ArticlePDF Available

Information Interactive Design as a Discipline in the Professional Training of a Modern Graphic Designer

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The rapid progress of graphic design due to the integration of technology is transforming curricula. Changes take place through the development of disciplines that shape the new skills of the graphic designer in accordance with the needs of the labor market. In this article, based on the content analysis of the official websites of 4 universities of Ukraine and the study of the needs of the labor market in the field of graphic design, the state of use of approaches to teaching graphic design has been revealed. The basis of the study is “a wild theory of technologically facilitated behavioral change” of Rogers. The analysis confirms the hypothesis that approaches to learning are formed in response to the needs of the labor market; they transform curricula. Transformation takes place in the direction of the formation of technical skills, as a consequence of the integration of technologies, and creativity, as a consequence of the need to influence the consumer of the information message through the design product. It has been revealed that the specifics of the Ukrainian labor market determines the offer of educational services in the field of graphic design. The skills required by design product developers are formed in the process of training a graphic designer. It has been proved that the professional competences of a graphic designer meet the needs of the labor market; however, they lag behind new concepts, approaches to the requirements of product creation. The idea of Ukrainian graphic design as a discipline involves forming a competent professional with technical, creative skills for the development of business-oriented products in the field of graphic design. It has been revealed that a systematic and integrated approach is used in the process of training a graphic designer, which correspond to manipulative, ecological approaches as the main theories of creating a graphic product. It has been proved that the theory of “wild design” is not reflected in the modern practice of teaching disciplines within a framework of the specialization “graphic design”. This is due to the lack of understanding for the development of such disciplines that would provide the formation of skills in the process of creating a “wild product”.
Content may be subject to copyright.
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 387 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
Information Interactive Design as a Discipline in the Professional
Training of a Modern Graphic Designer
Iryna I. Tsidylo1, Volodymyr G. Cherniyavskyi2, Nataliia V. Barna3, Lesia V. Smyrna4 & Valentyna M.
Medvedyeva5
1Department of Fine Arts, Design and Methods of Their Teaching, Faculty of Arts, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk
National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
2Department of Theory, History of Architecture and Synthesis of Arts, Faculty of Architecture, National Academy of
Fine Arts and Architecture (NAOMA), Kyiv, Ukraine
3Open International University of Human Development "Ukraine", Kyiv, Ukraine
4International Scientific and Artistic Department, National Academy of Arts of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
5Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Kyiv, Ukraine
Correspondence: Iryna I. Tsidylo, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University, 2 Maxyma
Kryvonosa str., Ternopil, 46027, Ukraine.
Received: June 10, 2020 Accepted: August 3, 2020 Online Published: August 14, 2020
doi:10.5430/ijhe.v9n7p387 URL: https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v9n7p387
Abstract
The rapid progress of graphic design due to the integration of technology is transforming curricula. Changes take
place through the development of disciplines that shape the new skills of the graphic designer in accordance with the
needs of the labor market. In this article, based on the content analysis of the official websites of 4 universities of
Ukraine and the study of the needs of the labor market in the field of graphic design, the state of use of approaches to
teaching graphic design has been revealed. The basis of the study is a wild theory of technologically facilitated
behavioral change” of Rogers. The analysis confirms the hypothesis that approaches to learning are formed in
response to the needs of the labor market; they transform curricula. Transformation takes place in the direction of the
formation of technical skills, as a consequence of the integration of technologies, and creativity, as a consequence of
the need to influence the consumer of the information message through the design product. It has been revealed that
the specifics of the Ukrainian labor market determines the offer of educational services in the field of graphic design.
The skills required by design product developers are formed in the process of training a graphic designer. It has been
proved that the professional competences of a graphic designer meet the needs of the labor market; however, they lag
behind new concepts, approaches to the requirements of product creation. The idea of Ukrainian graphic design as a
discipline involves forming a competent professional with technical, creative skills for the development of
business-oriented products in the field of graphic design. It has been revealed that a systematic and integrated approach
is used in the process of training a graphic designer, which correspond to manipulative, ecological approaches as the
main theories of creating a graphic product. It has been proved that the theory of wild design is not reflected in the
modern practice of teaching disciplines within a framework of the specialization graphic design. This is due to the
lack of understanding for the development of such disciplines that would provide the formation of skills in the process
of creating a wild product.
Keywords: visual communication, interdisciplinary information design, screen graphic design
1. Introduction
Design as a global, universal creative phenomenon is qualitatively divided by scientists into categories. The artistic
achievements of design, achieved throughout the history of mankind, are seen by scientists in one holistic historical
and cultural phenomenon. Scientists have concluded that the design is constantly changing. Design as creativity is
manifested in object-spatial three-dimensional thinking. Considering the essence of design as a method of creative
thinking, researchers point to the universalism of this discipline (Stankevich, 2012).
The rapid advances of graphic design, the acceleration of its measurements of multimedia and interactivity require
appropriate changes in curricula and disciplines. The field of graphic and communicative design needs to be
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 388 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
transformed according to dynamic external changes, in particular the integration of digital technologies in design. It
is necessary to understand modern professional tendencies, educational practices and labor market needs in the field
of graphic design for the expediency of reforming educational practice (Steinberger, Foth & Alt, 2014).
