Book

The Hydraulic State: Science and Society in the Ancient World

Authors:
  • CFD Consultants International, Los Gatos, California, USA
... Additionally, raised-field technology has been shown to be the most efficient design choice to limit short term drought effects on crop yield-this is due to continual groundwater supply from intercepted rainfall over vast eastern collection areas continually flowing toward the Lake Titicaca basin. Further analysis [54] demonstrates that Tiwanaku raised-field berm design is optimum to yield the maximum agricultural output per unit land area. Analysis of groundwater control mechanisms in the Pajiri agricultural area [52] reveals different berm heights and swale water depths appropriate to different crop types. ...
... Due to higher swale water temperature from solar radiation input [4] the additional storage heat to berm interior regions limits berm outer surface convection and radiation heat withdrawal during cold altiplano nights to prevent freezing damage to crop root systems. The latent heat removal for water to ice transition within berm interiors during cold altiplano nights is limited by additional heat transfer from elevated temperature swale water heat transfer into berm interiors Examination of early Tarraco raised-field berm patterns [54] in northernmost regions of Lake Titicaca and raised-fields in the Pampa Koani region north of urban Tiwanaku reveals an average berm shape consistency. Figures 14 and 15 show that swales are interconnected leading to a continuous water path surrounding berms. ...
... This ratio for an elongated ellipse (a >> b) is significant in that the ellipse perimeter is a maximum for the given berm surface area (π a b) for this class of ellipse. This indicates that the average berm pattern configuration yields the maximum wetted berm perimeter [54] and thus requires a minimum of interconnected swale widths to provide capillary water transfer to narrow berms. Thus, the berms can be placed closer together to maximize agricultural surface per unit field area. ...
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The pre-Columbian World Heritage site of Tiwanaku (AD 600–1100) located in highland altiplano Bolivia is shown to have a unique urban water supply system with many advanced hydraulic and hydrological features. By use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the city water system, new revelations as to the complexity of the water system are brought forward. The water system consists of a perimeter drainage channel surrounding the ceremonial center of the city. A network of surface canals and subterranean channels connected to the perimeter drainage channel are supplied by multiple canals from a rainfall collection reservoir. The perimeter drainage channel provides rapid draining of rainy season rainfall runoff together with aquifer drainage of intercepted rainfall; water collected in the perimeter drainage channel is then directed to the Tiwanaku River then on to Lake Titicaca. During the dry season aquifer drainage continues into the perimeter drainage channel; additional water is directed into the drainage channel from a recently discovered, reservoir connected M channel. Two subterranean channels beneath the ceremonial center were supplied by M channel water delivered into the perimeter drainage channel that served to remove waste from the ceremonial center structures conveyed to the nearby Tiwanaku River. From control of the water supply to/from the perimeter drainage channel during wet and dry seasonal changes, stabilization of the deep groundwater level was achieved—this resulted in the stabilization of monumental ceremonial structure’s foundations, a continuous water supply to inner city agricultural zones, water pools for urban use and health benefits for the city population through moisture level reduction in city ceremonial and secular urban housing structures.
... As different pipeline slopes yield different flow rates, the task ahead is to determine what slope choices associated with different destination uses produce flow rates to match the 40,000 m 3 /day input aqueduct flow rate. Three possible pipeline configurations (A, B, C) determined by their slopes originating from the castellum basin wall are examined using FLOW-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics [20] CFD models ( Figure 9). The use criteria involving different pipeline slopes are determined by computing the output flow rate (Table 1) from all 10 pipelines configured at different A, B or C slopes to determine Figure 12) also required ample water supply for large public gatherings for events and spectacles and likely required the output of several of the castellum pipelines for this purpose. ...
... As different pipeline slopes yield different flow rates, the task ahead is to determine what slope choices associated with different destination uses produce flow rates to match the 40,000 m 3 /day input aqueduct flow rate. Three possible pipeline configurations (A, B, C) determined by their slopes originating from the castellum basin wall are examined using FLOW-3D Computational Fluid Dynamics [20] CFD models ( Figure 9). The use criteria involving different pipeline slopes are determined by computing the output flow rate (Table 1) from all 10 pipelines configured at different A, B or C slopes to determine whether the total output flow rate is lower, matches, or exceeds the input aqueduct flow rate. ...
