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Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat (Avena Sativa L.) World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science

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  • Woldia University

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The present study was conducted to assess seed rate (SR) and nitrogen rate (NR) effects on biomass yield and nutritional quality of oat (Avena sativa L.) at Sirinka, North Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia on July 2018. Levels of SR were 60, 80 and 100 kg/h and that of NL were 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha in the form of Urea (46% N). The experiment was conducted in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications giving a total of 27 plots, each measuring 2×1.4 m2. Growth and yield parameters were analyzed. Results showed that the interaction between seed rate and nitrogen rate had a significant (p<0.05) effect on almost all parameters measured except tiller number per plant (TNP). Green forage yield and dry matter yield increased with increasing level of seed rate and level of nitrogen. Generally, combination of 100 kg/ ha seed rate and 150 kg/ha nitrogen recorded higher forage yield. Thus, seed rate of 100 kg/ha and nitrogen fertilizer rate of 150 kg/ha Urea can be recommended for use by farmers in Sirinka area and other areas having similar agro-ecologies and soil type.
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Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on
Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat (Avena Sativa L.)
Received Date: January 01, 2020
Published Date: January 13, 2020
ISSN: 2641-6379 DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580
World Journal of
Agriculture and Soil Science
Research Article Copyright © All rights are reserved by Yidersal Erega
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
WJASS.MS.ID.000580.
Yidersal Erega1*, Fasil Nigusie1 and Getachew Animut2
1Department of Animal Production and Technology, Woldia University, Ethiopia
2Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency, Addis Ababa Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: Yidersal Erega, Department of Animal Production and Technology,
Woldia University, Woldia Ethiopia.
Abstract
The present study was conducted to assess seed rate (SR) and nitrogen rate (NR) effects on biomass yield and nutritional quality of oat (Avena
sativa L.) at Sirinka, North Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia on July 2018. Levels of SR were 60, 80 and 100 kg/h and that of NL were 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha
in the form of Urea (46% N). The experiment was conducted in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a Randomized Complete Block Design
(RCBD) with 3 replications giving a total of 27 plots, each measuring 2×1.4 m2. Growth and yield parameters were analyzed. Results showed that the

(TNP). Green forage yield and dry matter yield increased with increasing level of seed rate and level of nitrogen. Generally, combination of 100 kg/
ha seed rate and 150 kg/ha nitrogen recorded higher forage yield. Thus, seed rate of 100 kg/ha and nitrogen fertilizer rate of 150 kg/ha Urea can be
recommended for use by farmers in Sirinka area and other areas having similar agro-ecologies and soil type.
Keywords: Biomass yield; Nitrogen rate; Nutritive value; Oat; Seed rate
Introduction
Ethiopia is believed to have the largest livestock population
in Africa [1]. Livestock sector has been contributing considerable
portion to the economy of the country, and still promising to rally
round the economic development of the country [2]. It is eminent
that livestock products and by-products in the form of meat, milk,
honey, eggs, cheese, butter and provide the needed animal protein
that contribute to the improvement of the nutritional status of the
people, as well supporting and sustaining the livelihoods of an
estimated 80% of the rural population [1,2]. Livestock is an integral
part of the farming systems and source of many social and economic
values such as food, draught power, fuel, cash income, security
and investment in both the highlands and the lowlands/pastoral
farming systems [3,4]. The contribution of livestock to the national
economy is estimated to be 30% of the agricultural GDP and 19%
of the export earnings [2,3]. In spite of the immense contribution of
the livestock sector to the national economy, animal productivity is
extremely low mainly due to poor standard of feeding both in terms
of quality and quantity as the production performance of an animal

