Abstract

ATTENTION ! Cet artilce n'est pas un artilce sur le cyclimse. Pour le détail, vous pouvez lire ce billet de blog : http://www.mimiryudo.com/blog/2020/08/le-meilleur-article-de-tous-les-temps/
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
*Corresponding author: E-mail: willardoodendijk@protonmail.com;
Asian Journal of Medicine and Health
18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
ISSN: 2456-8414
SARS-CoV-2 was Unexpectedly Deadlier than
Push-scooters: Could Hydroxychloroquine be the
Unique Solution?
Willard Oodendijk
1*
, Michaël Rochoy
2
, Valentin Ruggeri
3
, Florian Cova
4
,
Didier Lembrouille
5
, Sylvano Trottinetta
6
, Otter F. Hantome
7
,
Nemo Macron
8
and Manis Javanica
9
1
Belgian Institute of Technology and Education (BITE), Couillet, Belgium.
2
General Practitioner and Independent Seeker of Science, Ankh, Morpork, France.
3
Observatoire of Zététique, Grenoble, France.
4
Institute for Quick and Dirty Science, Neuneuchâtel, Switzerland.
5
Département de Médecine Nucléaire Compliante de la SFR, île de Guyane, France.
6
Collectif Laissons les Vendeurs de Trottinette Prescrire, France.
7
University of Melon, Melon, France.
8
Palais de l’Élysée, Paris, France.
9
Institute of Chiropteran Studies, East Timor.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration among all authors. Author WO launched idea on Twitter,
added some sentences, submitted the paper, corresponded with the kind publisher. Author MR
launched MP group on Twitter and Google Docs, performed study 1, added some sentences here and
there, responded to reviewers. Author VR needed SIGAPS points, did the minimum. Found a beautiful
picture for figure 3. Author FC wrote a lot of sentences but didn't need too many SIGAPS points, so
fourth place was not as bad. Also, performed Study 3 in his head (philosophers are good at thought-
experiments). Author DL was on holidays and added his name at the last time. Author ST wrote
nothing but provided the push-scooters and did the outside job. Author ÖFH did nothing but is a very
good friend of us; he helped us get some administrative paperwork. Author NM said "waouf" when the
authors started to doubt (doubts are common in science, don't let them win you over, believe in
yourself and what you do, don't let anyone distract you from the truth you know). Author MJ wrote
sentences and said that the last place will be "enough for him". He does it every time, and it works
pretty well on interns, we have to admit. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/AJMAH/2020/v18i930232
Editor(s):
(1)
Dr. Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza, University of Celaya, Mexico.
(2)
Dr. Janvier Gasana, International University, USA.
(3) Dr. Ashish Anand, GV Montgomery Veteran Affairs Medical Center, USA.
Reviewers:
(1) S. Danish Kadir, University of Texas Rio Grande Velley, USA.
(2)
Maria del Carmen Marquett, Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri, Cuba.
(3)
Ahmed Abdullah Khalleefah, Tripoli University, Libya.
Complete Peer review History:
http://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/60013
Received 24 July 2020
Accepted 11 August 2020
Published 15 August 2020
Original Research Article
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
15
ABSTRACT
Background:
YouTube™ and Dropbox© studies have warned against the deadly potential of
push-scooters.
Aims: Through three studies, we evaluate the potential of a combination of hydroxychloroquine
and azithromycin for preventing push-scooter accidents.
Study Design: Studies 1 and 2 are retrospective observational studies in which we rely on archival
data to explore the relationship between push-scooters accidents (PSA) and usage of
hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (HCQ + AZT) in France in 2020 and 2019 respectively (7
participants). Study 3 is a partly randomized clinical trial (pRCT), retrospective, in which the use of
HCQ + AZT for preventing PSA was assessed in a radically “direct” way (6 participants).
Place and Duration of Study: Studies 1 and 2 were conducted in the authors’ office chair (Ikea) in
France (multicentric), on July 20th, 2020. Study 3 was conducted in the parking lot of an
abandoned factory (Montcuq, Occitan region, France).
Methodology: For Studies 1 and 2, we used data from OpenMEDIC to determine usage of
hydroxychloroquine in France in 2020 and Google Actuality to determine the rate of PSA in France
in 2020. For Study 3, we adopted an experimental approach and had participants exposed to HCQ
+ AZ (treatment group) or homeopathy (control group) before having them perform a standard
push-scooter exercise. Advanced statistical models were used to assess the prophylactic effect of
the HCQ + AZT combination on PSA.
Results: Wide use of hydroxychloroquine is strongly associated with a very low level of PSA, both
in time (2020 VS 2019) and in space (Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhônes versus the rest of France).
Moreover, the results of our retrospective pRCT prove without any doubt that prophylactic use of a
HCQ + AZT combination helped to prevent PSA.
