyetem a modern városban: Értékközpontúság, nyitottság és befogadó szemlélet egy 21. századi felsőoktatási modellben" c. pályázat keretében került megvalósításra
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BACKGROUND: The prevention protocols of COVID-19 impact several restrictions in the sports world, the influence of this scenario in the athletes with impairment increased associated a multifactorial condition like environment, etiology, or psychological perception. The aim of this study was to identify the influences of impairments and sports on characteristics of load training during the COVID-19 Pandemic, life satisfaction and the expectation about the influence of pandemic on the performance in the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games. METHODS: One hundred eighty Brazilian para-athletes, in a cross-sectional study, answered a survey about their training load before and during the Pandemic, satisfaction with life and expectation about their perform�ance. Athletes were divided into three groups according to their sport practiced: individual sports (Ind-1); Indi�vidual sports with opposition (Ind-2) and team sports (Team). The data were analyzed by impairments and sports groups. RESULTS: Hours of training, number of sessions and rating of perceived exertion reduced during the pandemic. Limb impairment and spinal cord injury groups reduced training hours during pandemic. Team group showed lower training sessions per week than the Ind-1 group. No difference was found in life satisfaction among the groups. Most athletes believe that the pandemic will damage their performance in the Tokyo Paralympic Games. CONCLUSIONS: Influences of COVID-19 Pandemic on training loads were identified to all groups, however there were no differences between disabilities or sports in the life satisfaction and expectation about the influence of pan�demic on the performance in
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Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic caused a worldwide change in daily habits. Women have reported exercising more during the lockdown and maintaining their healthy habits when obligated to stay home with guidance. Objective: This work aimed to determine how the one-on-one personal training guidance affects training volumes and knowledge to maintain healthy habits during the COVID-19 lockdown on physically active young women. Methods: Twenty-three women participated in the study. Strength and conditioning coaches quantified the training workload before and during the quarantine for each subject. Nutritional intake was obtained through a 24-hour recall and a consumption frequency survey during quarantine. Results: No significant differences were found between PRE and InQ body weight (56.6 ± 7.0 kg vs. 57.4 ± 7.1 kg), upper body training frequency (3.4 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 1.0), and lower body training frequency (3.4 ± 0.8 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0). The total calculation of lower-body volume shows a trend of reduction PRE vs. InQ (p = 0.051). Conclusions: COVID-19 negatively affects training volumes on physically active women. However, a one-on-one follow-up by qualified trainers could support training quality and safety.
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This review describes the available evidence of the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, referred to COVID-19) pandemic on musculoskeletal injury patterns and prevalence in athletes. A brief overview of the epidemiology of COVID-19 and prevalence in active populations from youth through professional are provided. Responses to COVID-19 regarding sport participation at regional, national, and international organizations are summarized. Downstream effects of complete or partial training shutdown on injury risk and mental health are discussed. Strategies to maintain athletic potential and overall well-being include maintaining safe access to training facilities and resources, implementation of injury prevention programs, organization of athlete support networks, and incorporation of resilience and coping training.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 weeks with three weekly sessions (ie, nine sessions in total) of short intervals (SI; n = 9; 3 series with 13 × 30-second work intervals interspersed with 15-second recovery and 3-minutes recovery between series) against effort-matched (rate of perceived effort based) long intervals (LI; n = 9; 4 series of 5-minute work intervals with 2.5-minutes recovery between series) on performance parameters in elite cyclists ( V ˙ O 2max 73 ± 4 mL min-1 kg-1 ). There were no differences between groups in total volume and intensity distribution of training during the intervention period. SI achieved a larger (P < .05) relative improvement in peak aerobic power output than LI (3.7 ± 4.3% vs -0.3 ± 2.8%, respectively), fractional utilization of V ˙ O 2max at 4 mmol L-1 [La- ] (3.0 ± 5.8 percent points vs -3.5 ± 2.7 percent points, respectively), and larger relative increase in power output at 4 mmol L-1 [La- ] (2.0 ± 6.7% vs -2.8 ± 3.4, respectively), while there was no group difference in change of V ˙ O 2max . Improvements in performance measured as mean power output during 20-minute cycling test were greater (P < .01) in SI compared with LI (4.7 ± 4.4% vs -1.4 ± 2.2%, respectively). Mean effect size of the improvement in the above variables revealed a small to large effect of SI training vs LI training. The data thus demonstrate that the present SI protocol induces superior training adaptations compared with the present LI protocol in elite cyclists.