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Narco-terrorism -A threat to national security

Authors:
  • Rashtriya Raksha University

Abstract

Narco-terrorism has been one of e burning issues in security areas. It is growing in an organizational crime which is affecting trans-national dynamics of politics and economy. India is geographically sandwiched between e golden crescent and golden triangle, which are e main producers of opium and traders of drugs. It concerns e Indian security agencies to tackle e illicit drug market. Black money generated by e drug cartels hampers e economy of India and results in irreversible damage to e financial status of Indian economy. Thus, it is evident at drug trafficking is a growing and significant threat to our national security. The present article is aimed at giving an overview of security issues relating to narco-terrorism as well as effect of demonetization on e same and required countermeasures to fight is threat.
Narco-terrorism – A reat to national security
*Shweta Sharma
**K.V. Ravikumar
Abstract
Narco-terrorism has been one of e burning issues in security areas. It is growing in an organizational
crime which is affecting trans-national dynamics of politics and economy. India is geographically
sandwiched between e golden crescent and golden triangle, which are e main producers of opium
and traders of drugs. It concerns e Indian security agencies to tackle e illicit drug market. Black money
generated by e drug cartels hampers e economy of India and results in irreversible damage to e
financial status of Indian economy. Thus, it is evident at drug trafficking is a growing and significant reat
to our national security. The present article is aimed at giving an overview of security issues relating to
narco-terrorism as well as effect of demonetization on e same and required countermeasures to fight
is reat.
Key Words:
Narcoterrorism, golden crescent, golden triangle, Security issues.
Introduction
Terrorism can be understood in its broadest sense to be related to violence to create terror or fear for e
purpose of politics, religion or ideologies [1]. It also gives niche to myriad criminal activities ranging from
blue collar crimes to white collar crimes. Among e criminal activities at provide financial assistance to
terrorist groups drug trafficking is known to be one of e major contributors. Since, unlike kidnapping,
extortion, faking documents and oer such small time crimes, drug trafficking involves a large number of
criminals and victims.
When drug trafficking is carried out in order to generate funds for terrorism en it can be termed as
"narco-terrorism". This term was formerly coined by President of Peru named Belaunde Terry during
1993 while describing terrorist attacks against police forces by Sendero Luminoso [2]. Tie ups of
international terrorist organizations and drug trafficking organizations is not obscure. One of such
examples is Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia, which is involved in drug trafficking and aims to bring socialist dictatorship. Weakening e
government by bombing, assassinations and armed attacks is oen attempted by FARC. Afghanistan has
been a chief source of heroin around e globe. Information of association of al-Qa'ida and Sunni
extremists wi drug trafficking has been confirmed rough investigation [3]. Terrorist attack in 9/11
instigated e en Columbian President Alvaro Uribe, to bring up e insurgency as e marker of
terrorism. Later drug trafficking and terrorism was considered one and e same by Attorney General John
Ashcro [4, 5]. Subsequently it brought clarity at counter-insurgency earlier limited to War on Drugs can
be now comprehended as War against Terrorism. Analyzing e frequent terrorist activities it has become
evident at narco-terrorism is a worldwide issue and is no more confined to Taliban and bin Laden. It also
includes organizations like Hamas, Islamic Jihad, e Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and e
Hizballah, Syria and Lebanon in e Middle East, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) in Spain, e Irish
Republican Army (IRA) in Ireland, e Sendero Luminoso in Peru, Laskar Jihad in Indonesia, e Nor
Korean and e Chinese governments in Asia, and e Chechens in Russia [6]. It contemplates e
grievous condition of e drug trafficking in e area of terrorism.
Thus, illegal trafficking of drugs is a menace in many countries being a highlighted issue related to security
of a nation. The extent of is problem is so high at it has its influence on financial transactions around e
globe, economies and also on political ideologies. Unlike conventional approach of understanding e
traffickers and terrorist as separate reats, e union of ese two is far more serious and baleful. Hence,
narco-terrorism needs to be examined and scrutinized to understand e linkages between terrorism and
drugs [7].