Today, access to information has become quite simple thanks to the development of science and technology. As a
result of rapid developments in the field of communication technologies, information is becoming more intensive,
which facilitates its achievement. The need for information design, the purpose of which is to provide information
systematically, is important to save people from the chaos caused by this information intensity, by accurately and
quickly transmitting current information to the target recipient. It is a fact that there is a need for information design
that everyone can understand nowadays (Аybay, 2017).
The outlined requires research, the object of which is the current state of approaches to the educational process in the
field of design at the regional level. This academic paper is aimed at studying the problems of compliance education
and market needs, the latest trends in design. The latest trends in design relate to the study of changes in the factors
that determine the need to adjust approaches to the educational process: globalization, digital technologies, the
growing role of the market economy of education. The outlined factors are both opportunities for the transformation
of educational disciplines of graphic design and the practice of providing educational services of formal and informal
nature. Studying the regional features of the transformation of approaches to teaching graphic design will provide an
understanding of the impact of regional specifics on the educational process.
The purpose of the academic paper centers around studying the state of use of modern approaches to teaching
graphic design in terms of the impact of digital technologies and labor market needs on the educational process.
According to the purpose outlined, the objectives of this study are defined, namely:
1. To study the regional specifics of the labor market in the field of graphic design and compliance of educational
services with market needs.
2. To carry out a regional analysis of curricula, disciplines specializing in Graphic Design and identify their
compliance with modern concepts and approaches to design.
3. To consider the evolution of recommendations in teaching graphic design in the context of the transformation of
professional trends and competences.
4. To consider the general issues of design and education in the field of graphic design, which have a significant
impact on the curricula in the field of design education (Triggs, 2011).
2. Literature Review
Visualizer (designer) the one who translates “blind” texts into visual language. Abstract thinking acquires
concreteness and clarity. Nowadays, the most important task of a graphic designer is to make ideas and problems
visible and to some extent audible so that they become clear to the consumer in the shortest possible time. Objectivity,
intelligibility, universality of visual language allow to transfer information more compactly and to accelerate process
of its perception. This process is called visual communication (Vergunov, 2006). Technology provides tools for art,
serves the visual design and artistic idea (Rodkin, 2003).
In addition to talent, skills and inspiration, a modern designer can not do without an understanding of basic research
methods and approaches, as well as the principles of their application. In order for the efforts you put into working on
the project to be appropriate and work for the result, at each stage you need to collect information, correctly interpret it
and take it into account. Leonardo and Ambrose (2019) offer an overview of the types and formats of research that will
be useful in design practice, allowing you to delve into the context, study the preferences and expectations of the client
and audience, and finally choose the appropriate way to convey the designer's ideas (Bart, 1989). Creative thinking is a
skill that can be developed, scientists offer theories and strategies that will promote design creativity (Leonardo
Ambrose, 2019).
The task of a graphic designer is to show the essence of a product or idea, to prepare a background on which it is easier
to demonstrate its benefits, to effectively present and disseminate information. In these processes, the style becomes a
certain code of tolerance, a signal that it is a message for a specific audience (Geller Quast, 2019).
Given the purpose of information, the purpose of effective communication and an interdisciplinary approach, it is clear
that information design has the same understanding and character as the design of visual communication. The
importance of graphic design and the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation are becoming increasingly visible
with the need to develop innovations caused by development technology, and the need to develop the final intensity of
information (Аybay, 2017).
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 389 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
Information interaction is a process of interaction with the subject matter and content of the information system.
The model of information interaction involves the intersection of the user and the computer system, on the basis of
which content is formed in the form of a design with a certain information content (Toms, 2002).
Information interaction is a sphere of studying the processes of interaction with information. Design requires an
understanding of human interaction in an integrated aspect. Based on the designers ideas about the potential
product, it is possible to influence the cognitive processes of product users (Yamamoto & Nakakoji, 2005). Cognitive
processes in particular may include analytical thinking, decision making and meaning, learning, problem solving,
knowledge seeking and planning (Sedig & Parsons, 2013). Cognitive work approach is an ecological approach to
design that analyzes environmental factors in terms of human interaction with information (Fidel, 2012). In addition to
environmental, informational and human approaches to design are distinguished. Thus, the designer has influence and
manipulates with tools. Interactive design, accordingly, stimulates or hinders creativity in the initial stages of product
creation in information design (Yamamoto & Nakakoji, 2005).
The aspects of the initial design stages in information design are as follows: externalization tools that influence
decision-making by designers concerning design methods; designers create a product based on partial ideas about the
final product and external manifestations of ideas; the designer creates externalizations to display the product and
interpret it; the project developer makes the transition from the predicted ideas to their gradual revision, confirmation
of these ideas (Yamamoto & Nakakoji, 2005).