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to present the load, intensity and performance characteristics of a general classification (GC) contender during multiple grand tours (GTs). This study also investigated which factors influence climbing performance. Methods: Power output (PO) data were collected from a GC contender from the Vuelta a España 2015, the Giro d’Italia 2017, the Giro d’Italia 2018 and the Tour de France 2018. Load (e.g. Training Stress Score and kJ spent) and intensity in 5 PO zones was quantified. One-way analysis of variance was used to identify differences between the GTs. Further, performance during the four GTs was quantified based on maximum mean power output (W∙kg-1) over different durations and by the relative PO (W∙kg-1) on the key mountains in the GTs. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify which factors influence relative PO on the key mountains. Results: No significant differences were found between load and intensity characteristics between the four GTs with the exception that during the Giro d’Italia 2018 a significantly lower absolute time was spent in PO zone 5 (P=0.005) compared to the other three GTs. The average relative PO on the key mountains (n=33) was 5.9±0.6 W∙kg-1 and was negatively influenced by the duration of the climb and the total elevation gain before the key mountain, while the gradient of the mountain had a positive effect on relative PO. Conclusions: The physiological load imposed on a GC contender did not differ between multiple GTs. Climbing performance was influenced by short-term fatigue induced by previous altitude meters in the stage and the duration and gradient of the mountain.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine, i) the reliability of blood lactate and ventilatory-based thresholds, ii) the lactate threshold that corresponds with each ventilatory threshold (VT1 and VT2) and with maximal lactate steady state test (MLSS) as a proxy of cycling performance. Methods Fourteen aerobically-trained male cyclists (V˙O2max 62.1±4.6 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) performed two graded exercise tests (50 W warm-up followed by 25 W·min⁻¹) to exhaustion. Blood lactate, V˙O2 and V˙CO2 data were collected at every stage. Workloads at VT1 (rise in V˙E/V˙O2;) and VT2 (rise in V˙E/V˙CO2) were compared with workloads at lactate thresholds. Several continuous tests were needed to detect the MLSS workload. Agreement and differences among tests were assessed with ANOVA, ICC and Bland-Altman. Reliability of each test was evaluated using ICC, CV and Bland-Altman plots. Results Workloads at lactate threshold (LT) and LT+2.0 mMol·L⁻¹ matched the ones for VT1 and VT2, respectively (p = 0.147 and 0.539; r = 0.72 and 0.80; Bias = -13.6 and 2.8, respectively). Furthermore, workload at LT+0.5 mMol·L⁻¹ coincided with MLSS workload (p = 0.449; r = 0.78; Bias = -4.5). Lactate threshold tests had high reliability (CV = 3.4–3.7%; r = 0.85–0.89; Bias = -2.1–3.0) except for DMAX method (CV = 10.3%; r = 0.57; Bias = 15.4). Ventilatory thresholds show high reliability (CV = 1.6%–3.5%; r = 0.90–0.96; Bias = -1.8–2.9) except for RER = 1 and V-Slope (CV = 5.0–6.4%; r = 0.79; Bias = -5.6–12.4). Conclusions Lactate threshold tests can be a valid and reliable alternative to ventilatory thresholds to identify the workloads at the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism.
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Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies.
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Euhydrated and dehydrated subjects exercised in a hot and a cold environment with our aim to identify factors that relate to reductions in stroke volume (SV). We hypothesized that reductions in SV with heat stress are related to the interaction of several factors rather than the effect of elevated skin blood flow. Eight male endurance-trained cyclists [maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.5 +/- 0.1 l/min; means +/- SE] cycled for 30 min (72% VO(2 max)) in the heat (H; 35 degrees C) or the cold (C; 8 degrees C) when euhydrated or dehydrated by 1.5, 3.0, or 4.2% of their body weight. When euhydrated, SV and esophageal temperature (T(es) 38. 2-38.3 degrees C) were similar in H and C, whereas skin blood flow was much higher in H vs. C (365 +/- 64% higher; P < 0.05). With each 1% body weight loss, SV declined 6.4 +/- 1.3 ml (4.8%) in H and 3.4 +/- 0.4 ml (2.5%) in C, whereas T(es) increased 0.21 +/- 0.02 and 0. 10 +/- 0.02 degrees C in H and C, respectively (P < 0.05). However, reductions in SV were not associated with increases in skin blood flow. The reduced SV was highly associated with increased heart rate and reduced blood volume in both H (R = 0.96; P < 0.01) and C (R = 0. 85; P < 0.01). In conclusion, these results suggest that SV is maintained in trained subjects during exercise in euhydrated conditions despite large differences in skin blood flow. Furthermore, the lowering of SV with dehydration appears largely related to increases in heart rate and reductions in blood volume.