Drug Trafficking and Terrorism in Asia
Central Asia has terrorist groups active who are against democratic and secular social setups. Terrorism is
used in Central Asia and countries around it for shuddering e secular regimes. Terrorist movement which
is prevalent in e area was e Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU). It was estimated at IMU is
responsible for 70% of illicit drug delivered and circulated around e area including heroin and opium [8].
By means of Tajikistan, IMU invaded Kyrgyzstan for abduction missions. To provoke jihad in Chehnya,
radical Islamist have also used Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Georgia as a logistics centre for attacking Russian
military. The core centre of drug trafficking around Asia is in Nepal. Insurgent groups have evolved from
1996 when e conflicts started between state and ese groups. The LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam) also utilizes its funds for launching terrorist attacks ranging from suicide bombing to political
assassination. They have also got involved into narcotics and its trading. Sri Lanka is a prime spot for such
narcotic transitions. Growing relationship between military leaders in Myanmar and LTTE has been
evident by proofs of supplying weapons to LTTE if ey serve as heroine carriers in India and Europe.
There is also subtle evidence of LTTE co-operating organized criminal groups in India. Drug traffickers from
India supply drugs to e LTTE. Group of Abu Sayyaf was allegedly involved in a mass kidnapping of
foreigners and ransom was paid by Libya. Apart from kidnappings it is speculated at Abu Sayyaf also has
marijuana plantations in e Philippines [9].
Drug Trafficking and Terrorism in India
Traditionally military and external and internal security reats were comparatively easy to comprehend
an non-traditional security issues like drug trafficking which has taken a toll aer e Cold war. Since
such non-traditional reats have e potential to devastate a nation politically, economically and socially.
In India specifically Nor-East region is most affected by drug trafficking and its aerma. Seven sisters
comprises of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura and Mizoram
which shares permeable borders wi Nepal, Burma, Bangladesh and China. Therefore, cross border
activities becomes an inevitable issue in is scenario [10].
*Asst Professor, Dept. of Forensics Science Jain University, Bangalore
**Director (ISSM) ,Raksha Shakti University, Ahmedabad
International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X
4140
Narco-terrorism – A reat to national security
*Shweta Sharma
**K.V. Ravikumar
Abstract
Narco-terrorism has been one of e burning issues in security areas. It is growing in an organizational
crime which is affecting trans-national dynamics of politics and economy. India is geographically
sandwiched between e golden crescent and golden triangle, which are e main producers of opium
and traders of drugs. It concerns e Indian security agencies to tackle e illicit drug market. Black money
generated by e drug cartels hampers e economy of India and results in irreversible damage to e
financial status of Indian economy. Thus, it is evident at drug trafficking is a growing and significant reat
to our national security. The present article is aimed at giving an overview of security issues relating to
narco-terrorism as well as effect of demonetization on e same and required countermeasures to fight
is reat.
Key Words:
Narcoterrorism, golden crescent, golden triangle, Security issues.
Introduction
Terrorism can be understood in its broadest sense to be related to violence to create terror or fear for e
purpose of politics, religion or ideologies [1]. It also gives niche to myriad criminal activities ranging from
blue collar crimes to white collar crimes. Among e criminal activities at provide financial assistance to
terrorist groups drug trafficking is known to be one of e major contributors. Since, unlike kidnapping,
extortion, faking documents and oer such small time crimes, drug trafficking involves a large number of
criminals and victims.