Conclusion: The HCQ + AZT combo should urgently be used in prevention of PSA all around the
world.
Keywords: Hydroxychloroquine; azithromycin; zinc; soup; COVID-19; motion sickness; push-scooters.
ACRONYMS
HCQ : Hydroxychloroquine
AZT : Azithromycin
PSA : Push-scooters Accidents
1. INTRODUCTION
As the number of push-scooters has been rising
in France, so has the number of push-scooters
accidents. Some of these accidents have proven
to be deadly and previous YouTube™ and
Dropbox© studies have warned against the
deadly potential of push-scooters [1]. For a
comparison, only three Chinese people had died
from the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at the
end of 2019 [2]. It is therefore important to reflect
on the use of push-scooters through an accurate
and ethical cost-benefit analysis.
Use and promotion of push-scooters have been
advocated on the basis that they would
contribute to the reduction and slowing of global
warming. In fact, the French scientific elite has
been working on the subject and has recently
argued that there was no proof of global
warming, as he could not see the ice cap melt on
his computer [3]. So, even if global warming was
real, there are serious reasons to think that
France is not affected, as global warming clearly
stopped at the closed border [4]. Unfortunately,
the debate is being polluted by bots, trolls and
so-called experts funded by Big Trottinette to
spread misinformation. Indeed, an independent
study (in press on the third author’s Google
Drive®) found a positive correlation between
experts’ positive advocacy of push-scooters and
the amount of money they received from
Decathlon® (r = 3.14). The fact that push-
scooters is now a ‘generic’ means of locomotion
that can be produced by anyone for a cheap
price might lead people to the conclusion that no
private interest is involved, but we’re not fooled,
we know the truth [5]. So, it is important to
diminish the increasing number of push-scooter
drivers who are sacrificed on a daily basis.
In the present paper, we investigate an
unexpected way of mitigating the death toll of the
push-scooter craze: a combination of
hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (zinc can
be added to improve the flavor, but is only
necessary if the study fails to provide any
significant effect). We combine two observational
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
16
studies (Study 1) and one randomized clinical
trial (Study 3) to justify our hypothesis that HCQ
+ AZT is the key to all world’s problems (see
second author’s personal diary for an application
to the Israel-Palestine problem). Indeed,
association of hydroxychloroquine and
azithromycin was proposed in a brilliant paper to
treat the novel coronavirus disease (later named
COVID-19), with a spectacular effect [6]. It is
obvious that the use of an antibiotic in viral
infection could not cause antimicrobial resistance
(because of the absence of bacteria), so that’s
not a problem in our study; plus, these
treatments are old (first mentioned two
millenaries ago by Galen in De Remediis
Parabilibus, as an extract of Cinchona officinalis),
absolutely safe (some adverse effect are
possible - the Summaries of Product
Characteristics are as much a lie as the cake)
and inexpensive ($400 per ton [7]), so we need
to test them [8]. In 2019, hydroxychloroquine was
given for rheumatoid arthritis, lupus
erythematosus (discoid and subacute), systemic
lupus and lucites; since 2020, it was given since
March 2020, it's given because we have to let
doctors prescribe what they want, damn it! Given
the obvious similarities between COVID-19 and
push-scooters accidents (i.e. both can have
deadly outcomes in which the patient might even
die), it seemed natural to expand the use of HCQ
+ AZT to push-scooters accidents (henceforth:
PSA), even if no in-vitro study ever found an
effect of HCQ on PSA.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Study 1 – Relationship between the
Use of HCQ + AZT and Frequency of
PSA in France in 2020
Our objective was to evaluate the relationship
between PSA and usage of hydroxychloroquine
(HCQ) in France in 2020.
The computers and the Internet services were
provided by the authors or by private institutions
exclusively. The state of public research in
France is not really compatible with the purchase
of equipment quickly (except after justifying
needs with the help of twelve forms, a photocopy
of the rental lease of your student room from 18
to 25 years old and your car registration, in 3
copies). We used data from OpenMEDIC
(https://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/datasets/open-medic-
base-complete-sur-les-depenses-de-
medicaments-interregimes/) to determine usage
of hydroxychloroquine in France in 2020. We
used Google Actuality to determine the rate of
PSA in French press in 2020 (query equation:
“accidents de trottinette”). We have not classified
the accidents by type, date or anything else,
essentially by laziness.
2.2 Study 2 – Use of HCQ + AZT and PSA
before 2020
Study 2 was excluded from analysis and from
this paper, as it did not provide informative
results (i.e. the results we wanted).