In most tropical countries, inadequate supply of feed is
the bottleneck to livestock production [2]. This is due to the
dependence of livestock on naturally available feed resources
and little development of forage crops for feeding animals [5].
Like in other tropical countries, in Ethiopia, most of the areas in
the highlands of the country are nowadays put under cultivation
of cash and food crops which resulted in keeping large number of
livestock on limited grazing areas leading to overgrazing and poor
productivity of livestock [4]. Though, expansion in the cultivation
of cereal crops increased the supply of crop residues for animal
feeding but, crop residues have low nutritive value and could not
support reasonable animal productivity [5]. Hence, shortage of
nutrients for livestock is increasingly becoming serious issue in
Ethiopia. One of the alternatives to improve livestock feeding,
and thereby enhance productivity of livestock is through the
cultivation of improved forages and offer them to animals during
critical periods in their production cycle and when other sources
of feeds are in short supply [2]. The use of cultivated forage
crops has received considerable attention for complementing the
World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Volume 4-Issue 1
Citation: Yidersal Erega, Fasil Nigusie, Getachew Animut. Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat
(Avena Sativa L.). World J Agri & Soil Sci. 4(1): 2019. WJASS.MS.ID.000580. DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580. Page 2 of 8
conventional feed resources especially in areas where feed shortage
is the main constraint for livestock productivity [2,5]. From the
forage crops, due to short life cycle, suitability in crop rotations and
better performance on marginal lands, oat (Avena sativa L.) is an
important species for integration into the existing farming system
[6]. Oats can be easily cultivated, develops rapidly, and yields high
amounts of dry matter and green forage of higher quality when
managed properly. Oats are forage crop grown at medium to high
altitudes (1600-3000m) on heavy soils (vertisols) where temperate

species owes its reputation to its versatility as it can be grown for
grain, hay, silage or direct grazing and is being used as feed for dairy
cattle, young stock, sheep and goats [7]. Moreover, it has superior
recovery after grazing and is highly useful for overcoming critical
  
permanent pastures are of poor quality [8].
With other factors, seed rate, and level of nitrogen fertilizer
are key factors, which contribute to the yield and quality of oat
[8]. These conditions vary greatly across the agro-ecological areas
[5]. Higher fodder yield with fertilizer application is due to their
favorable effects on plant water relations, light absorption, crop
density, plant height, leaf area and nutrient utilizations [9]. The
applications of nitrogen fertilizer improve the dry matter, biomass
yield and quality of forage [5]. Hence, there is a need to determine
an appropriate level of fertilizer application especially in soils

production both in terms of yield and quality. Therefore, to utilize
oat as a potential fodder crop in the study area, appropriate seeding
rate and level of nitrogen fertilization needs to be determined.
Such information appears to be lacking in the study area, and such

an area. Hence, this experiment was conducted with the following
objectives:
Objective
• To investigate the effect of seed rate and nitrogen rate
on growth and biomass yield of oat (Avena sativa L.) at
Sirinka, North Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods
Description of the study area
The study was conducted at Sirinka Agricultural Research
Center (SARC), which is located 508 km North of Addis Ababa, the
capital of Ethiopia (Figure 1). The site is located at an altitude of
1850 meters above sea level and at 110°451’0011” North latitude
and 390°361’3611” East longitude [10]. The rainfall pattern is
bimodal, with two-rainfall seasons, ‘belg’ (February/March -
April) and ‘Meher’ (July-September) with a mean annual rainfall of
950mm. The mean daily temperature range is of 16-21 °C [11]. The
 