When drug trafficking is carried out in order to generate funds for terrorism en it can be termed as
"narco-terrorism". This term was formerly coined by President of Peru named Belaunde Terry during
1993 while describing terrorist attacks against police forces by Sendero Luminoso [2]. Tie ups of
international terrorist organizations and drug trafficking organizations is not obscure. One of such
examples is Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia, which is involved in drug trafficking and aims to bring socialist dictatorship. Weakening e
government by bombing, assassinations and armed attacks is oen attempted by FARC. Afghanistan has
been a chief source of heroin around e globe. Information of association of al-Qa'ida and Sunni
extremists wi drug trafficking has been confirmed rough investigation [3]. Terrorist attack in 9/11
instigated e en Columbian President Alvaro Uribe, to bring up e insurgency as e marker of
terrorism. Later drug trafficking and terrorism was considered one and e same by Attorney General John
Ashcro [4, 5]. Subsequently it brought clarity at counter-insurgency earlier limited to War on Drugs can
be now comprehended as War against Terrorism. Analyzing e frequent terrorist activities it has become
evident at narco-terrorism is a worldwide issue and is no more confined to Taliban and bin Laden. It also
includes organizations like Hamas, Islamic Jihad, e Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and e
Hizballah, Syria and Lebanon in e Middle East, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) in Spain, e Irish
Republican Army (IRA) in Ireland, e Sendero Luminoso in Peru, Laskar Jihad in Indonesia, e Nor
Korean and e Chinese governments in Asia, and e Chechens in Russia [6]. It contemplates e
grievous condition of e drug trafficking in e area of terrorism.
Thus, illegal trafficking of drugs is a menace in many countries being a highlighted issue related to security
of a nation. The extent of is problem is so high at it has its influence on financial transactions around e
globe, economies and also on political ideologies. Unlike conventional approach of understanding e
traffickers and terrorist as separate reats, e union of ese two is far more serious and baleful. Hence,
narco-terrorism needs to be examined and scrutinized to understand e linkages between terrorism and
drugs [7].
Drug Trafficking and Terrorism in Asia
Central Asia has terrorist groups active who are against democratic and secular social setups. Terrorism is
used in Central Asia and countries around it for shuddering e secular regimes. Terrorist movement which
is prevalent in e area was e Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU). It was estimated at IMU is
responsible for 70% of illicit drug delivered and circulated around e area including heroin and opium [8].
By means of Tajikistan, IMU invaded Kyrgyzstan for abduction missions. To provoke jihad in Chehnya,
radical Islamist have also used Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Georgia as a logistics centre for attacking Russian
military. The core centre of drug trafficking around Asia is in Nepal. Insurgent groups have evolved from
1996 when e conflicts started between state and ese groups. The LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam) also utilizes its funds for launching terrorist attacks ranging from suicide bombing to political
assassination. They have also got involved into narcotics and its trading. Sri Lanka is a prime spot for such
narcotic transitions. Growing relationship between military leaders in Myanmar and LTTE has been
evident by proofs of supplying weapons to LTTE if ey serve as heroine carriers in India and Europe.
There is also subtle evidence of LTTE co-operating organized criminal groups in India. Drug traffickers from
India supply drugs to e LTTE. Group of Abu Sayyaf was allegedly involved in a mass kidnapping of
foreigners and ransom was paid by Libya. Apart from kidnappings it is speculated at Abu Sayyaf also has
marijuana plantations in e Philippines [9].
Drug Trafficking and Terrorism in India
Traditionally military and external and internal security reats were comparatively easy to comprehend
an non-traditional security issues like drug trafficking which has taken a toll aer e Cold war. Since
such non-traditional reats have e potential to devastate a nation politically, economically and socially.
In India specifically Nor-East region is most affected by drug trafficking and its aerma. Seven sisters
comprises of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura and Mizoram
which shares permeable borders wi Nepal, Burma, Bangladesh and China. Therefore, cross border
activities becomes an inevitable issue in is scenario [10].
*Asst Professor, Dept. of Forensics Science Jain University, Bangalore
**Director (ISSM) ,Raksha Shakti University, Ahmedabad
International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X
4140
India has been at e receiving end of state sponsored terrorism for a long while. There is not a single
doubt in e coalition of e Pakistan government and ISI to fund terrorism in India by trading small arms
and narcotics. Provoking e backward Muslims in e states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Assam,
Manipur and oer states to weaken e national integrity has always been an agenda of Pakistan. This
population of poor Muslims is mainly targeted by e ISI to be a part of e illicit drug market and fund
terrorism in India. The reasons behind is are following [11]:
(a) Terrorism needs profound finances to operate.