In the last century (the 1980s) design was guided by the concept of direct manipulation (Marchionini, 2008). Over
time, the environmental approach began to dominate in the field of design (Fidel, 2012). With the beginning of the
interaction of different disciplines, the approach to design began to change: the concept of wild theory has
appeared in science, which presupposes the creativity of design. Integration of psychology and computer science into
design, the concept of sustainable development and creativity is the reason for the development of quite authentic
artifacts. Both in the early 1990s, the researches have proved the penetration of computer science into design and
currently other sciences are integrating to form new concepts, knowledge, and approaches to graphic design. The
investigations refer to the disciplinary anxieties growing around the concept of Third Wave 'Human Computer
Interaction (HCI) (Bowers, 2012). As a result, the teaching of graphic design is changing. At the same time, the
time lag, with which new approaches are introduced into the educational process, determines the level of
effectiveness of information interactive design as a discipline.
Rogers (2011, 2012) initiated a “wild theory of technologically facilitated behavioral change” that explains the
interconnection between informational significance, behavioral phenomena, ethics, and computation. This means the
development of transdisciplinary thinking - the combination and extrapolation of different concepts, issues and values
in information interactive design. This theory of wild design influences on the approaches to the educational process
through the integration of its main components into the product of graphic design. The basic components of this theory
include informational significance, behavioral phenomena, ethics of communication and computational technologies.
These elements will affect the degree of creativity in design, because their consideration when creating the final
product can lead to a lack of creativity of the designer at a certain level of skills, professionalism and competence.
Curricula should be structured in such a way that the level of projectivity of the designer allows him to take into
account all the elements of modern approaches to creating a product while expressing freedom, creativity and
imagination. The level of the designer’s professionalism determines the level of creativity and the ability to ensure
compliance with the requirements of innovative approaches in design when creating a product.
Thus, wild theory is a prerequisite for creativity in interactive design, and the external environment is a factor in the
transformation of theory, approaches to interactive design as a discipline. Wild theory in interactive design will
gradually replace the philosophical approach to creating artifacts in design. Taking into consideration the outlined
trends, there is a need to study the impact of the transformation of the discipline of information interactive design in the
training process of modern graphic designer (Attfield, 2020).
3. Data and Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
The study is based on a qualitative methodology; it contains an analysis of academic disciplines to identify
inconsistencies between modern approaches and the educational process. The present investigation is based on the
concept of wild design” of Rogers (2011), which provides an idea of the interaction of modern graphic design with
information, behavioral phenomena in society, computation and ethics. The analysis involves a study of the practice of
integrating these components of the wild theory of design in the process of teaching the discipline of graphic design.
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 390 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
The basic hypothesis of this study centers around modern approaches that have emerged in response to the needs of the
labor market and the integration of technology into the design field. They transform curricula and disciplines in the
context of forming a professional designer who is able to think creatively when creating a product.
The next hypothesis refers to the specifics of the regional labor market; it determines the supply of educational services
in the field of graphic design.
The next hypothesis centers around the professional competences of a graphic designer, which meet the needs of the
labor market, however lag behind new concepts, approaches to the requirements of product creation.
3.2 Sample Study and Methods
Based on the study and analysis of recent trends in graphic design as a discipline, the level of transdisciplinarity of
modern science has been assessed. An analysis of academic disciplines was conducted within the curricula of graphic
design” in order to study the trends in graphic design. The analysis has been conducted on the basis of the content of
five universities of Ukraine, which offer educational qualification level of bachelor, master according to the site rating
(Osvita, n.d.). The official websites of the universities have been used for conducting the content analysis, namely:
Kyiv University of Culture, Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts (KNUCA), KROK University of Economics
and Law, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (IAPM). The analysis included the generalization of the
vision and content of disciplines offered by tertiary educational institutions of Ukraine, the study of methodological
recommendations of disciplines within the specialization Graphic Design and Advertising (Table 1).
Table 1. Sampling of specialties 022 Design, specialization Graphic Design and Advertising” for conducting the
analysis, 2020
University
Source for analysis
Kyiv University of Culture
http://kuk-university.com
Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts (KNUCA)
http://www.knukim.edu.ua
KROK University of Economics and Law
http://www.krok.edu.ua
Interregional Academy of Personnel Management (IAPM)
http://www.maup.com.ua
Source: it has been compiled by the author
Data on the skills required by employers have been used to compare the relevance of curricula to the needs of the labor
market. The site Work.ua (n. d.) was the source of information.
Based on the analysis of the content of disciplines within the specialization graphic design and advertising,
theoretical and methodological concepts of modern practice of information interactive design have been formed.
3.3 Research Limitations
There is no detailed analysis of disciplines in this academic paper due to the different content of the official websites of
formal education universities. Non-formal education and training courses for graphic designers have not also been
taken into account due to the focus of the research on a wider range of graphic design disciplines. It was not possible to
compare the competences and knowledge of the future graphic designer due to the unavailability of information on the
websites of some universities on teaching methods, disciplines and skills of designers in the course of training graphic
designers. Therefore, it was not possible to fully assess the regional specifics of educational curricula of universities
and fully accurately describe whether the learning process corresponds to modern approaches to graphic design
(Rogers & Marshall, 2017).