2.3 Study 3 Use of HCQ + AZT in
Prophylaxis against PSA
In Study 3, we tested the efficiency of our
protocol in the prevention of PSA: HCQ + AZT
(or spiramycin or nothing) +/ Zinc (or
Magnesium or a teaspoon of Benco (C or R in a
circle, or maybe TM) +/− Vitamin D (or
Selenium). We have sometimes added apples,
as their therapeutic effectiveness is popularly
recognized [9]. This study was supported by the
“Laissons les Vendeurs de Trottinette Prescrire”
Collectif, the National Assembly and the
Independent Push-Scooter Salesmen's Pension
Fund.
2.3.1 Participants
Two groups of volunteers (friends and relatives
of the authors) were constituted. Push-scooters
were invented in 1960; some researchers says
1930, but it wasn't born at that time, so it doesn't
know. So, all participants with age > 60 (born
before 1960) were placed in the control group
(M
age
= 75.09, SD
age
= 5.21). Apart from that, the
assignment to either condition was random -- we
swear it on the La vérité sur la maladie de
Lyme” book.
In a pre-test phase, we asked each participant in
the treatment group to roll 500m in a straight line
on a push-scooter. Participants who fell or died
during the pre-test were reallocated to our control
group (two falls, one death). Thus, we were left
with six volunteers in our treatment group (M
age
=
13.13, SD
age
= 1.11).
2.3.2 Justification for sample size and
analysis plan
Following the methodological rule according to
which the smaller the sample, the higher the
statistical significance [9], we decided to stop
recruitment as soon as a significant effect at 84%
was detected.
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
17
2.3.3 Method
Participants in both groups were asked to go
down a 45° slope with a steep brick wall at the
end on a push-scooter. They were instructed to
go as fast as possible and brake at the last
moment before hitting the brick wall. To reinforce
ecological validity, sounds of cars and insults
from other push-scooter drivers were
broadcasted from the experimenters’ phones
(sounds were recorded in Paris prior to
lockdown) [10]. Due to limited resources and
fundings, only two push-scooters (one very old,
one brand new) were available. The old, rusty
push-scooter was randomly attributed to
participants in the control group. It should be
noted that the brand new push-scooter was in
zinc, which might have contributed to potentialize
the HCQ + AZ combination.
This study was retrospective, which is why we
did not need an opinion from the ethics
committee.
3. RESULTS
3.1 Study 1 – Relationship between the
Use of HCQ + AZT and Frequency of
PSA in France in 2020
On Google Actuality (page 1), we noted 1 PSA
on 20th July (Val d’Oise), 1 on 20th October
2019 (Bordeaux), 2 on 2th and 22th september
2019 (Reims and Levallois-Perret), 1 on 26th
april 2020 (Nord-sur-Edre), 1 on 2th december
2019 (Nancy) and 1 on 20th january 2020
(Villefranche-sur-Saône).
As our results didn’t find PSA in March 2020, we
concluded that hydroxychloroquine was an
effective preventive therapy for PSA with a RR =
0 (p<0.0001).
We only consulted page 1 of Google Actuality:
following the methodological rule according to
which the smaller the sample, the higher the
significance [11], we decided to stop
recruitment as soon as we found a significant
effect.
In order to increase sensibility and specificity, we
decided to run additional, exploratory analyses
and searched another figure in Google Images
about PSA (query equation: “accidents de
trottinette”) and found this one, which seems in
favor of our initial idea about the subject, so we
performed a graph extraction procedure
using Windows’ “Ctrl-C Ctrl-V” command [9] (Fig.
2).
As suggested by our reviewer, we could
highlighted that due to the home confinement
suggested by the WHO for the Covid 19
contingency, a decrease in the circulation of
push-scooters can be inferred at the time of 2020
compared to that of 2019, which may be a factor
to take into account to say that there is a
decrease in accidents.
Adherence of azithromycin was not studied.
3.2 Study 3 Use of HCQ + AZT in
Prophylaxis against PSA
In the treatment group, only 1 of the six
participants died during the experiment (though
there were a total of three non-deadly accidents).
However, death was suspicious as it intervened
before participants went down the slope, at the
moment he received instructions from the
experimenter. According to the coroner, he might
have died from a heart problem caused by the
treatment. However, as he was very young, we
ruled this out as improbable, because
hydroxychloroquine is a really safe medication
[12]. So, we decided not to count him as a death
and rather excluded him from analysis; we
counted him as having voluntarily decided to
discontinue the treatment.
In the control group, two participants out of four
died from an accident (a whopping 50%, the two
other participants survived without accident).