(b) Pakistan is economically weak to create pipeline for such funds.
(c) Area surrounding Golden Crescent produces large amount of opium.
(d) Pakistan government has been using drug traffickers in e border areas to fulfill eir foreign policy
goals in India [11].
Demonetization and Narco-terrorism
Black money which is also termed as unaccounted weal enters in e economy by illegal means like
drug trafficking, counterfeit currencies, weapon trading, etc [12]. Indian government's decision aiming to
curb finances in terrorism including drug trafficking and eliminating black money from e economy by
demonetization on November 8,2016 is an encouraged effort in controlling narcoterrorism [13]. Black
market dealing wi human trafficking, betting market, hawala trade and illicit drug trade has been
impacted by is move of e government [14].
Since, most of e transactions done in drug trafficking are in hard cash, demonetization had shown its
effect in many states of India. Many drug peddlers were caught wi huge amount of illicit drugs right aer
demonetization as ey did not had buyers due to cash crunch [15, 16].
Counter measures for tackling Narco-terrorism
Hard currency pumped due to e result of illicit drugs trade brings hollowness in e Indian economy.
Economic liberalization which relaxes control of government on financial institutions, gives abundant
opportunity to e neighbouring countries to misuse is aspect for black money [17].
An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Mode which estimates e effects of illicit drug business on terrorism
has been given in 1999 by Pesaran, Shin and Smi [18]:
Where;
TI = terrorism index
DP = price of drug j (cocaine or heroin) for country
D = difference operator
g and d = shortrun coefficients
b0,1 = long-run coefficients
e = error term
j = speed of adjustment to e long-run relationship.
Such statistical studies in context wi India should be carried out on a regular interval to ensure e extent
of narco-terrorism. In coming years e drug prices will be hiked in since ese funds will be utilized by
terrorist groups for funding attacks. Good policies should be rendered to endure minimal circulation of
ese illicit drugs. Awareness and training can never be looked rough in context wi any kind of
terrorism [19]. Creating awareness among e you is of utmost importance to handle e menace of
drug abuse.
Along wi is amendment in laws to ensure e availability of controlled substance as in Narcotic and
Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 is also mandatory. Recent amendments made in is existing Act in
2014 have eliminated state level conflicts. Easy availability of medicinal drugs has been ensured by
relaxing e rules of licenses [20]. Apart from is street drugs and designer drugs need to be reported to
include em in e list of e controlled substances. Data wiin e states of India and different countries
should be compared and analyzed time to time for better policies. One of such example was observed in
e sudden encounter of “Meow Meow” drugs of abuse which is chemically mephedrone in e cities of
Mumbai and Delhi [21, 22]. It was furer requested to include is list of drugs under NDPS 1985. Many
analogues of e psychotropic substances are not covered in e NDPS act 1985, resulting into difficulties
for criminal proceedings relating to substance of abuse. One of such analogue is 2,5- Dimeoxy-4-
chloroamphetamine, which is a psychedelic drug and listed as a controlled substance in many countries
but not in NDPS Act 1985 [23]. In fact e precursor chemicals of such drugs keeps getting changed, us,
a detailed data of all states in substance abuse should be maintained to ensure e updating of e
precursor list too [24] .
References
1. Fortna, V. P. (2015). Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes.
International Organization, 69(03), 519-556.
2. Longmire, S. M., & Longmire, J. P. (2008). Redefining terrorism: Why Mexican drug trafficking is more
an just organized crime. Journal of Strategic Security, 1(1), 35.
3. https://www.i.gov/news/testimony/international-drug-trafficking-and-terrorism
International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X
4342
India has been at e receiving end of state sponsored terrorism for a long while. There is not a single
doubt in e coalition of e Pakistan government and ISI to fund terrorism in India by trading small arms
and narcotics. Provoking e backward Muslims in e states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Assam,
Manipur and oer states to weaken e national integrity has always been an agenda of Pakistan. This
population of poor Muslims is mainly targeted by e ISI to be a part of e illicit drug market and fund
terrorism in India. The reasons behind is are following [11]:
(a) Terrorism needs profound finances to operate.