The soil, organic carbon is 1.35%, total N was 0.07%, available P
13.7 mg kg-1 [1,12].
Figure 1: Location map of the study area.
Citation: Yidersal Erega, Fasil Nigusie, Getachew Animut. Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat
(Avena Sativa L.). World J Agri & Soil Sci. 4(1): 2019. WJASS.MS.ID.000580. DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580.
World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Volume 4-Issue 1
Page 3 of 8
Experimental materials
The materials used in this experiment was Lampton oat variety,
which was recommended by Sirinka Agricultural Research Center
as a suitable variety for North Eastern Amhara locality. Nitrogen
fertilizer was used as other experimental material in the form of
fertilizer grade Urea (46% nitrogen).
Experimental design, treatments and procedures
The study was a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in
a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The two factors
were seed rate with three levels (60, 80 and 100 kg/ha) and
nitrogen fertilization with three levels (50, 100 and 150 kg/ha)
(Table 1). The seed rate and nitrogen fertilization rates were the
recommendations set by Sirinka Agricultural Research Center for
the oat variety. The gross size of the experimental plot was 2m x
1.4m length and width respectively, accommodating 7 rows of oats
at a spacing of 20 cm between rows. Space of net sampling plot
size was 1.8m x 1m length and width respectively, in which the
two outer most rows and 0.1 m length at both ends considered as
border leaving. Five middle rows were used as sampling rows.
Table 1: Treatment combinations used in the experiment.
Treatments Seed Rate (kg/ha) Nitrogen Rate
(kg/ha)
Treatment
Combination
T1
S1
N1S1N1
T2 N2S1N2
T3 N3S1N3
T4
S2
N1S2N1
T5 N2S2N2
T6 N3S2N3
T7
S3
N1S3N1
T8 N2S3N2
T9 N3S3N3
S1= 60 kg/ha seed rate, S2= 80 kg/ha seed rate, S3= 100 kg/ha seed rate,
N1=50 kg/ha nitrogen, N2=100 kg/ha nitrogen, N3= 150 kg/ha nitrogen.
Land was prepared using tractor drawn cultivator once and
bullock twice. The smoothened land was laid out according to the
experimental plan. The oat was planted at middle of July 2018
cropping season with 20 cm between rows with three levels of seed
rate. The forage was supplied with three levels of nitrogen, in the

Half dose of the nitrogen was applied at the time of sowing in band
in small furrows opened manually adjacent to the seed line and
covered with soil to avoid the losses and the remaining 50 percent
nitrogen was applied at tillering stage. Full dose of NPS fertilizer
(121 kg/ha) was applied at sowing time for all of the plots as a

were carried out equally for all experimental units.
Data collection
Growth parameters
a. Plant height (cm): The height of ten main shoots from
sampling units were measured in cm and averaged. The
height measurement was taken from ground level to the
base of the fully opened youngest leaf before heading and
to the tip of panicle after heading.
b. Number of tillers (per m row length): Total number of
shoots (tillers) from demarcated one-meter row length
were counted and expressed as average shoot number
per meter row length.
c. Number of tillers per plant: Total number of shoots
(tillers) from demarcated ten sampling units were
counted and expressed as average tiller number per plant
from net plot area.
d. Fresh weight per tiller: The total fresh weight of
demarcated ten sampling units were divided by respective
tiller numbers to record fresh weight per tiller in grams.
Yield parameters
a. Biomass yield (t/ha): The green fodder from the net plot
area were harvested leaving 10 cm from the ground level
      
produce was weighed in kg from individual plots and was
converted and expressed as green forage yield (GFY) in
tons per hectare (t/ha).
b. Dry matter yield (t/ha): The dry matter yield (DMY)
was determined after dying the fresh samples in an oven
at 70 0C for 48 hours. The plot-wise green forage yield
was multiplied by respective dry matter percentage to get
dry weight in kg per plot and was expressed in t/ha.
Data analysis
The collected data was subjected to the analysis of variance
(ANOVA) using the SAS computer package version 9.1 [13]. Mean

The model for data analysis consists the effects of seeding rate,
nitrogen fertilization rate and their interaction. When interaction
       
otherwise main effect means were compared.
The statistical model used was: Yijk = + Si + Nj + Bk + SNij +
ijkl;
Where,
Yijk = measurable variable,
= overall mean,
Si = the ith seeding rate effect,
Nj= the jth nitrogen fertilization rate effect,
Bk = kth Block effect,
SNij = interaction of seed rate and nitrogen fertilization rate and
ijkl = random error term.
Results
Plant height and tiller number per plant
       
interaction of seed rate and nitrogen rate (Table 2). The application
World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Volume 4-Issue 1
Citation: Yidersal Erega, Fasil Nigusie, Getachew Animut. Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat
(Avena Sativa L.). World J Agri & Soil Sci. 4(1): 2019. WJASS.MS.ID.000580. DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580. Page 4 of 8
of 100 kg/ha seed rate with 150 kg/ha nitrogen and 80 kg/ha seed