4. Results and discussion
4.1 Regional Specifics of the Labor Market in the Field of Graphic Design and Compliance of Educational Services
with Market Needs
The Ukrainian market offers formal and informal educational services in the field of graphic design. The average
salary of a graphic designer amounts 15 000 UAH per month. There are 503 vacancies on the website Work.ua (n. d.)
with a description of the basic requirements for a professional, one of which is compliance with standards and at the
same time creativity.
On average, a graphic design specialist in Ukraine receives the salary of 15 000 UAH (Figure 1, according to 1051
vacancies on the site Work.ua (n.d.) for the last three months). The analysis has included the headings Designer” and
Designers Assistant”.
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 391 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
Figure 1. Distribution of salaries of a graphic designer
Source: Work.ua (n.d.)
At first glance, these requirements contradict each other, however, a professional designer, obtaining a set of standard
skills and competences, is able to ensure clarity of standards and only then create a creative product.
The labor market requires the following hard skills of a graphic designer, namely:
1. Skills and abilities of working in graphic design software: Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, Corel Draw, InDesign;
2. Innovative thinking, creativity;
3. Ability to defend their own ideas (soft skills);
4. Command of English in case of intention to work with foreign companies.
5. Depending on the requirements of employers to the graphic designer, there are requirements for knowledge in the
field of psychology (for example, UX-designer), the fundamentals of resistance of materials (for example, industrial
designer) (Heller, 2015).
If we compare with the skills and competences, formed by universities, it can be noted that the needs of the labor
market are met by available educational services, that is, there is a correspondence between the skills needed by
employers and the skills developed by the university (Table 2).
Table 2. Correspondence of professional competences of a graphic designer to the needs of the labor market
Professional
competences of a
graphic designer
Competences acquired in the process of studying at the
university
Competences required by the
labor market
Kyiv University of
Culture
Work in computer graphics software;
Design of web-sites and game elements;
Creation of illustrations, art projects, animations,
typographics;
Advertising products in visual manifestations of all types;
Layout, printing design.
Development of corporate identity, packaging and labels.
Skills and abilities of working
in graphic design software:
Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator,
Corel Draw, InDesign.
Innovative thinking,
creativity.
Ability to defend their own
ideas (“soft skills”).
Command of English in case
of intention to work with
foreign companies.
KROK University
of Economics and
Law
Knowledge of compositional construction of design objects,
ergonomics and artistic design, skills in design and
manufacturing technologies of design objects, design
graphics, knowledge of color science to create a color solution
8.6%
19.3% 20.0% 17.5% 18.8%
3.4% 4.3% 8.1%
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
% OF EMPLOYEES IN THE
RANGE
SALARY , UAH
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 392 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
for the future design object.
Interregional
Academy of
Personnel
Management
(IAPM)
Rules of work with office equipment and publishing and
printing equipment; modern packages of applied graphic and
office software (Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe
CorelDraw, 3D-MAX, ArchiCAD, AutoCAD, Revit, etc.);
general methods of design and its specific differences in the
field; principles of providing social-cultural needs,
organization of project activities, conducting pre-project
research;
methodology for formulating modern requirements for
creating a design concept; integrated system approaches to
design processes.
Source: the author’s research.
The most complete description of the knowledge, received by the student, is specified on the IAPM website. It is worth
emphasizing that the university offers comprehensive system approaches to processes, procedures, design rules
(methods of expert analysis of project tasks, substantiation and qualitative implementation of single and complex
design projects based on the synthesis of logical and imaginative thinking). IAPM also forms knowledge concerning
the patterns of processes of reflection of the spatial subject environment through the prism of its own worldview,
creative design concepts. This means that curricula take into account both the need of the labor market for professional
competences and creativity and a creative approach to creating graphic design products.
4.2 Regional Analysis of Curricula: Modern Concepts, Approaches in the Disciplines of Graphic Design
The study of the practice of universities in the process of training modern graphic designers indicates the use of
information technology in the creation of artifacts. Institutions specialize in providing knowledge and creating design.
For instance, Kyiv University of Culture offers the study of computer graphics softwares, design of web-sites and game
elements, the study of creating illustrations, art projects, animation, typographics; study of advertising visualization,
creation of layouts and design of printed products, development of corporate identity, packaging and labels.
Accordingly, the theory of wild design of Western schools is not reflected in the curricula of tertiary educational
institutions of Ukraine. Information interactive design is not a separate discipline within graphic design, and graphic
design is complemented by disciplines related to advertising. Accordingly, in Ukraine, design as a wild concept is
created on the basis of the markets need for specialists; elements of creativity are present, however elements of the
latest Western theories are not typical.
Curricula contain a number of disciplines that involve the study of software program to create a product. For instance,
at Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts (KNUCA) disciplines within the specialization Graphic Design and
Advertising include design in graphics, modeling, layout, study of computer technologies for the design of printing
products, packaging, labels, training in advertising communications. The needs of the Ukrainian market in graphic
products determine the offer of a set of educational services of universities: the educational market is focused on the
labor market, and, therefore, technical and technological skills prevail over the development of students creativity.