After several attempts, we were able to find a
test that returned a significant effect – paired
one-tailed Student t-test: t(3) = 1.73, p< .10. This
suggests that HCQ + AZT was effective and had
a stupefying effect in preventing push-scooters
accidents. However, because a bunch of
petainists methodologists refused to consider our
result as significant because it did not reach their
completely arbitrary significance threshold, we
decided to perform further analyses. Indeed,
these are not the international standards, but
they are the new standards in France. We
realized that oxygen saturation might be a good
clinical indicator of mortality (after all, dead
people typically do not breathe) – maybe even
better than death itself. We thus went back to our
participants to measure their oxygen saturation
levels (after taking down their surgical mask, to
avoid confounds). We did not receive official
authorization to dig up the corpses of dead
participants; we did try to dig them up anyway,
but the cemetery keeper could no longer find the
register of graves, and unfortunately we did not
ha
ve the necessary material for several blind
desecrations. So, we decided to just assume that
their transcutaneous oxygen saturation levels
were 0%. This analysis returned a “significant”
effect – chi-square test: χ
square
= 4.5,
4. DISCUSSION
Given the alarmist comments of some people
who have not looked at the level of the ice pack
Fig. 1. Number of boxes of hydroxychloroquine reimbursed in the country of Voltaire and
Molière (non-
exhaustive list of the French elite) in 2019 and 2020
Fig. 2. PSA in France (deaths plus injuries). Note the
Rhône, where hydroxychloroquine was always widely used for malaria control (Courtesy of
Google Images).Translation by authors due to editorial exigencies
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020
; Article no.
18
participants; we did try to dig them up anyway,
but the cemetery keeper could no longer find the
register of graves, and unfortunately we did not
ve the necessary material for several blind
desecrations. So, we decided to just assume that
their transcutaneous oxygen saturation levels
were 0%. This analysis returned a significant”
= 4.5,
p < .04.
Given the alarmist comments of some people
who have not looked at the level of the ice pack
on Google Earth by themselves, there is a risk
that they will continue to abandon real means of
transport and continue to use push
we can certainly ex
pect an increase of the
number of push-
scooter users, of deaths and
injuries [7].
Iodized salt (table salt mixed with iodine) is a
well-
known preventive method against iodine
deficiency (major cause of thyroid affections and
intellectual and developmental disabilities) [13],
and we suggest that hydroxychloroquine could in
the same way b
e added to table salt in order to
Fig. 1. Number of boxes of hydroxychloroquine reimbursed in the country of Voltaire and
exhaustive list of the French elite) in 2019 and 2020
Fig. 2. PSA in France (deaths plus injuries). Note the low level of accidents in Bouches
Rhône, where hydroxychloroquine was always widely used for malaria control (Courtesy of
Google Images).Translation by authors due to editorial exigencies
; Article no.
AJMAH.60013
on Google Earth by themselves, there is a risk
that they will continue to abandon real means of
transport and continue to use push
-scooters. So,
pect an increase of the
scooter users, of deaths and
Iodized salt (table salt mixed with iodine) is a
known preventive method against iodine
deficiency (major cause of thyroid affections and
intellectual and developmental disabilities) [13],
and we suggest that hydroxychloroquine could in
e added to table salt in order to
Fig. 1. Number of boxes of hydroxychloroquine reimbursed in the country of Voltaire and
low level of accidents in Bouches
-du-
Rhône, where hydroxychloroquine was always widely used for malaria control (Courtesy of
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
19
Fig. 3. H type sacral fracture in a 40-years-old female after a push-scooter accident, during
COVID-19 pandemia, in Vigneulles-lès-Hattonchâtel, Meuse, France (PET/CT acquisition two
days after the trauma). HCQ + AZT was unfortunately not used in this patient, due to location
(not Marseille)
prevent both COVID-19 and push-scooter
accidents. The pathophysiology of the protective
effect of hydroxychloroquine remains to be
clarified, but the urgency seems first to prescribe
widely. That will save millions of lifes in the world
according to our study and other studies [14]. We
received the President of the Republic to discuss
the results in preview and he was thrilled;
following our interview, in his Churchillian
televised speech, he insisted that all avenues for
preventing scooter accidents be explored.
5. CONCLUSION
In our study, hydroxychloroquine was associated
with lower odds of push-scooters accidents. It is
urgent to prescribe hydroxychloroquine for all
push-scooters users.
Can we publish anything right now? I think that
the question, it is quickly answered, and peer-
review has never been a scientific method
anyway [15].
Further research is needed, especially
randomized controlled trials as it was performed
for parachutes in aircraft injuries [16]. Obviously,
a preprint of an observational study combined
with an underpowered CRT will be enough to
provide guidelines until that.
Hydroxychloroquine is a cheap, devilishly
effective molecule with a higher level of safety
than many other drugs. We need to use it more,
everywhere, all the time, all around the world.
Because hydroxychloroquine is the hero the
world deserves, but not the one it needs right
now. So the detractors will hunt it. Because
hydroxychloroquine can take it. Because it’s not
our hero. It’s a silent guardian, a watchful
protector. A dark knight.
