Chapter

Recasting Park Chung Hee’s Authoritarianism: Myths, Reality and Legacies

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Chapter 3 demystifies the Park Chung Hee model of economic development that has been held up as an ideal developmental state model to achieve high economic growth with equity. Many have praised Park Chung Hee for his wise and timely choice of optimal developmental strategy based on a state-led export platform. However, the so-called “Korean miracle” was in fact, I argue here, not miraculously achieved. Rather, it came about because of a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Even though Park deserves credit for generating endogenous development by timely choosing the optimal developmental strategy, the miraculous development in Korea was also due to many exogenous factors such as Japanese colonial legacies, benevolent American hegemony, the successful land reform and Confucianism, which emphasizes human capital.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Book
Full-text available
This study addresses a core issue of comparative political economy - the role of political institutions in economic performance. What difference have modern states made to the development of the market economy? Under what conditions and for what purposes have states sought to assist the process of industrial advancement? The book examines why modern states differ so considerably in their capacity for governing the market. They also examine the nature of state "strength", and its importance for a prosperous economy changed over time. Through a comparative history of political and economic development, this volume examines changing state-economy relations from the rise of market economies in Europe to the present, focusing on Britain, Russia, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and the United States. It provides arguments and explanations of the rise of modern states and markets, of early and late industrialization, of state capacity and national competitiveness. Through case studies and comparisons, the authors develop a neo-statist theory to explain the changing economic fortunes of political systems, from the rise of Europe to the gradual decline of Anglo-American industry and the recent ascendance of East Asia.
Article
In this paper, I investigate why a bureaucratic-authoritarian (hereafter BA) regime emerged in South Korea during the early 1970s. The regime transition was the outcome of conflict among key political actors who were constrained, although not in a deterministic way, by the change in the Korean economic structure. It can be understood as the outcome of strategic choices made by key political actors among alternatives that satisfied structural constraints.
Article
This article is a case study of South Korean democratic consolidation in the ‘three Kims’ era that ended in 2002. The article evaluates the achievements and failures with regard to democratic consolidation. In a negative sense the ‘three Kims’ made great progress toward consolidation, such as reinstituting a firm civilian control over the military, institutionalizing electoral competitions and a peaceful transfer of government. However, with regard to the more positive terms of democratic consolidation, the record is a dismal failure. The ‘three Kims’ handed over some unfavourable legacies, including divisive regionalism, an underdeveloped party system, an imperial but weak and ineffective presidency and political corruption. Korean democracy at the end of the ‘three Kims’ era was at best faltering on the verge of consolidation. Thus although Korea has been classified as a liberal democracy, by Freedom House, it retained many of the elements of ‘defective democracy’
Article
In recent years, debate on the state's economic role has too often devolved into diatribes against intervention. Peter Evans questions such simplistic views, offering a new vision of why state involvement works in some cases and produces disasters in others. To illustrate, he looks at how state agencies, local entrepreneurs, and transnational corporations shaped the emergence of computer industries in Brazil, India, and Korea during the seventies and eighties. Evans starts with the idea that states vary in the way they are organized and tied to society. In some nations, like Zaire, the state is predatory, ruthlessly extracting and providing nothing of value in return. In others, like Korea, it is developmental, promoting industrial transformation. In still others, like Brazil and India, it is in between, sometimes helping, sometimes hindering. Evans's years of comparative research on the successes and failures of state involvement in the process of industrialization have here been crafted into a persuasive and entertaining work, which demonstrates that successful state action requires an understanding of its own limits, a realistic relationship to the global economy, and the combination of coherent internal organization and close links to society that Evans called "embedded autonomy."
Book
Between 1974 and 1990 more than thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government. This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend in the late twentieth century. In The Third Wave,Samuel P. Huntington analyzes the causes and nature of these democratic transitions, evaluates the prospects for stability of the new democracies, and explores the possibility of more countries becoming democratic. The recent transitions, he argues, are the third major wave of democratization in the modem world. Each of the two previous waves was followed by a reverse wave in which some countries shifted back to authoritarian government. Using concrete examples, empirical evidence, and insightful analysis, Huntington provides neither a theory nor a history of the third wave, but an explanation of why and how it occurred. Factors responsible for the democratic trend include the legitimacy dilemmas of authoritarian regimes; economic and social development; the changed role of the Catholic Church; the impact of the United States, the European Community, and the Soviet Union; and the "snowballing" phenomenon: change in one country stimulating change in others. Five key elite groups within and outside the nondemocratic regime played roles in shaping the various ways democratization occurred. Compromise was key to all democratizations, and elections and nonviolent tactics also were central. New democracies must deal with the "torturer problem" and the "praetorian problem" and attempt to develop democratic values and processes. Disillusionment with democracy, Huntington argues, is necessary to consolidating democracy. He concludes the book with an analysis of the political, economic, and cultural factors that will decide whether or not the third wave continues. Several "Guidelines for Democratizers" offer specific, practical suggestions for initiating and carrying out reform. Huntington's emphasis on practical application makes this book a valuable tool for anyone engaged in the democratization process. At this volatile time in history, Huntington's assessment of the processes of democratization is indispensable to understanding the future of democracy in the world.
Book
The main thesis of this study is that the world economy is undergoing a profound structural change that is forcing companies to reorganize their production on a global scale. This is being brought about both through the relocation of production to new industrial sites, increasingly in the developing countries, and through the accelerated rationalisation measures at the traditional sites of industrial manufacture. The authors have designated this structural movement as ‘the new international division of labour’, and argue that it has led to the crisis that can be observed in industrial countries, as well as to the first steps towards export-oriented manufacturing in the developing countries. They see these trends as being largely independent of the policies pursued by individual governments and the strategies for expansion adopted by individual firms, and argue that the conditions currently prevailing in the capitalist world economy mean that the efforts of individual countries to devise economic policies to reduce industrial unemployment in the industrialised countries or to accentuate a balanced process of industrialisation in the developing countries are doomed to failure.
Article
The article provides a critical discussion of the literature on “patrimonialism” and “neopatrimonialism” as far as the use in Development Studies in general or African Studies in particular is concerned. To overcome the catch-all use of the concept the authors present their own definition of “neopatrimonialism” based on Max Weber’s concept of patrimonialism and legal-rational bureaucracy. However, in order to make the concept more useful for comparative empirical research, they argue, it needs a thorough operationalisation (qualitatively and quantitatively) and the creation of possible subtypes which, in combination, might contribute to a theory of neopatrimonial action.
The Political Determinants of Economic Flexibility, With Special Reference to the East Asian NICs
  • David Seldon
  • Tim Belton
  • D Seldon
Hankookchungchihakeui Saegusang [New Ideas for Korean Political Science
  • Ho Sohn
  • Cheol
Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective
  • M Bratton
  • N Van De Walle
An Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Spain
  • Juan J Linz
Virtualstan: An Agent-Based Modeling Strategy for the Comparative Dynamics of Authoritarian Regimes: Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
  • Ian S Lustick
  • Britt Cartrite