At the same time, elements of creativity, as an important component of wild design at Kyiv National University of
Culture and Arts (KNUCA) are contained in a wide range of different ways, tools for formation of visual
expressions. This makes it possible for graphic designers to freely convey content, the essence of information
messages depending on their level of complexity. This means that creativity as an element of wild design is
manifested in the formation in the learning process of creative thinking in order to accurately convey the essence of the
information message. Creativity in this case is subject to certain frameworks; in particular, these frameworks are
determined by the information that requires the transfer of information to consumers.
The next element of information interactive design is the environmental component. The study of disciplines of tertiary
educational institutions allows us to conclude that the direction of the educational process to achieve the goal of
forming professional designers does not correspond to the environmental approach. Orientation to the labor market is
the cause of insufficient environmental compatibility of disciplines. As a result, modern graphic designers have
professional skills, however, there are doubts about their environmental orientation in the process of creating a product.
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 393 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
Low level of wages and other social-economic issues of Ukraine affect the degree of environmental compatibility in
the creation of products (Table 3).
Table 3. Vision and disciplines of Ukrainian universities according to specialization Graphic design and advertising
or Design, 2020
Vision
Disciplines of specialization “Graphic design and
advertising” or “Design”
Modern design is a type of
professional activity that
aestheticizes and comforts all
spheres of human life”.
There is no list of disciplines
Free and variable mastering of
design and graphic language;
learning to reflect emotions,
moods, feelings, etc.
Design-engineering in graphics, technical graphics,
project graphics, fonts, layout and modeling,
computer technology in graphic design, design of
printing products, packaging and label design,
advertising communications.
Formation of creative style and
ability to use modern computer
and information technologies.
History of design, Painting, Drawing,
Fundamentals of composition and coloristics,
Fundamentals of shaping, Layout and modeling,
Computer modeling of clothes, Materials
science, Branding and portfolio, Fundamentals
of design.
Artistic design of a
harmonious and functionally
perfect human environment
Font art, arts and crafts, form making, graphic
techniques and materials, typographics, psychology
of advertising, advertising design.
Source: the authors research
* - University offers educational services under the curriculum “Design
Content analysis of academic disciplines within the specialization graphic design shows the lack of disciplines in
universities related to the study of the psychology of graphic design. At the same time, IAPM offers the study of the
psychology of advertising within the specialization. In addition, it has been stated on the IAPM website that “The basic
purpose of the specialty is to train qualified personnel to solve complex problems and issues in the field of design.
Within the specialty, graduates acquire in-depth knowledge and skills of an innovative nature, and the level of their
intellectual potential is sufficient to solve professional issues”.
In universities, teaching is based on the classic concept of environmental design, and the disciplines provide students
with knowledge and skills to master the profession and develop hard skills. Herewith, students soft skills are
limited due to the need to acquire skills in computer software. For instance, IAPM provides employment opportunities
as a technician-designer, colorist, advertising agent, etc. At the same time, IAPM uses complex system approaches to
design processes from methods of expert analysis of project tasks to substantiation and qualitative implementation of
single and complex design projects based on the synthesis of logical and creative thinking. IAPM provides students
with knowledge about the conformity to principle of the process of reflection of the spatial-objective environment
through the prism of their own worldview and creative design concepts. At the same time, the level of educational
services lags far behind the quality of education in Western universities, where a transdisciplinary approach prevails
and develops.
Kyiv University of Culture with its mission determines the development of professional competences of graphic
designers in order to aestheticize and comfort peoples lives. Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts (KNUCA)
defines a similar vision: students should gain skills in project-graphic language. Learning to reflect emotions, moods,
feelings concerns the formation of skills to reflect these elements in information interactive products. Interregional
Academy of Personnel Management (IAPM) defines the vision as artistic design of a harmonious and functionally
perfect human environment.
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 394 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
This means that the theory of wild design in Ukraine combines two elements: informational significance and
computation. Such elements as behavioral phenomena and ethics are poorly integrated into the specialization Graphic
Design and Advertising. Conceptualization of the practice of teaching disciplines for the training of modern graphic
designer makes it posible to form a modern paradigm of information interactive design. The idea of Ukrainian graphic
design as a discipline centers around forming a competent professional with technical skills in order to develop
business-oriented products in the field of graphic design.
Analysis of curricula and disciplines of universities shows that a systematic and integrated approach is used in the
proccess of training graphic designers. These approaches correspond to manipulative, ecological approaches as the
basic theories of creation of a graphic product. At the same time, the theory of wild design is not reflected in the
modern practice of teaching disciplines within the specialization graphic design. This is due to the lack of
understanding for the development of such disciplines that would ensure the formation of skills to create a wild
product.