Otherwise, the adjunction of zinc [17], ivermectin
[18] or any other drug [19] to the association
HCQ + AZT should be considered. As the great
French scientist Jean-Claude Dusse once said:
"you never know, on a misunderstanding, it might
work" [20].
DISCLAIMER
The products used for this research are
commonly and predominantly use products in our
area of research and country. There is absolutely
no conflict of interest between the authors and
producers of the products because we do not
intend to use these products as an avenue for
any litigation but for the advancement of
knowledge. Also, the research was not funded by
the producing company rather it was funded by
personal efforts of the authors.
CONSENT
It is not applicable.
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
20
ETHICAL APPROVAL
The authors want to mention that the ethics
committee that gave retrospective approval for
this study was independant; the authors and their
colleagues usually participate, but in accordance
with the Helsinki rules, they did not take part in
the processing of the present submission.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Hervé de Maisonneuve for his fight against
predatory magazines and his daily struggle for
good French science. That's probably the only
serious sentence in all this (not counting this one,
we don’t want to risk a paradox).
Violaine Guérin, Martine Wonner and their team,
who paid 55 bucks to be published here, thereby
allowing us to discover new scientific journals,
and to have a lot of fun.
Joachim Son-Forget, Member of Parliament, who
taught us that linear regression starts from 3
points; we soon hope to push the limits and
reach the purity of linear regression at 1 point.
Idriss Aberkane for his disruptive contribution to
world epistemology.
Obviously, Didier Raoult, with or without whom
we would be nothing.
COMPETING
INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
REFERENCES
1. Raoult D. Coronavirus: fewer deaths than
from push-scooter accidents. International
IHU Channel of YouTube; 2020.
Available:https://www.mediterranee-
infection.com/coronavirus-moins-de-morts-
que-par-accident-de-trottinette/
2. Raoult D. Coronavirus in China: should we
be concerned? International IHU Channel
of YouTube; 2020.
Available on:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoBory
HuZ6E
3. Raoult D. This whole thing's gonna end up
like contaminated blood. International J of
L’Obs; 2020.
Available:https://www.nouvelobs.com/coro
navirus-de-
wuhan/20200430.OBS28205/didier-raoult-
toute-cette-histoire-va-finir-comme-le-
sang-contamine.html
4. Bègue L, Bushman BJ, Zerhouni O, Subra
B, Ourabah M. 'Beauty is in the eye of the
beer holder': people who think they are
drunk also think they are attractive. Br J
Psychol. 2013;104(2):225-34.
5. Mitchell MA, Wartinger DD. Validation of a
Functional Pyelocalyceal Renal Model for
the Evaluation of Renal Calculi Passage
While Riding a Roller Coaster. J Am
Osteopath Assoc. 2016;116(10):647-52.
6. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al.
Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a
treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-
label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J
Antimicrob Agents. 2020:105949.
7. Rochoy M, Lembrouille D, Trottinetta S,
Hantome ÖF, Oodendijk W, Macron N,
Ruggeri V, Javanica M, Cova F. Picsou
doit-il être intégré dans le canon Disney ?
Picsou Mag. 2019;7(11):12-12.
8. Sigaps Max. I love the smell of
hydroxychloroquine in the morning. Inter J
of Secret Agents. 1979;4(8):1516-2342
9. Roberts TL. Text editors. Handbook of
human-computer interaction. 1988;655-
672.
10. Zaresakhvidi MJ, Zaresakhvidi F,
Mehrparvar AH, Foraster M, Dadvand P.
Association between noise exposure and
diabetes: A systematic review and meta-
analysis. Environ Res. 2018;166:647-657.
11. Raoult D. Trust me, I’m the elite and I
know the rules of statistics to make your
life easier. Useless Commission of
National Assembly; 2020.
Available:https://www.liberation.fr/checkne
ws/2020/06/28/plus-l-echantillon-d-un-
essai-clinique-est-faible-plus-c-est-
significatif-que-veut-dire-didier-
raoul_1792554
12. Guérin V. et al. Retrospective study in 88
subjects with 3 different therapeutic
approaches. International Dropbox of the
Authors;2020.
13. Available:https://www.lequotidiendumedeci
n.fr/cdn/ff/0M-
fxVP3K4HEwlQRjWQ3eEiqAiOm7vC4Sf2
Wllf3lGA/1588579686/public/2020-
05/COVID_19_RAPPORT_ETUDE_RETR
OSPECTIVE_CLINIQUE_ET_THERAPEU
TIQUE_200430[72626].pdf
14. Gallus S, Bosetti C, Negri E, et al. Does
pizza protect against cancer? Int J Cancer.
2003;107(2):283-4.
