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"Living in a digitized world – Qualitative study on the importance of media literacy in different countries", 9th International Conference of the Comparative Education Society of India, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (MSU), 16.12.2018 (accepted paper)

  • Pädagogische Hochschule Weingarten


The lecutre describes a qualitative study that focus on the competences needed to live in digitized world. lecture:
Hello I am Jörg Stratmann from the university of education Weingarten in
Germany and today I want to talk about a qualitative study that focus on the
competences needed to live in digitized world.
The lecture at first shows to what extent digital media plays a role in
today's world.
In addition, the effects on our private and professional life are
exemplarily represented.
This section leads to the presentation of four ubiquitous drivers of
current technological development.
The next section deals with conceptualizations of the concept of media
competence, which is a prerequisite for a self-determined, mature life in
a world permeated by digital media.
A look will be taken at the skills that individuals need nowadays in a
digital world permeated by media from a disciplinary and a political
Based on the above, a qualitative study of its own is described.
The study looks at measures taken in various countries to develop media
competence in school education.
In a short outlook, the lecture concludes how the results can be
constructively integrated into social discourse.
Nowadays, children and young people grow up in a world permeated by
digital media.
In the most areas of modern society business, politics, science
processes and structures are greatly inflected by digitisation or are
beginning to open up to the potentials of digitisation.
The representative studies KIM and JIM published in Germany by the
Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverbund Südwest clearly show that
both the households in which children and adolescents grow up and the
children and adolescents themselves today are equipped with diverse
digital media.
With that the attitudes of teachers towards media play an important role
in daily teaching as they affect how and to what extent media is used in
Teach ers f rom G erma ny a re st ill mo re sk eptical a bout the u se of digi tal
media in teaching than their international colleagues.
Furthermore, when taking stock of the results of studies on the subject of
educational preservation, there are still views in which, for example,
media-supported communication is seen as competing with direct
Moreover, this critical attitude towards digital media is also virulent
among students pursuing teaching certification -the future teachers.
Digitisation is massively changing our daily lives.
In the following, I will take a look at the effects of digitisation on both
our professional and private lives.
The catchword ‘Industry 4.0’ is currently on everyone's lips and a good
example of the increasing integration of digitisation into production
The raw materials required in the production process 'communicate' with
the machines processing them, so that the production process is
optimized, warehousing is reduced and raw materials are made available
In addition, intelligent algorithms enable the machines used to
automatically detect when malfunctions are occurring or when a
machine failure is imminent. This development leads to increased
demands on the people who work in such environments.
This raises the specific question of how people can be prepared for these
(future) challenges?
It should also be asked what effects this will have on people with low
qualifications in the labor market.
According to the current Federal Education Report 2018, 6% of pupils
left school even without a lower secondary school leaving certificate and
21% with a lower secondary school leaving certificate.
This means that almost 30% of school leavers fall into this group of low-
skilled workers.
In the private sector, digitisation is currently moving into our homes,
cars and personal items such as watches.
In order to exploit the full potential of a smart home, extensive data
collection and networking of as many devices as possible are necessary
so that they can be operated via the Internet.
This raises the question of data security -do we soon need anti virus
software for our homes and cars?
There is a great deal of interest on the part of industry in such movement
and usage data.
In 2014, for example, Google acquired Nest Labs, a manufacturer of
thermostats and smoke detectors, for 3.2 billion US dollars.
What impact can we expect on our daily lives if, even in the most
intimate areas, digital technologies and sensors that detect their
environment are introduced?
Such an intimate area is undoubtedly one's own person, who can be
completely measured with the help of Smart Watches and their self-
tracking in the form of quantitative data.
Many apps that rely on self-tracking use elements of games to
encourage people to use them in a playful way.
With such self-measurement, self-optimization takes place without any
deeper meaning.
From Selke's point of view, this leads in the long term to all persons
aligning with each other, since they all optimize themselves according to
the same principles.
Gapski currently identifies four main drivers of the current media
technology context.
These are the advancing digitisation, the increasing networking of
devices, the equipping of various devices with sensors and the use of
As an interim conclusion, I would like to state:
We are fa cing in crease d dem ands in our priv ate an d professional
contexts -in terms of dealing with our own and other people's digital
information. In the future, we must be and remain capable of acting in
increasingly complex situations.
In the following, a look will be taken at the skills that individuals need
nowadays in a digital world permeated by media, and which have
already been mentioned.
The model by Baacke is the most quoted media competence model and
basis for a number of models for teaching media literacy.
Baacke conceptualized media literacy in four dimensions with
The most important dimension in this model is the media criticism.