4.3 Evolution in Teaching Graphic Design in the Context of Transformation of Professional Tendencies and
Competences
Taking into consideration the fact that in 1980-1990 the approach of manipulative creation of designer products was
widespread, interactive information design was aimed at technical ways of creating products. This involved the
transmission of an information message in the design, aimed at influencing the human mind to make decisions about
purchasing a product. Such influence was carried out for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the recommendations in
teaching graphic design concerned the development of disciplines that would provide the graphic designer with
knowledge of product psychology, ability to use technical programs, design and engineering skills, manufacturing
technology, knowledge of design graphics, knowledge of coloristics, etc (Kim et al., 2016).
With the beginning of the integration of the ecological approach to design, the development of technology in the
creation of products design takes into account the needs of human as a consumer of information. The consumer’s
understanding of commercial design goals has led to a change in design approaches that guide design product
developers. Consequently, completely simple clear company logos appear (Figure 2), and creativity and creative
approach to creating products becomes one of the main requirements for a modern graphic designer. That is why soft
skills are added to technical skills, and curricula take into account the need of the labor market for creativity, creative
thinking. As a result, the list of disciplines includes those that develop the creativity of a graphic designer.
Figure 2. History of the Coca-Cola logo
Source: Ukrainian telecommunication portal (n. d.)
The purpose of creating a clear design product is to focus on the product, but at the same time to influence the
consumer of information to remember the product. (Figure 2).
The “wild theory” of design is a completely new concept, because it provides the creation of a product that is beyond
imagination; it invites the consumer to look at the design product with a new viewpoint. As a result, graphic products
with fresh” features appear, which are simultaneously filled with information content as well as provide interactivity,
simplicity, and memory by consumers of information. Nowadays curricula do not take into account the elements of
wild design, because it is extremely difficult to create a wild product that will provide a new perspective of the
consumer with the same information message. Creation of a new product depends solely on the personal qualities of
the graphic designer. The authors of the academic paper are of the opinion that technical skills and creativity can be
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 395 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
developed in the process of obtaining education and practical activities. However, the personal qualities required to
create a wild product are almost impossible to develop only on the basis of skills that are formed in the process of
learning / working. The skills and competences of a wild designer”, who is able to create a fresh viewpoint at the same
product, will be the result of the formation of an experienced graphic designer with a creative analytical mindset and
honed technical skills in the future. Therefore, the development of personal qualities of such a designer depends solely
on his motivation and knowledge.
4.4 General Problems of Design and Education in the Field of Graphic Design, which have a Significant Impact on the
Curricula in the Field of Design Education
The study of curricula and disciplines makes it possible to conclude that the basic problems of design and education in
the field of graphic design are the nonconformity between the goals of developers of graphic products and the goals of
consumers of graphic products. Universities understand the needs of developers, so they form the designer’s the skills
required by the market - technical and creative skills, competences. Education in the field of design adapts to the
practice of design, albeit with a time lag (dropping behind). The time lag is evidenced by a certain discrepancy in wild
theory as a new concept and the approaches used in teaching graphic design. At the same time, the needs of
consumers of information are not always taken into account through the commercialization of the graphic product.
Another problem refers to the fact that developers and universities do not sufficiently understand the needs of
information consumers, and a manipulative approach is still present in graphic design products.
5. Conclusions
The conducted investigation makes it possible to partially confirm the hypothesis that modern approaches that have
emerged in response to the needs of the labor market, the integration of technology into design, transform curricula and
disciplines. As a result, curricula provide training of a professional designer who is able to think creatively when
creating a product. Learning graphic design tardily meets the requirements of the labor market.
The specifics of the regional labor market determines the offer of educational services in the field of graphic design.
Thus, the Ukrainian market of educational services is characterized by the use of integrated and systematic approaches
to learning. Complexity means a combination of technical skills and creativity. The outlined skills are needed in the job
market to develop a design product. The professional competences of a graphic designer meet the needs of the labor
market, however lag behind new concepts, approaches to product requirements. For instance, curricula currently do
not take into account the elements of wild design. This is due to the difficulty of creating a wild product that will
provide a new consumer’s viewpoint of the graphic product with the same information message. Despite the
development of a wild concept for the creation of designer products, this area has been little studied in terms of
integration into the educational process. The problem of modern graphic design is the commercialization of the final
product, which, despite the development of approaches, aims to influence the consciousness of the consumer of the
information message. Education meets the needs of design developers in the technical creative skills of designers,
while the consumer is a managed entity in this field.
References
Attfield, J. (2020). Wild things: The material culture of everyday life. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Аybay, С. (2017). Inter-disciplinary design in information design cooperation and the place of graphic design in this
collaboration. The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication TOJDAC, 7(3), 454462.
https://doi.org/10.7456/10703100/008
Bart, R. (1989). Selected works: Semiotics: Poetics. Moscow, Russia: Progress.
Bowers, J. (2012). The logic of annotated portfolios: Communicating the value of'research through design'.
Proceedings of the Designing Interactive Systems Conference (pp. 68-77). New York, NY: Association for
Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/2317956.2317968
Fidel, R. (2012). Human information interaction: An ecological approach to information behavior. Cambridge, UK:
Mit Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262017008.001.0001
Geller, S. Quast, S. (2019). Graphic styles: From Victorians to hipsters. Kyiv, Ukraine: ArtHuss.