Oodendijk et al.; AJMAH, 18(9): 14-21, 2020; Article no.AJMAH.60013
21
15. Guérin V, Lévy P, Thomas JL, Lardenois
T, Lacrosse P, Sarrazin E, Andreis NR-de,
Wonner M. Azithromycin and
Hydroxychloroquine Accelerate Recovery
of Outpatients with Mild/Moderate COVID-
19. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health.
2020;18(7):45-55.
16. Aberkane I. Raoult est encore un héros.
Interregional Journal of Noopolitics; 2020.
Available:https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=s4lF9ExiR8s
17. Parachute use to prevent death and major
trauma when jumping from aircraft:
randomized controlled trial. BMJ.
2018;363:k5343.
18. Shittu MO, Afolami OI. Improving the
efficacy of Chloroquine and
Hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2
may require Zinc additives - A better
synergy for future COVID-19 clinical trials.
Infez Med. 2020;28(2):192-197.
19. Cova F, Javanica M, Oodendijk W, Rochoy
M, Macron N, Ruggeri V, Lembrouille D,
Trottinetta S, Hantome ÖF. An apple a day
keeps the doctor away. Pommed’Api.
1985;2(22):225-32.
20. Rizzo E. Ivermectin, antiviral properties
and COVID-19: a possible new mechanism
of action. NaunynSchmiedebergs Arch
Pharmacol. 2020;393(7):1153-1156.
_________________________________________________________________________________
© 2020 Oodendijk et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Peer-review history:
The peer review history for this paper can be accessed here:
http://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/60013
... Letters, commentaries and opinion papers were excluded unless they reported a description of the methods and results of empirical research. We also excluded a retracted fake paper on Covid-19 that had been written specifically to test the rigor of a suspected predatory journal's peer review and editorial practices [53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Retraction of published research can reduce the dissemination of incorrect or misleading information, but concerns have been raised about the clarity and rigor of the retraction process. Failure to clearly and consistently retract research has several risks, for example discredited or erroneous research may inform health research studies (e.g. clinical trials), policies and practices, potentially rendering these unreliable. Objective To investigate consistency and clarity of research retraction, based on a case study of retracted Covid-19 research. Study design A cross-sectional study of retracted Covid-19 articles reporting empirical research findings, based on searches of Medline, Embase and Scopus on 10 th July and 19 th December 2020. Key results We included 46 retracted Covid-19 articles. The number eligible for inclusion nearly doubled, from 26 to 46, in five months. Most articles (67%) were retracted from scientific journals and the remainder from preprint servers. Key findings: (1) reasons for retraction were not reported in 33% (15/46) of cases; (2) time from publication to retraction could not be determined in 43% (20/46) of cases; (3) More than half (59%) of retracted Covid-19 articles (27/46) remained available as original unmarked electronic documents after retraction (33% as full text and 26% as an abstract only). Sources of articles post-retraction were preprint servers, ResearchGate and, less commonly, websites including PubMed Central and the World Health Organization. A retracted journal article which controversially claimed a link between 5G technology and Covid-19 remains available in its original full text from at least 60 different websites. Conclusions The retraction process is inconsistent and often ambiguous, with more than half of retracted Covid-19 research articles remaining available, unmarked, from a wide range of online sources. There is an urgent need to improve guidance on the retraction process and to extend this to cover preprint servers. We provide structured recommendations to address these concerns and to reduce the risks that arise when retracted research is inappropriately cited.
... In reaction to this publication, we decided to publish our own article in the Asian Journal of Medicine and Health [10]. Our aim was to publish a ''scientific'' paper that was absurd enough for non-specialists to identify it as a hoax. ...
... JEAN-PIERRE RAFFARIN, alors premier ministre, devant l'Assemblée nationale 3 juillet 2002 Me réclamant du sens de l'humour farfelu mais espiègle dont font preuve certains chercheurs (Oodendijk et al., 2020), je sors cette citation de son contexte pour en faire un épigraphe cocasse, tout en sautant sur l'occasion pour y projeter mes propres idées, mes propres mots. Bien des auteurs avant moi ont su mettre en lumière les particularités du travail de recherche et tous les petits détails qui le distinguent des autres formes de travail que l'on rencontre dans le milieu professionnel. ...