height as compared to other combination of treatments. This was
followed by the treatment containing 80 kg/ha seed rate with
100 kg/ha nitrogen, and the lowest plant height was recoded for
60 kg/ha seed rate with 50 kg/ha nitrogen treatment. Although
       
rate on plant height, the trend of response to nitrogen fertilization
was consistent as each level of seed rate and vice versa. Plant height
was highest for 100 kg/ha seed rate followed by 80 kg/ha and was

effect of seed rates, nitrogen fertilization rate and their interaction
on number of tillers per plant (Table 2). Average number of tillers
per plant were 7.64, 5.95 and 5.87 for 80, 60 and 100 kg/ha seed
rates, respectively. The number of tillers per plant were 7.75, 5.95
and 5.75 for 150, 100 and 50 kg/ha, respectively.
Table 2: Growth and yield parameters of oat as aected by seed rate and dierent levels of nitrogen.
Treatments PH (cm) TNP TNM FWT (g) GFY (t/ha) DMY (t/ha)
Seed Rate (kg/ha)
60 (S1) 93.07c5.95 111.13b11.54 31.29c9.43
80 (S2) 112.20a7.64 116.56b12.09 44.49b9.07
100 (S3) 107.23b5.87 141.9a12.52 48.09a10.13
LSD 4.02 2.1 9 1.37 1.566 1.58
SL ** Ns ** Ns ** ns
Nitrogen Rate (kg/ha)
50 (N1) 77.47c5.75 121.57b10.81b30.48c6.71c
100 (N2) 106.21b5.95 116.01b12.07ab 39.16b9.21b
150 (N3) 128.82a7.75 132.13a13.26a54.21a12.71a
LSD 4.01 2.1 9 1.36 1.56 1.58
SL ** Ns ** ** ** **
Seed Rate x Nitrogen Rate
S1N171.96g4.2 101.26f9.73d21.40i6.70d
S1N290.96e6.4 110.10def 11.60bcd 26.76h10.03bc
S1N3116.26c7.26 122.03cde 13.30abc 45.70d11.56ab
S2N178.56fg 8.2 123.43cd 11.13cd 36.73f6.40d
S2N2124.76b6.13 106.00ef 11.06cd 41.30e7.83cd
S2N3133.26a8.6 120.33cde 14.06a55.43b12.96a
S3N181.86f4.86 140.00ab 11.56bcd 33.33g7.03d
S3N2102.90d5.33 131.93bc 13.56ab 49.43c9.76bc
S3N3136.93a7.4 154.03a12.43abc 61.50a13.60a
SL ** Ns ** * ** **
SEM 4.05 2.01 9.39 1.35 1.6 1.52
CV 3.89 30.99 7.62 11.21 3.89 15.99
MEAN 104.17 6.48 123.23 12.05 41.28 9.54
a-g Means with similar superscripts within a column and category are not signicantly dierent (P < 0.05); PH = plant height; TNP = tiller number per
plant; TNM = tiller number per meter row length; FWT = Fresh weight per tiller; GFY = green fodder yield; DMY = dry matter yield; ns = Not signicant;
LSD = Least signicant dierence; SEM = standard error of the mean; *signicant at P <0.05; **signicant at P<0.01; CV = coecient of variance.
Tillers number per meter row length
        

rate and nitrogen rate (Table 2). Interaction effect of seed rate and
        
with seed rate of 100 kg/ha seed rate with 150 kg/ha nitrogen
recorded higher tillers per meter row length. Number of tillers per
meter row length appears to increase with increase in seed rate.