Heller, S. (2015). The education of a graphic designer. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Kim, N. W., Schweickart, E., Liu, Z., Dontcheva, M., Li, W., Popovic, J. & Pfister, H. (2016). Data-driven guides:
Supporting expressive design for information graphics. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer
graphics, 23(1), 491-500. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2016.2598620
http://ijhe.sciedupress.com International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 9, No. 7; 2020
Published by Sciedu Press 396 ISSN 1927-6044 E-ISSN 1927-6052
Leonardo, N. Ambrose, G. (2019). Fundamentals. Graphic design 02: Design research. Kyiv, Ukraine: ArtHuss.
Marchionini, G. (2008). Humaninformation interaction research and development. Library & Information Science
Research, 30(3), 165174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2008.07.001
Osvita. (n.d.). Higher Education Universities Digest. Retrieved from
https://osvita.ua/vnz/guide/search-17-0-0-56.html
Rodkin, P. (2003). New visual perception: Modern visual art in the conditions of a new perceptual challenge. Moscow,
Russia: Yunost.
Rogers, Y. (2011). Interaction design gone wild. Interactions, 18(4), 58. https://doi.org/10.1145/1978822.1978834
Rogers, Y. (2012). HCI theory: Classical, modern, and contemporary. Synthesis lectures on human-centered
informatics, 5(2), 1-129. https://doi.org/10.2200/S00418ED1V01Y201205HCI014
Rogers, Y. & Marshall, P. (2017). Research in the Wild. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, 10(3),
97. https://doi.org/10.2200/S00764ED1V01Y201703HCI037
Sedig, K. & Parsons, P. (2013). Interaction design for complex cognitive activities with visual representations: A
pattern-based approach. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 5(2), 84-133.
https://aisel.aisnet.org/thci/vol5/iss2/1 https://doi.org/10.17705/1thci.00055
Stankevich, M. (2012). Protodesign, design concepts and morphology. Essays on the history of Ukrainian design of
the twentieth century: Collection of articles. Kyiv, Ukraine: Phoenix.
Steinberger, F., Foth, M. & Alt, F. (2014). Vote with your feet: Local community polling on urban screens.
In Proceedings of The International Symposium on Pervasive Displays, 44-49.
https://doi.org/10.1145/2611009.2611015
Toms, E. G. (2002). Information interaction: Providing a framework for information architecture. Journal of the
American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(10), 855-862. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.10094
Triggs, T. (2011). Graphic design history: Past, present, and future. Design Issues, 27(1), 3-6.
https://doi.org/10.1162/DESI_a_00051
Ukrainian telecommunication portal. (n. d.) History of the Coca-Cola logo: How a successful logo was create.
Retrieved from
https://portaltele.com.ua/news/companies/istoriya-logotipa-coca-cola-kak-sozdavalsya-uspeshnyj-logotip.html
Vergunov, S. V. (2006). On the question of design and visualization problems. Instrumental aspect. Bulletin of the
Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, 4, 1015.
Work.ua. (n. d.). Retrieved from https://www.work.ua/career-guide/designer/
Yamamoto, Y. & Nakakoji, K. (2005). Interaction design of tools for fostering creativity in the early stages of
information design. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63(4-5), 513-535.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2005.04.023
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Falling prices have led to an ongoing spread of public displays in urban areas. Still, they mostly show passive content such as commercials and digital signage. At the same time, technological advances have enabled the creation of interactive displays potentially increasing their attractiveness for the audience, e.g. through providing a platform for civic discourse. This poses considerable challenges, since displays need to communicate the opportunity to engage, motivate the audience to do so, and be easy to use. In this paper we present Vote With Your Feet, a hyperlocal public polling tool for urban screens allowing users to express their opinions. Similar to vox populi interviews on TV or polls on news websites, the tool is meant to reflect the mindset of the community on topics such as current affairs, cultural identity and local matters. It is novel in that it focuses on a situated civic discourse and provides a tangible user interface, tackling the mentioned challenges. It shows one Yes/No question at a time and enables users to vote by stepping on one of two tangible buttons on the ground. This user interface was introduced to attract people's attention and to lower participation barriers. Our field study showed that Vote With Your Feet is perceived as inviting and that it can spark discussions among co-located people.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is concerned with interaction design for visualization-based computational tools that support the performance of complex cognitive activities, such as analytical reasoning, sense making, decision making, problem solving, learning, planning, and knowledge discovery. In this paper, a number of foundational concepts related to interaction and complex cognitive activities are syncretized into a coherent theoretical framework. This framework is general, in the sense that it is applicable to all technologies, platforms, tools, users, activities, and visual representations. Included in the framework is a catalog of 32 fundamental epistemic action patterns, with each action pattern being characterized and examined in terms of its utility in supporting different complex cognitive activities. This catalog of action patterns is comprehensive, covering a broad range of interactions that are performed by a diverse group of users for all kinds of tasks and activities. The presented framework is also generative, in that it can stimulate creativity and innovation in research and design for a number of domains and disciplines, including data and information visualization, visual analytics, digital libraries, health informatics, learning sciences and technologies, personal information management, decision support, information systems, and knowledge management.