Thesis
Chez l'humain, la perte de fonctions motrices causée par l'absence d'une partie du bras affecte l'autonomie et la capacité à réaliser des tâches du quotidien. Pour rétablir certaines des fonctions perdues, la personne handicapée peut utiliser une prothèse qui remplace la partie absente du bras. Aujourd'hui, les prothèses les plus avancées mesurent l'activité des muscles du moignon pour commander leurs articulations. Cependant, plus le handicap est important, plus nombreuses sont les fonctions motrices à restaurer mais moins nombreux sont les muscles à partir desquels recueillir ces mesures. En vue de surmonter cet obstacle, cette thèse explore comment l'emploi de coordinations motrices, c'est-à-dire de régularités dans les rotations des différentes articulations, peut contribuer au pilotage d'une prothèse de bras. À cette fin, deux plateformes expérimentales intervenant comme substituts à une véritable prothèse sont élaborées~: un bras robotique anthropomorphe à taille humaine, et un bras simulé dans un dispositif de réalité virtuelle. Une première expérience met des participants valides aux commandes de ce bras robotique, piloté de façon à ce que son extrémité reproduise les déplacements de la main du participant. Dans une tâche d'atteinte de cible, elle compare la qualité du pilotage selon que le robot adopte des postures plutôt bio-mimétiques ou biologiquement invraisemblables, pour atteindre avec son extrémité le but défini par le participant. Cette expérience montre que la familiarisation au pilotage du robot est meilleure lorsque ses coordinations articulaires sont proches de celles d'un bras humain. Dans une seconde expérience, des participants valides pilotent un bras virtuel dont l'épaule imite les mouvements de leur propre bras, tandis que ses articulations distales (coude et au-delà) sont commandées artificiellement. Dans une tâche de prise et pose d'objet, elle compare la qualité du pilotage selon que ces articulations distales sont commandées uniquement à partir des rotations de l'épaule réelle, ou en intégrant également des informations contextuelles relatives à la cible à atteindre. Cette expérience révèle que l'inclusion d'informations contextuelles améliore notablement la qualité du pilotage. Dans leur ensemble, ces résultats montrent que les coordinations motrices naturelles sont une source d'informations pertinentes pour le pilotage d'une prothèse de bras et peuvent être employées en combinaison avec d'autres signaux de commande pour enrichir ses capacités motrices. En termes d'applications, ils fournissent des pistes pour la conception de techniques de pilotage exploitant les coordinations motrices naturelles pour piloter plusieurs articulations simultanément.
Article
‘Infodemia’ is a portmanteau between ‘information’ and ‘epidemics’, referring to wide and rapid accumulation and dissemination of information, misinformation, and disinformation about a given subject, such as a disease. As facts, rumors and fears mix and disperse, the misinfodemic creates loud background noise, preventing the general public from discerning between accurate and false information. We compared and contrasted key elements of the AIDS and COVID-19 misinfodemics, to identify common features, and, based on experience with the AIDS pandemic, recommend actions to control and reverse the SARS-CoV-2 misinfodemic that contributed to erode the trust between the public and scientists and governments and has created barriers to control of COVID-19. As pandemics emerge and evolve, providing robust responses to future misinfodemics must be a priority for society and public health.
Article
Full-text available
The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COV-ID-19), has now been officially declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. As of now, there is no known effective pharmaceutical agent against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, several precautionary measures have been prescribed to prevent further spread of the virus, which include avoidance of social gatherings, proper handwashing, frequently disinfecting of used items and surfaces and so on. More recent studies have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, of which mechanism of action is not completely understood. We seek to draw the attention of the scientific community to the possibility of drastically reducing the effects of the virus on the affected patients and improving clinical trials outcome through the synergistic action of zinc and chloroquine in patients suffering from the coronavirus disease.
Article
Full-text available
This research examines the role of alcohol consumption on self-perceived attractiveness. Study 1, carried out in a barroom (N= 19), showed that the more alcoholic drinks customers consumed, the more attractive they thought they were. In Study 2, 94 non-student participants in a bogus taste-test study were given either an alcoholic beverage (target BAL [blood alcohol level]= 0.10 g/100 ml) or a non-alcoholic beverage, with half of each group believing they had consumed alcohol and half believing they had not (balanced placebo design). After consuming beverages, they delivered a speech and rated how attractive, bright, original, and funny they thought they were. The speeches were videotaped and rated by 22 independent judges. Results showed that participants who thought they had consumed alcohol gave themselves more positive self-evaluations. However, ratings from independent judges showed that this boost in self-evaluation was unrelated to actual performance. (Note : An erratum to this study was proposed to the British Journal of Psychology in october 2018. It is still unpublished, and we don't know if it will be published some day. Basically, the results are unchanged, but the errors deserve to be mentioned. For exemple, a zero is missing regarding BAC levels (BAC = 0.34% should be replaced by BAC = 0.034%). A document is available on this page to get the full necessary corrections)
Article
Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug that has shown also an effective pharmacological activity towards various infective agents, including viruses. This paper proposes an alternative mechanism of action for this drug that makes it capable of having an antiviral action, also against the novel coronavirus, in addition to the processes already reported in literature.