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The purpose of this study was to assess reliability of both indoor and outdoor 40 km time-trial cycling performance. Eight trained cyclists completed three indoor 40 km time-trials on an air-braked ergometer (Kingcycle) and three outdoor 40 km time-trials on a local course. Power output was measured for all trials using the SRM powermeter. Mean performance time across three indoor trials was 54.21 +/- 2.59 (min:sec) and was significantly different (P<0.05) to mean time across three outdoor trials (57.29 +/- 3.22 min:sec). However, there was no significant difference (P = 0.34) for mean power across three indoor trials (303+/-35W) when compared to outdoor performances (312 +/- 23 W). Within-subject variation for mean power output expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) improved in both indoors and outdoors for trials 2 and 3 (CV = 1.9%, 95% CI 1.0 - 3.4 and CV = 2.1 %, 95 % CI 1.1 - 3.8) when compared to trials 1 and 2 (CV=2.1%, 95% CI 1.2-3.8 and CV=2.4%, 95% CI 1.3-4.3). These findings indicate that power output measured using the SRM powermeter is highly reproducible for both laboratory-based and actual 40 km time-trial cycling performance.
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Three to 5 cycling tests to exhaustion allow prediction of time to exhaustion (TTE) at power output based on calculation of critical power (CP). We aimed to determine the accuracy of CP predictions of TTE at power outputs habitually endured by cyclists. Fourteen endurance-trained male cyclists underwent 4 randomized cycle-ergometer TTE tests at power outputs eliciting (i) mean Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT mean ), (ii) maximal oxygen consumption, (iii) respiratory compensation threshold (VT 2 ), and (iv) maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Tests were conducted in duplicate with coefficient of variation of 5%–9%. Power outputs were 710 ± 63 W for WAnT mean , 366 ± 26 W for maximal oxygen consumption, 302 ± 31 W for VT 2 and 247 ± 20 W for MLSS. Corresponding TTE were 00:29 ± 00:06, 03:23 ± 00:45, 11:29 ± 05:07, and 76:05 ± 13:53 min:s, respectively. Power output associated with CP was only 2% lower than MLSS (242 ± 19 vs. 247 ± 20 W; P < 0.001). The CP predictions overestimated TTE at WAnT mean (00:24 ± 00:10 mm:ss) and MLSS (04:41 ± 11:47 min:s), underestimated TTE at VT 2 (–04:18 ± 03:20 mm:ss; P < 0.05), and correctly predicted TTE at maximal oxygen consumption. In summary, CP accurately predicts MLSS power output and TTE at maximal oxygen consumption. However, it should not be used to estimate time to exhaustion in trained cyclists at higher or lower power outputs (e.g., sprints and 40-km time trials). Novelty CP calculation enables to predict TTE at any cycling power output. We tested those predictions against measured TTE in a wide range of cycling power outputs. CP appropriately predicted TTE at maximal oxygen consumption intensity but err at higher and lower cycling power outputs.
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Purpose Regulation of power output during cycling encompasses the integration of internal and external demands to maximise performance. However, relatively little is known about variation in power output in response to the external demands of outdoor cycling. We compared mean power output and the magnitude of power output variability and structure during a 20-min time-trial performed indoors and outdoors. Methods Twenty male competitive cyclists ( V̇ O 2peak 60.4 ± 7.1 mL·kg ⁻¹ ·min ⁻¹ ) performed two randomised maximal 20-min time-trial tests i) outdoors at a cycle-specific racing circuit or ii) indoors on a laboratory-based electromagnetically braked training ergometer, 7 days apart. Power output was sampled at 1 Hz and collected on the same bike equipped with a portable power meter in both tests. Results Twenty-min time-trial performance indoor (280 ± 44 W) was not different from outdoor (284 ± 41 W) ( P = 0.256), showing a strong correlation ( r = 0.94; P < 0.001). Within-person SD was greater outdoors (69 ± 21 W) compared to indoors (33 ± 10 W) ( P < 0.001). Increased variability was observed across all frequencies in data from outdoor cycling compared to indoors ( P < 0.001) except for the very slowest frequency bin (<0.0033 Hz, P = 0.930). Conclusions Our findings indicate a greater magnitude of variability in power output during cycling outdoors. This suggests that constraints imposed by the external environment lead to moderate and high frequency fluctuations in power output. Therefore, indoor testing protocols should be designed to reflect the external demands of cycling outdoors.