  
seed rates, while values for the 60 and 80 kg/ha seed rates were
similar.
Fresh weight per tiller
The interaction effect of seed rate and nitrogen rate on fresh
        
maximum fresh weight per tiller was recorded in 80 kg/ha seed
rate and 150 kg/ha nitrogen rate, and in 100 kg/ha seed rate and
150 kg/ha nitrogen rate. The minimum fresh weight per tiller was
recorded in 60 kg/h seed rate and 50 kg/h nitrogen fertilizer. The
increase in fresh weight per tiller in the treatments was probably
Citation: Yidersal Erega, Fasil Nigusie, Getachew Animut. Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat
(Avena Sativa L.). World J Agri & Soil Sci. 4(1): 2019. WJASS.MS.ID.000580. DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580.
World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Volume 4-Issue 1
Page 5 of 8
due to higher number of leaves per plant, plant height and leaf area
per plant associated with the particular treatment combinations of

fresh weight per tiller and was 12.52, 12.09 and 11.54 g for 100, 80
and 60 kg/ha seed rate, respectively.
Green forage yield
The nitrogen × seed rate interaction for forage green yield was

highest level of seed rate and nitrogen resulted to the highest green
forage yield. This was followed by 80 kg/ha seed rate and 150 kg/
ha nitrogen rate. Conversely, the lowest value of green forage yield
was noted for 60 kg/ha seed rate and 50 kg/ha nitrogen rate. Green
forage yield of oat increased with increase in seed rate from 60
         
        
150 kg/ha.
Dry matter yield
 
levels of nitrogen and their interaction with seed rate but seed rate
 
treatment combination 100 kg ha-1 seed rate at 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen
        -1)
followed by 80 kg ha-1 seed rate at 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen (12.96 t
ha-1) which was statistically the same with the previous treatment
       
was recorded with 60 kg ha-1 seed rate at 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen (6.70
t ha-1) which were par with dry matter yields 6.40 t ha-1 and 7.83
t ha-1 recorded at treatment combinations S2N1 i.e. 80 kg ha-1 seed
rate at 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen and S2N2 i.e. 80 kg ha-1 seed rate at 100 kg
ha-1 nitrogen, respectively.
Discussion
Plant height
       
interaction of seed rate and nitrogen rate (Table 2). The application
of 100 kg/ha seed rate with 150 kg/ha nitrogen and 80 kg/ha seed

height as compared to other combination of treatments. This was
followed by the treatment containing 80 kg/ha seed rate with
100 kg/ha nitrogen, and the lowest plant height was recoded for
60 kg/ha seed rate with 50 kg/ha nitrogen treatment. Although
       
rate on plant height, the trend of response to nitrogen fertilization
was consistent as each level of seed rate and vice versa. Plant
height was highest for 100 kg/ha seed rate followed by 80 kg/ha
  
in plant height with seed rate may be due to the fact that dense
plants compete for light and nutrients that negatively impact the
growth rate. Similarly, Sadig et al. [14]; Dawit & Teklu [5] indicated
that plant height increased with increasing seeding rate. However,
the current result disagrees with the result of Ayub et al. [15] and
Iqbal et al. [16], who reports that plant height of fodder maize was

       
with increase in nitrogen rates (Table 2). Plant height was most
responsive to nitrogen application and each successive increase in

in line with the results of Zada et al. [17] and Iqbal et al. [16] who
reported that plant height increases with the increase in nitrogen
doses. Increase in plant height of oat with nitrogen application has
also been reported by Sharar et al. [18] and Ayub et al. [15].
Tiller number per plant
        
fertilization rate and their interaction on number of tillers per plant
(Table 2). Average number of tillers per plant were 7.64, 5.95 and
5.87 for 80, 60 and 100 kg/ha seed rates, respectively. The result
was in agreement with the work of Murtada [19] who reported

plant. The number of tillers per plant were 7.75, 5.95 and 5.75 for
150, 100 and 50 kg/ha, respectively. Plant population and number
of tillers is always a function of germination percentage. The non-

to the fact that nitrogen might have no effect on germination,
therefore plant density under different level of nitrogen can be
stable. Similarly, Murtada [19] and Johnston et al. [20] reported that
nitrogen rates did not affect number of tillers per plant of maize.
But the results of Iqbal et al. [16], who noted increase in nitrogen
rates increased the number of tillers per plant in oats disagrees