Article
Background Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. Patients and methods French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. Untreated patients from another center and cases refusing the protocol were included as negative controls. Presence and absence of virus at Day6-post inclusion was considered the end point. Results Six patients were asymptomatic, 22 had upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and eight had lower respiratory tract infection symptoms. Twenty cases were treated in this study and showed a significant reduction of the viral carriage at D6-post inclusion compared to controls, and much lower average carrying duration than reported of untreated patients in the literature. Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. Conclusion Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
Article
Background: The prevalence of diabetes is on rise worldwide and environmental factors are being increasingly recognized to be involved in this rise. An emerging body of evidence has evaluated the impact of long-term exposure to noise on diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need to synthesize this evidence. Objectives: To systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of the available evidence on the association between long-term exposure to transport and occupational noise exposure and diabetes mellitus. Methods: Selected databases were searched for available evidence published till September 13th, 2017 following MOOSE guidelines. The quality of articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis was applied to abstract combined estimates for diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure. We evaluated the heterogeneity applying Cochran's Q test and quantified it using I2 statistic. Meta-regressions were conducted to identify sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot and Egger's test. Results: Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria of which nine including five prospective cohorts, two cross-sectional and two case-control studies with a total number of 444460 adult participants and 17430 diabetes mellitus cases included in meta-analyses. We observed a 6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3%, 9%) increase in the risk of diabetes mellitus per 5 dB increase in noise exposure regardless of its source. Source-specific analyses were suggestive for stronger associations for air traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29 per 5 dB increase in exposure) flowed by road traffic noise (combined odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12). We observed some indications of publication bias; however the findings were robust after trim and fill test. Meta-regression analyses showed that the adjustment in general, and not specifically related to air pollution, could predict the between-study heterogeneity in reported associations. Conclusions: The results indicate an increased risk of diabetes mellitus associated with noise exposure, mainly related to air and road traffic.
Article
Context: The identification and evaluation of activities capable of dislodging calyceal renal calculi require a patient surrogate or validated functional pyelocalyceal renal model. Objective: To evaluate roller coaster facilitation of calyceal renal calculi passage using a functional pyelocalyceal renal model. Methods: A previously described adult ureteroscopy and renoscopy simulator (Ideal Anatomic) was modified and remolded to function as a patient surrogate. Three renal calculi of different sizes from the patient who provided the original computed tomographic urograph on which the simulator was based were used. The renal calculi were suspended in urine in the model and taken for 20 rides on the Big Thunder Mountain Railroad roller coaster at Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida. The roller coaster rides were analyzed using variables of renal calculi volume, calyceal location, model position on the roller coaster, and renal calculi passage. Results: Sixty renal calculi rides were analyzed. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, front seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 4 of 24. Independent of renal calculi volume and calyceal location, rear seating on the roller coaster resulted in a passage rate of 23 of 36. Independent of renal calculi volume in rear seating, calyceal location differed in passage rates, with an upper calyceal calculi passage rate of 100%; a middle calyceal passage rate of 55.6%; and a lower calyceal passage rate of 40.0%. Conclusion: The functional pyelocalyceal renal model serves as a functional patient surrogate to evaluate activities that facilitate calyceal renal calculi passage. The rear seating position on the roller coaster led to the most renal calculi passages.
Article
We analyzed the potential role of pizza on cancer risk, using data from an integrated network of case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2000. Cancer sites were: oral cavity and pharynx (598 cases), esophagus (304 cases), larynx (460 cases), colon (1,225 cases) and rectum (728 cases). Controls were 4,999 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic conditions to the same hospital network as cases. Odds ratios for regular pizza consumers were 0.66 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.47-0.93) for oral and pharyngeal cancer, 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25-0.69) for oesophageal, 0.82 (95% CI = 0.56-1.19) for laryngeal, 0.74 (95% CI = 0.61-0.89) for colon and 0.93 (95% CI = 0.75-1.17) for rectal cancer. Pizza appears therefore to be a favorable indicator of risk for digestive tract neoplasms in this population.
Coronavirus: fewer deaths than from push-scooter accidents. International IHU Channel of YouTube
  • D Raoult
Raoult D. Coronavirus: fewer deaths than from push-scooter accidents. International IHU Channel of YouTube; 2020. Available:https://www.mediterraneeinfection.com/coronavirus-moins-de-mortsque-par-accident-de-trottinette/
Raoult D. This whole thing's gonna end up like contaminated blood. International J of L'Obs
  • D Raoult
Raoult D. Coronavirus in China: should we be concerned? International IHU Channel of YouTube; 2020. Available on: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoBory HuZ6E 3. Raoult D. This whole thing's gonna end up like contaminated blood. International J of L'Obs; 2020. Available:https://www.nouvelobs.com/coro navirus-dewuhan/20200430.OBS28205/didier-raoulttoute-cette-histoire-va-finir-comme-lesang-contamine.html