Groeben conceptualized the term media literacy within a middle range.
The term has an intentional determination and an extensional openness.
In this way, specific explanations should succeed, on the other hand, the
concept should remain open and flexible to rapid change in the subject
Groeben describes seven dimensions within the concept
The main differences of this concept to the concept of Baacke are the
added dimensions of
Media-related consumption ability
And the importance of Follow-up communication to develop media
Knaus advocates an expansion of media criticism in times of
From his point of view, a basic understanding for informatics processes
is a fundamental prerequisite in this day and age.
Only if users have a basic technical knowledge they are in a position to
evaluate digital data -news vs. fake news -and processes -how certain
data is evaluated on the basis of which algorithms -or to participate in
discourses on such data.
Beat Döbeli Honegger takes up this perspective from the point of view
of a change of leading media and systematizes it in his book "More than
0 and 1".
He concludes that it is necessary to teach application skills, media
education and basic informatics skills, which he believes should all be
taught at school.
The political perspective looks at decisions made within the political
Our analysis is based on the following assumptions:
the political system takes note of considerations from the scientific
system and reflects them against its own background.
The notions of media literacy that prevail in the political system are thus
determinant for the media literacy that the next generation will build.
The decisions within the political system are therefore central to what
concrete measures are taken at school to build media literacy among
This chapter describes the structure of the empirical investigation.
The international comparative analysis examines which measures are
taken in different countries to develop media literacy in a school
The entire project is located in the Media Competence Center of the
University of Education in Weingart en.
The Center was founded in 2018 and is part of the Institute for
Educational Consulting.
The data collection takes place within different contexts. The following
are currently involved or planned as survey contexts:
Survey in the trinational M.A. course ‘Global Medial’: Students
from China (Hangzhou), Germany (Weingarten) and Japan
(Hiroshima) take part in this event. In terms of content, the students
deal with the topics of global learning and media competence. In
the course, students reflect on their media habits against their own
cultural backgrounds and work out differences and similarities. The
students also have a look at political papers in which the measures
for the development of media competence in school contexts are
described. An advantage of this course is that documents can also
be discussed in the course that are only available in the respective
national language and would otherwise not be accessible to persons
who do not speak this language
Survey in the M.A. course "Media Competence in Cultural
Contexts": Students of the teaching profession and students of the
M.A. Intercultural Education take part in this event. After
developing a basic understanding of media competence, the
students select a country with which they would like to deal with in
more detail. The course focuses on the research and analysis of
official (usually) English documents that describe the measures
taken to develop media competence in the school context.
In addition, data is collected and analyzed as part of qualification
B.A. work "Perceptions of Media Competence in Persons
with escape background".
in the context of a doctorate which compares the measures
for the development of media literacy in the Egyptian
education system with the German one.
In the following, the framework activities of the study are described,
which take place within the M.A. course "Media Competence in Cultural
The procedure is roughly divided into the following steps and is based on
Mayrings considerations on qualitative content analysis
In the first step, the students and the lecturer of the course deal with
various conceptualizations of the concept of media competence, which are
virulent within the (German-speaking) media pedagogical discourse.
Classics of the discourse like Baacke and Groeben as well as current
publications like Knaus and Honegger on this concept will be considered.
While the members of the event deal with further perspectives on the
concept of media competence, the analysis grid is developed iteratively -
in the sense of a participative procedure.
In a discursive process, the members of the event agree on a model with
which to continue working.
In the third step, the students select a specific country with which they
want to deal more intensively.
From now on, they will collect official documents that contain statements
about what is meant by media literacy in the country within the political
In the fourth phase, the documents found are structured using the analysis
grid developed in step two.
The statements on media literacy found within the documents from the
different countries are assigned to the different categories of the analysis
In this way, it becomes clear whether similar notions of media literacy are
virulent in the different countries.
At the same time it becomes clear whether the political discourse on
media literacy within the individual countries can be brought into line
with the scientific discourse.
In this case, all areas of the analysis grid would be covered or whether the
political discourse only focuses on certain areas of the scientific discourse
or sees completely different areas that do not play a role in the scientific
In the last step, it is examined whether the previous analysis grid can be
further developed inductively.
The study provides an insight into how different education systems deal
with the challenges of digitisation. Does media competence play a role in
school education within the participating countries?
What is the focus of media literacy in the individual countries?
The results thus enable a social discourse on how to deal with the
challenges of digitisation.
On the other hand, recommendations for the further development of
school media literacy training within the participating countries can be
derived on the basis of these recommendations.
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