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This study analyzed changes in neuromuscular, body composition, and endurance markers during 4 wk of tapering and subsequent 5 wk of reduced training (RT) or training cessation (TC). Fourteen world-class kayakers were randomly assigned to either a TC (n = 7) or an RT group (n = 7). One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, mean concentric velocity with 45% 1RM (V45%) in the bench press (BP) and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises, and body composition assessments were conducted at the start (T0) and end (T1) of a 43-wk training program, after tapering for the world championships (T2) and after TC or RT (T3). A graded exercise test on a kayak ergometer for determination of maximal oxygen uptake at T0, T1, and T3 was also performed. After tapering, no significant changes were observed in 1RM or V45%. TC resulted in significantly greater declines in 1RM strength (-8.9% and -7.8%, P < 0.05, respectively, for BP and PBP) than those observed for RT (-3.9% and -3.4%). Decreases in V45% in BP and PBP were larger for TC (-12.6% and -10.0%) than for RT (-9.0% and -6.7%). Increases in sum of eight skinfolds were observed after both TC and RT, whereas declines in maximal aerobic power were lower for RT (-5.6%) than for TC (-11.3%). Short-term TC results in large decreases in maximal strength and especially V45% in highly trained athletes. These results suggest the need of performing a minimal maintenance program to avoid excessive declines in neuromuscular function in cases where a prolonged break from training is required.
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This part II discusses detraining following an insufficient training stimulus period longer than 4 weeks, as well as several strategies that may be useful to avoid its negative impact. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of athletes declines markedly but remains above control values during long term detraining, whereas recently acquired VO2max gains are completely lost. This is partly due to reduced blood volume, cardiac dimensions and ventilatory efficiency, resulting in lower stroke volume and cardiac output, despite increased heart rates. Endurance performance is accordingly impaired. Resting muscle glycogen levels return to baseline, carbohydrate utilisation increases and the lactate threshold is lowered, although it remains above untrained values in the highly trained. At the muscle level, capillarisation, arterial-venous oxygen difference and oxidative enzyme activities decline in athletes and are completely reversed in recently trained individuals, contributing significantly to the long term loss in VO2max. Oxidative fibre proportion is decreased in endurance athletes, whereas it increases in strength athletes, whose fibre areas are significantly reduced. Force production declines slowly, and usually remains above control values for very long periods. All these negative effects can be avoided or limited by reduced training strategies, as long as training intensity is maintained and frequency reduced only moderately. On the other hand, training volume can be markedly reduced. Cross-training may also be effective in maintaining training-induced adaptations. Athletes should use similar-mode exercise, but moderately trained individuals could also benefit from dissimilar-mode cross-training. Finally, the existence of a cross-transfer effect between ipsilateral and contralateral limbs should be considered in order to limit detraining during periods of unilateral immobilisation.
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(a) To investigate the effects of reduced training on physical condition and performance in well trained cyclists; (b) to study whether an intermittent exercise programme would maintain physiological training adaptations more effectively than a continuous exercise programme during a period of reduced training. Twelve male cyclists participated in a 21 day training programme and were divided into two training groups. One group (age 25.3 (7) years; weight 73.3 (5.7) kg; VO(2)MAX 58.6 (4.5) ml/kg/min; means (SD)) underwent a continuous endurance exercise training programme (CT) whereas the second group (age 22.8 (3.5) years; weight 74.1 (7.0) kg; VO(2)MAX 59.7 (6.7) ml/kg/min) followed an intermittent endurance exercise training programme (IT). During this reduced training period, both groups trained for two hours a day, three days a week. Neither group showed changes in maximal workload (WMAX) (4.6 (0.5) v 4.8 (0.5) W/kg and 4.6 (0.5) v 4.7 (0.6) W/kg for the CT and IT group respectively) and VO(2)MAX (58.6 (4.5) v 60.1 (5.8) ml/kg/min and 59.7 (6.7) v 58.8 (7.5) ml/kg/min for the CT and IT group respectively). During the submaximal steady state exercise test, substrate use and heart rate remained unchanged after reduced training. These results indicate that well trained cyclists who reduce training intensity and volume for 21 days can maintain physiological adaptations, as measured during submaximal and maximal exercise. An intermittent training regimen has no advantage over a continuous training regimen during a detraining period.