Article
The phrase "in-the-wild" is becoming popular again in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing approaches to HCI research and accounts of user experience phenomena that differ from those derived from other lab-based methods. The phrase first came to the forefront 20-25 years ago when anthropologists Jean Lave (1988), Lucy Suchman (1987), and Ed Hutchins (1995) began writing about cognition being in-the-wild. Today, it is used more broadly to refer to research that seeks to understand new technology interventions in everyday living. A reason for its resurgence in contemporary HCI is an acknowledgment that so much technology is now embedded and used in our everyday lives. Researchers have begun following suit—decamping from their usability and living labs and moving into the wild; carrying out in-situ development and engagement, sampling experiences, and probing people in their homes and on the streets. The aim of this book is to examine what this new direction entails and what it ...
Article
In recent years, there is a growing need for communicating complex data in an accessible graphical form. Existing visualization creation tools support automatic visual encoding, but lack flexibility for creating custom design; on the other hand, freeform illustration tools require manual visual encoding, making the design process time-consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we present Data-Driven Guides (DDG), a technique for designing expressive information graphics in a graphic design environment. Instead of being confined by predefined templates or marks, designers can generate guides from data and use the guides to draw, place and measure custom shapes. We provide guides to encode data using three fundamental visual encoding channels: length, area, and position. Users can combine more than one guide to construct complex visual structures and map these structures to data. When underlying data is changed, we use a deformation technique to transform custom shapes using the guides as the backbone of the shapes. Our evaluation shows that data-driven guides allow users to create expressive and more accurate custom data-driven graphics.
Article
A fresh research approach that bridges the study of human information interaction and the design of information systems. © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
Article
Interaction designers, with less technical expertise and modest resources, can conjure, create, and deploy a diversity of prototypes in all manner of places in the everyday world. The outcome of conducting in the-wild studies like these can be most revealing, demonstrating different results from those arising out of lab studies. If a system that is designed based on theories is shown to improve a particular behavior, to what extent can it be said to be due to a specific phenomena identified by a theory. Several theories in the behavioral sciences, philosophy, and ecological psychology that explain how people behave and act in the real world are beginning to find traction in interaction design. An interaction design, embodiment, which is concerned with the social and physical context of the body in structuring cognition and how the world is experienced. Other promising theories that are starting to make their mark in interaction design include proxemics and mindfulness.
Article
Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method to advance knowledge, through testing and falsifying hypotheses about observable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followed the scientific method borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories about user performance at the interface. But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a well-defined science. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth to bereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologies to nano-technology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCI has also greatly expanded from the early days of scientific testing to include other functions such as describing, explaining, critiquing, and as the basis for generating new designs. The book charts the theoretical developments in HCI, both past and present, reflecting on how they have shaped the field. It explores both the rhetoric and the reality: how theories have been conceptualized, what was promised, how they have been used and which has made the most impact in the field -- and the reasons for this. Finally, it looks to the future and asks whether theory will continue to have a role, and, if so, what this might be. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Backdrop to HCI Theory / The Role and Contribution of Theory in HCI / Classical Theories / Modern Theories / Contemporary Theory / Discussion / Summary
Article
Teal Triggs was guest editor and wrote an article for this journal issue. Graphic design, it seems, is still searching for its past. Other design disciplines, such as fashion and industrial design, have an established tradition of archiving, documenting, critically writing, and publishing history, as well as engaging with social, cultural, and political contexts. Such histories have, for example, focused on the study of designed objects as well as design movements; celebrated “named” designers and the profession’s history; and explored design in relationship to other areas, such as material culture. This is not to say that graphic design has not had its share of commentators who have been defining approaches to studying its own history. However, there remains a sense that graphic design history is less established as a discipline, and perhaps less exploratory in terms of defining new ways of writing about this history. The intent of this collection is to look again at the issues surrounding how we might define graphic design history, as well as to propose new ways forward.
Article
This paper examines Research Through Design as an orientation to so-called 'Third Wave' Human Computer Interaction (HCI). A number of recent critical reflections are reviewed and the 'disciplinary anxieties', which this approach to HCI has aroused, are discussed. Drawing on Feyerabend's philosophical scepticism over methods and contributions to the Sociology of Science, it is suggested that design research might build its own 'limited rationality' rather than be brought in line with supposed norms for good research or criteria for rigour and relevance of unfamiliar provenance. To this end, a concept of 'annotated portfolio' is advanced, and detailed, as a means for capturing the family resemblances that exist in a collection of artefacts, simultaneously respecting the particularity of specific designs and engaging with broader concerns. The concept is demonstrated through annotating nine well-known pieces created by the Goldsmiths Interaction Research Studio. Treating this collection as an annotated portfolio highlights, formulates and collates interaction design issues in this work in a novel manner. On this basis, annotated portfolios are proposed as a viable means for communicating design thinking in HCI in a descriptive yet generative and inspirational fashion, without having recourse to standards of 'theory' which fit design practice uncomfortably.