(b) Pakistan is economically weak to create pipeline for such funds.
(c) Area surrounding Golden Crescent produces large amount of opium.
(d) Pakistan government has been using drug traffickers in e border areas to fulfill eir foreign policy
goals in India [11].
Demonetization and Narco-terrorism
Black money which is also termed as unaccounted weal enters in e economy by illegal means like
drug trafficking, counterfeit currencies, weapon trading, etc [12]. Indian government's decision aiming to
curb finances in terrorism including drug trafficking and eliminating black money from e economy by
demonetization on November 8,2016 is an encouraged effort in controlling narcoterrorism [13]. Black
market dealing wi human trafficking, betting market, hawala trade and illicit drug trade has been
impacted by is move of e government [14].
Since, most of e transactions done in drug trafficking are in hard cash, demonetization had shown its
effect in many states of India. Many drug peddlers were caught wi huge amount of illicit drugs right aer
demonetization as ey did not had buyers due to cash crunch [15, 16].
Counter measures for tackling Narco-terrorism
Hard currency pumped due to e result of illicit drugs trade brings hollowness in e Indian economy.
Economic liberalization which relaxes control of government on financial institutions, gives abundant
opportunity to e neighbouring countries to misuse is aspect for black money [17].
An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Mode which estimates e effects of illicit drug business on terrorism
has been given in 1999 by Pesaran, Shin and Smi [18]:
Where;
TI = terrorism index
DP = price of drug j (cocaine or heroin) for country
D = difference operator
g and d = shortrun coefficients
b0,1 = long-run coefficients
e = error term
j = speed of adjustment to e long-run relationship.
Such statistical studies in context wi India should be carried out on a regular interval to ensure e extent
of narco-terrorism. In coming years e drug prices will be hiked in since ese funds will be utilized by
terrorist groups for funding attacks. Good policies should be rendered to endure minimal circulation of
ese illicit drugs. Awareness and training can never be looked rough in context wi any kind of
terrorism [19]. Creating awareness among e you is of utmost importance to handle e menace of
drug abuse.
Along wi is amendment in laws to ensure e availability of controlled substance as in Narcotic and
Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 is also mandatory. Recent amendments made in is existing Act in
2014 have eliminated state level conflicts. Easy availability of medicinal drugs has been ensured by
relaxing e rules of licenses [20]. Apart from is street drugs and designer drugs need to be reported to
include em in e list of e controlled substances. Data wiin e states of India and different countries
should be compared and analyzed time to time for better policies. One of such example was observed in
e sudden encounter of “Meow Meow” drugs of abuse which is chemically mephedrone in e cities of
Mumbai and Delhi [21, 22]. It was furer requested to include is list of drugs under NDPS 1985. Many
analogues of e psychotropic substances are not covered in e NDPS act 1985, resulting into difficulties
for criminal proceedings relating to substance of abuse. One of such analogue is 2,5- Dimeoxy-4-
chloroamphetamine, which is a psychedelic drug and listed as a controlled substance in many countries
but not in NDPS Act 1985 [23]. In fact e precursor chemicals of such drugs keeps getting changed, us,
a detailed data of all states in substance abuse should be maintained to ensure e updating of e
precursor list too [24] .
References
1. Fortna, V. P. (2015). Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes.
International Organization, 69(03), 519-556.
2. Longmire, S. M., & Longmire, J. P. (2008). Redefining terrorism: Why Mexican drug trafficking is more
an just organized crime. Journal of Strategic Security, 1(1), 35.
3. https://www.i.gov/news/testimony/international-drug-trafficking-and-terrorism
International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X
4342
4. Murillo, Mario A., 2004. Colombia and e United States: War, Unrest, and Destabilization. Seven
Stories Press, New York.
5. Banks, C. M., & Sokolowski, J. A. (2009). From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: Modeling e
evolution of Colombia’s counter-insurgency. Social science research, 38(1), 146-154.
6. Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). Funding Terrorism: sources and meods. In Workshop held at Los Alamos
National Laboratory March (Vol. 25, No. 29, p. 391).
7. Wardlaw, G. (1987). Linkages between e illegal drugs traffic and terrorism. Australian Institute of
Criminology.
8. Mutsche, R. (2000). The reat posed from e convergence of organized crime, drug trafficking, and
terrorism. Testimony of e Assistant Director, Criminal Intelligence Directorate International Criminal
Police Organization – Interpol, Counterterrorism Task Force, Centre for Strategic and International
Studies, Washington (DC). to e US House Committee on e Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime.
9. Cilluffo, F. (2000). The reat posed from e convergence of organized crime, drug trafficking, and
terrorism. Testimony of e Deputy Director, Global Organized Crime Program, Director,
Counterterrorism Task Force, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington (DC). to e
US House Committee on e Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime.
10. Singh, N. K., & Nunes, W. (2013). Drug Trafficking and Narco-terrorism as Security Threats: A Study
of India’s Nor-east. India Quarterly, 69(1), 65-82
11. Prabha, K. (2001). Narco-Terrorism and India's security. Strategic Analysis, 24(10), 1877-1893.
12. Gajjar, N. (2016). Black Money in India: Present Status and Future Challenges and Demonetization.
International Journal, 4(12).
13. Lahiri, A. K. (2016). Demonetization, e Cash Shortage and e Black Money (No. 16/184).
14. Demonetisation : Four positive side effects of PM Modi’s note ban. (2016 December). Retrieved
12:28, March 31, 2017, from https://www.vccircle.com/demonetisation-four-positive-side-effects-
pm-modi-s-note-ban/
15. India aer demonetisation. (2016, November 23). Retrieved 12:25, March 31, 2017, from
http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/demonetisation-effect-himachal-narcotics-trade-hit-
hard-peddlers-hunt-for-cash/story-ubaOKAz0iMHv2ysSQGrVsK.html
16. Demonetisation hits drug dealers. (2016 December 12). Retrieved 12:28, March 31, 2017, from
ht tp :// tim eso fin dia .in di at i mes .co m/ cit y/a hme da bad /de mon et iza tio n- hi t s-d rug -
dealers/articleshow/55882574.cms
17. Douglas I Keh (1996). Economic Reform and Criminal Financ. Transnational Organised Crime, 2(1),
66-80.
18. Pesaran, H., Y. Shin, and R. Smi. 1999. Pooled Mean Group Estimation of Dynamic Heterogeneous
Panels. Journal of e American Statistical Association 94: 621–634.
19. Meierrieks, D., & Schneider, F. (2016). The short-and long-run relationship between e illicit drug
business and terrorism. Applied Economics Letters, 23(18), 1274-1277.
20. Amendment of NDPS Act 2014, (2014, February 21). Retrieved 12:40, May 7, 2017, from
http://palliumindia.org/cms/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/FAQs-Amendment-of-NDPS-2014.pdf
21. Cheap alternative to cocaine, psychoactive drug Meow Meow takes Delhi by storm, (2016, August
3). Retrieved 12:45, May 8, 2017, from http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/delhi-drugs-
psychoactive-drugs-meow-meow-narcotics-mephedrone/1/730709.html
22. M-cat finally banned under narcotic act, (2015, February 22). Retrieved 01:10, May 8, 2017, from
http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-m-cat-finally-banned-under-narcotic-act-2063021
23. 2,5-Dimeoxy-4-chloroamphetamine. (2016, December 29). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 01:30, May 8, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,5-Dimeoxy-4-
chloroamphetamine&oldid=757242543
24. Precursor control in India. Retrieved 01:45, May 8, 2017, from http://narcoticsindia.nic.in/policy-
strategy.php?id=2
International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X International Research Journal On Police Science, Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2017 ISSN: 2454–597X
4544
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Colombia and e United States: War, Unrest, and Destabilization
  • Mario A Murillo
Murillo, Mario A., 2004. Colombia and e United States: War, Unrest, and Destabilization. Seven Stories Press, New York.