Number of tillers per meter row length
        

rate and nitrogen rate (Table 2). Interaction effect of seed rate and
        
with seed rate of 100 kg/ha seed rate with 150 kg/ha nitrogen
recorded higher tillers per meter row length. Number of tillers per
meter row length appears to increase with increase in seed rate. The
 

rates, while values for the 60 and 80 kg/ha seed rates were similar.
High tillers per meter row length with the highest seed rate may be
due to plant density produced at higher seed rate. The result was
          

a greater number of tillers per meter row length of oat than lower

the number of tillers per meter row length (Table 2). Nitrogen rate

meter row length than other nitrogen rates, while values for the
100 and 50 kg/ha nitrogen rates were similar (p>0.05). Similarly,
Jayanthi et al. [21], revealed that the application of organic and
inorganic nitrogen fertilizers recorded higher number of tillers per
meter row length in oat.
World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Volume 4-Issue 1
Citation: Yidersal Erega, Fasil Nigusie, Getachew Animut. Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat
(Avena Sativa L.). World J Agri & Soil Sci. 4(1): 2019. WJASS.MS.ID.000580. DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580. Page 6 of 8
Fresh weight per tiller
The interaction effect of seed rate and nitrogen rate on fresh
        
maximum fresh weight per tiller was recorded in 80 kg/ha seed
rate and 150 kg/ha nitrogen rate, and in 100 kg/ha seed rate and
150 kg/ha nitrogen rate. The minimum fresh weight per tiller was
recorded in 60 kg/h seed rate and 50 kg/h nitrogen fertilizer. The
increase in fresh weight per tiller in the treatments was probably
due to higher number of leaves per plant, plant height and leaf area
per plant associated with the particular treatment combinations of

fresh weight per tiller and was 12.52, 12.09 and 11.54 g for 100, 80
and 60 kg/ha seed rate, respectively. These results were in contrast
            

       
by the application of different levels of nitrogen fertilizers. Fresh
weight per tiller was higher for 150 kg/ha than 50 kg/ha nitrogen
rate, while the value for 100 kg/ha was similar with the other two
nitrogen rates. The trend in increased the fresh weight per tiller
with increasing nitrogen rate may be attributed to the fact that
nitrogen increase plant growth and consequently heavier tillers.
This result is in line with that reported by Gasim [23] and Johnston
et al. [20] who noted that increasing the level of nitrogen increased

due to nitrogen rate differences for fresh weight per tiller have
also been reported by Arif et al. [24] and Naeem et al. [25]. The
increase in fresh weight per tiller in the treatments was probably
due to higher number of leaves per plant, plant height and leaf area
per plant associated with the particular treatment combinations of
seed rate and nitrogen rate.
Green fodder yield
The nitrogen × seed rate interaction for forage fresh yield was

highest level of seed rate and nitrogen resulted to the highest fresh
forage yield. This was followed by 80 kg/ha seed rate and 150 kg/
ha nitrogen rate. Conversely, the lowest value of green forage yield
was noted for 60 kg/ha seed rate and 50 kg/ha nitrogen rate. Green
forage yield of oat increased with increase in seed rate from 60 to
           
rate resulted in high plant density. This result indicated a close
relationship between forage yield and seed rate or plant density.
Similar results on oat were reported by Yilmaz et al. [26], Iqbal et al.
[16] and Budakli et al. [27]. Green forage yield of oat also increased
        
150 kg/ha. Application of nitrogen fertilizer, therefore, provided
better nutrient to oat which resulted in higher fodder yield.
Increase in fodder production with the application of nitrogen may
be due to the better growth of plants as expressed in terms of plant
height, number of tillers, fresh and dry weight of fodder, which was
favorably affected by nitrogen fertilizer. Similarly, the increasing
trend of green forage yield of oat in response to increasing level
of nitrogen fertilizer was observed by many other workers [5,28].

