Conference Paper

A Controlled Natural Language to Support Intent-based Blockchain Selection

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Abstract

In the last years, cryptocurrencies have becomeincreasingly popular along with their underlying distributedledger technology, referred to as a Blockchain (BC). Nowadays,a wide variety of BC implementations are available. However,the selection of a suitable implementation for a particularapplication or use case is complex because it requires technicalunderstanding of the underlying BC implementation aspects.Therefore, this paper proposes a Controlled Natural Language(CNL) to extends existing BC selection solutions to abstractunderlying implementation details. The approach allows thespecification abstract high-level policies, referred to as intents, inan English-based language. The approach is inspired by previousapproaches from the network management field. Moreover, astate machine-based refinement technique is proposed to refinethese intents into low-level BC selection policies. The resultsof the performance evaluation of the prototype implementationshow that the refinement process presents a minimal overhead.In addition, the perceived intuitiveness of the CNL by userswas assessed in a survey. The results of the survey suggest thattechnical and non-technical individuals benefit from an intent-based approach equally

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... Semantic graph is a network with labeled edges and nodes used to represent semantic relationships between concepts [89]. These are very useful to maintain the knowledge bases required to process an intent and can be used either independently [2,3,5,25,40,51] or in association with other methods, i.e., ML [79]. ...
... The intent processing solutions generated in high-level languages need an intermediate processing unit (some kind of compiler or interpreter) to make them acceptable by RMSO for service deployment. JSON [18,42,50,79], YAML [11,15,42,104], Yet Another Next Generation (YANG) [92], Nile [36], Multi Resource Markup Language (MRML) [62], RDF graphs [16,34,46,55], Uni ed Modeling Language (UML) models [66], P4 [41,74,75] and proprietary con guration languages [2,78,90,96] are the high-level languages to represent output of an intent handler. ...
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Traditionally, network and system administrators are responsible for designing, configuring, and resolving the Internet service requests. Human-driven system configuration and management are proving unsatisfactory due to the recent interest in time-sensitive applications with stringent quality of service (QoS). Aiming to transition from the traditional human-driven to zero-touch service management in the field of networks and computing, intent-driven service management (IDSM) has been proposed as a response to stringent quality of service requirements. In IDSM, users express their service requirements in a declarative manner as intents. IDSM, with the help of closed control-loop operations, perform configurations and deployments, autonomously to meet service request requirements. The result is a faster deployment of Internet services and reduction in configuration errors caused by manual operations, which in turn reduces the service-level agreement (SLA) violations. In the early stages of development, IDSM systems require attention from industry as well as academia. In an attempt to fill the gaps in current research, we conducted a systematic literature review of SLA management in IDSM systems. As an outcome, we have identified four IDSM intent management activities and proposed a taxonomy for each activity. Analysis of all studies and future research directions, are presented in the conclusions.
... Similarly, intents are used in autonomic networking to reduce the need for technical knowledge by allowing users to input expectations regarding the network behavior as abstract, high-level policies. However, in the context of a BC selection, intents can be used to describe high-level requirements that a BC must satisfy to be selected for a given use-case [15]. For example, the "fast" requirement can be considered a user's intent requiring its transactions to be submitted as quickly as possible, even if it does not contain information on "which" BC and "how" the data should be stored. ...
Article
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As the number of blockchain (BC) platforms providing specific features increases, selecting a platform that fits all requirements needed for a specific case becomes a cumbersome task. For example, not only are BCs' technical details relevant, but also their intrinsic characteristics (e.g., cryptocurrency price) must be considered in selecting a BC for a given case. Hence, the management of data stored in multiple BCs and the selection process are not straightforward due to the myriad platforms and both technical and economic details (e.g., BC throughput and the underlying price fluctuation). This article defines a novel refinement flow (based on the policy continuum) of high-level BC selection policies to low-level BC transactions. Experiments with the BC selection framework developed applying policy-based management (PBM) in the BC context do show that such synergy simplifies data management in multiple BCs driven by user requirements (e.g., based on costs or performance policies). The performance analysis of the framework demonstrates the successful employment of PBM for BC selections with minimal overhead.
... In [5], it is defined an Open Software Defined Framework (OSDF) policy language used to provide a high level API in order to express network requirements by managers and network administrators. [16] uses a Controlled Natural Languages (CNL), which sets restrictions on inputs by the definition of grammar model. In this case, CLN was employed to control blockchain selection queries, as mapping requirements to a particular blockchain needs expertise and knowledge about the existing blockchain implementations. ...
... By relying on this scheme, the private key is protected against man-in-themiddle attacks and the creation of fake transactions that do not originate from the logger. Thus, allowing the secure integration of solutions enabling the selection of the most suitable BC [35] based on high-level user requirements as proposed in [38]. ...
... In [5], it is defined an Open Software Defined Framework (OSDF) policy language used to provide a high level API in order to express network requirements by managers and network administrators. [16] uses a Controlled Natural Languages (CNL), which sets restrictions on inputs by the definition of grammar model. In this case, CLN was employed to control blockchain selection queries, as mapping requirements to a particular blockchain needs expertise and knowledge about the existing blockchain implementations. ...
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The evolution towards Industry 4.0 is driving the need for innovative solutions in the area of network management, considering the complex, dynamic and heterogeneous nature of ICT supply chains. To this end, Intent-Based networking (IBN) which is already proven to evolve how network management is driven today, can be implemented as a solution to facilitate the management of large ICT supply chains. In this paper, we first present a comparison of the main architectural components of typical IBN systems and, then, we study the key engineering requirements when integrating IBN with ICT supply chain network systems while considering AI methods. We also propose a general architecture design that enables intent translation of ICT supply chain specifications into lower level policies, to finally show an example of how the access control is performed in a modeled ICT supply chain system.
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Intent-Based Networking - Concepts and Overview
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CoinMarketCap Market Capitalizations
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Intent Classification
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PleBeuS: a Policy-based Blockchain Selection Framework
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E. J. Scheid, D. Lacik, B. Rodrigues, and B. Stiller, "PleBeuS: a Policybased Blockchain Selection Framework," in IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2020), Budapest, Hungary, April 2020, pp. 1-9., Accepted. To be published.
An Intent-driven Management Framework
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Q. Sun, W. Liu, and K. Xie, "An Intent-driven Management Framework," Work in Progress, https://www.ietf.org/id/ draft-sun-nmrg-intent-framework-00.txt, Last visit December 10, 2019.
Intent Refinement Toolkit (IRTK)
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P. Widmer, E. J. Scheid, and B. Rodrigues, "Intent Refinement Toolkit (IRTK)," 2019, https://gitlab.ifi.uzh.ch/scheid/irtk-code, Last visit December 19, 2019.
Blockchain Usage Requirements
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P. Widmer, E. J. Scheid, B. Rodrigues, and B. Stiller, "Blockchain Usage Requirements," 2019, https://blockchain.csg.uzh.ch/ BlockchainUsageForm/, Last visit December 13, 2019.
RFC 7575: Autonomic Networking: Definitions and Design Goals
  • M H Behringer
  • M Pritikin
  • S Bjarnason
  • A Clemm
  • B E Carpenter
  • S Jiang