reported by Thakuria & Gagoi [29] and Sheoran et al. [30]. But
Iqbal et al. [16] and Sadig et al. [14] noted that further increase in
nitrogen (158 kg/ha) showed a negative effect on fodder yield of
oat, but also increased economics of fertilizer. This might be due
to the fact that excessive fertilization caused lodging, which could
reduce biomass yield.
Dry matter yield
 
levels of nitrogen and their interaction with seed rate but seed rate
 
treatment combination 100 kg ha-1 seed rate at 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen
        -1)
followed by 80 kg ha-1 seed rate at 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen (12.96 t
ha-1) which was statistically the same with the previous treatment
       
was recorded with 60 kg ha-1 seed rate at 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen (6.70
t ha-1) which were par with dry matter yields 6.40 t ha-1 and 7.83
t ha-1 recorded at treatment combinations S2N1 i.e. 80 kg ha-1 seed
rate at 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen and S2N2 i.e. 80 kg ha-1 seed rate at 100
kg ha-1 nitrogen, respectively. Contrary to the current result, Iqbal
et al. [16] reported that dry matter yield of maize was affected

to differences in seeding rates used, since seed rates used by other
scholars had higher variation than the current study. Total dry

rate from 50 to 150 kg/ha. These fertilizers promote vigorous plant
growth and a larger leaf area that contribute to the dry matter yield
of the fodder oat. Iqbal et al. [16] and Dawit & Teklu [5] reported
the same result, DM yield of fodder oat increased with increasing
level of fertilizer [31].
Conclusion
From this result it can be concluded that:
• High seed rate had more plant population and
consequently increased tiller number per meter row
length and green fodder yield.
• Increased nitrogen rate increased number of leaves
and promotes good plant growth, which leads to higher
biomass production with improved forage quality
(protein).
• Increase in nitrogen fertilization with increase in seed
rate gives higher green forage yield and higher dry matter
yield.
Based on the above result the following recommendations were
forwarded.
• For better biomass yield with improved dry matter yield,
S3N3 i.e., 100 kg/ha seed rate at 150 kg/ha nitrogen can
be recommended for use by farmers in Sirinka area and
other areas having similar agro-ecologies and soil type.
Citation: Yidersal Erega, Fasil Nigusie, Getachew Animut. Effects of Seed Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Growth and Biomass Yield of Oat
(Avena Sativa L.). World J Agri & Soil Sci. 4(1): 2019. WJASS.MS.ID.000580. DOI: 10.33552/WJASS.2020.04.000580.
World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science Volume 4-Issue 1
Page 7 of 8
• Further assessment of the oats production for its
performance over years, across diverse agro-ecologies
and on-farm farmer managed plots is also vital to more

Acknowledgment
First and foremost, I would like to praise the Almighty God, for
he timely revealed Holly hands for guidance, wonderful goodness
and mercy upon me.
I want to express my sincere thanks to Woldia University
for giving me a chance for pursuing my MSc study and Ministry
of Higher Education and Technology Ethiopia for giving me a
sponsorship to cover my study expenses.
I sincerely convey my deep thanks to my major advisor Dr.
Fasil Nigusie and Co-advisor Dr. Getachew Animut for their
encouragement, guidance and support from proposal development
up to the write up of the Thesis.
I would like to express my special thanks to my parents and
friends who supported me morally in successful accomplishment
of this Thesis. I am also indebted to staffs of department of Animal
Production and Technology and College of Agriculture.
I would like to express my deepest respect to Ato Geberemariyam
Terefe, staff of Holeta Agricultural Research Center for his support
in the analysis of the feed samples.
Finally, I want to express my sincere thanks to Woldia University,
College of Agriculture and Sirinka Agricultural Research Center for
allowing me to use their internet and other facilities and the later
for allowing me to use forage and pasture site for my Thesis work.


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... Plant population and number of tillers is always a function of germination percentage. Number of tillers per plant of this research result was comparable to [17] who counted 7.64 on 80kg/ha seed rate. More seed yield was obtained from Wadera district (agro-pastoral area) than Adola Rede district (more agricultural area) in both ILRI 5453 and Jasari variety. ...
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