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The water distribution castellum at the terminal end of the Pont du Gard aqueduct serving the Roman city of Nemausus in southern France is analyzed for its water engineering design and operation. By the use of modern hydraulic engineering analysis methods applied to analyze the castellum, new aspects of Roman water engineering technology are discovered not previously reported in the archaeological literature. Analysis of the castellum’s 10 basin wall flow distribution pipelines reveals that when a Roman version of modern critical flow theory is utilized in their design, the 10 pipelines optimally transfer water to city precincts at the maximum flow rate possible with a total flow rate closely approximating the input flow rate from the aqueduct. The castellum’s three drainage floor ports serve as additional fine-tuning to precisely match the input aqueduct flow rate to the optimized 10 pipeline output flow rate. The castellum’s many hydraulic engineering features provide a combination of advanced water engineering technology to optimize the performance of the water distribution system while at the same time enhancing the castellum’s aesthetic water display features typical of Roman values. While extensive descriptive archaeological literature exists on Roman achievements related to their water systems both in Rome and its provinces, what is missing is the preliminary engineering knowledge base that underlies many of their water system’s designs. The present paper is designed to provide this missing link by utilizing modern hydraulic engineering methodologies to uncover the basis of Roman civil engineering practice—albeit in Roman formats yet to be discovered.
... The history of Petra's monumental architecture and historical development has been described by many authors [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Some scholars have concentrated on technical and location aspects of water supply and distribution systems within Petra [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21], while other surveys [16,[22][23][24][25][26][27] have concentrated on the water control and distribution technology available to Nabataean water engineers from Roman and other eastern and western civilizations through trade and information transfer contacts during Petra's expansion period (100 BC-AD 300) period. This paper was designed to add further depth to the hydraulic engineering technology used in the design and operation of Petra's three major pipeline water supply systems serving the urban center of Petra: The Siq system sourced from the Ain Mousa spring, the Ain Braq system, and the Wadi Mousa system. ...
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The principal water supply and distribution systems of the World Heritage site of Petra in Jordan were analyzed to bring forward water engineering details not previously known in the archaeological literature. The three main water supply pipeline systems sourced by springs and reservoirs (the Siq, Ain Braq, and Wadi Mataha pipeline systems) were analyzed for their different pipeline design philosophies that reflect different geophysical landscape challenges to provide water supplies to different parts of urban Petra. The Siq pipeline system’s unique technical design reflects use of partial flow in consecutives sections of the main pipeline to support partial critical flow in each section that reduce pipeline leakage and produce the maximum flow rate the Siq pipeline can transport. An Ain Braq pipeline branch demonstrated a new hydraulic engineering discovery not previously reported in the literature in the form of an offshoot pipeline segment leading to a water collection basin adjacent to and connected to the main water supply line. This design eliminates upstream water surges arising from downstream flow instabilities in the two steep pipelines leading to a residential sector of Petra. The Wadi Mataha pipeline system is constructed at the critical angle to support the maximum flow rate from a reservoir. The analyses presented for these water supply and distribution systems brought forward aspects of the Petra urban water supply system not previously known, revising our understanding of Nabataean water engineers’ engineering knowledge.
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In this study, we analyze extensive segmented and standardized agricultural fields in the marginally productive terrain of the Pampa de Guereque in the Jequetepeque Valley on the north coast of Peru. Although portions of the associated canal system were constructed continuously from late Formative to Chimú times, the segmented fields date to the late Chimú–Inka period and were only partially finished, apparently never fully used, and ultimately abandoned. We provide description of field plots and irrigation canals and discuss the implications of state-level construction and labor management of the fields, as well as the probable reasons for their abandonment.
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El presente artículo trata sobre los factores que hicieron posible un desarrollo económico sin precedentes en el área andina hasta el periódo Arcaico Tardío. La autora postula que el área norcentral (valle de Supe) fue el lugar donde se asentó el primer modelo de Estado (Estado prístino). Éste se conformo debido a la autodinámica de las sociedades que se desenvolvieron en esa área, al desarrollo de fuerzas productivas y a la ubicación estratégica del valle de Supe.
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The site of Tipon, Peru, located about 30 km east of Cuzco, provides an example of Inka knowledge of hydraulic engineering and the civil engineering practices used in the design and operation of the complex water system. The inhabitants of Tipon used river- and spring-sourced surface and subterranean channels to convey, distribute, and drain water to and from multiple agricultural platforms, reservoirs, and urban ceremonial centers. Intricate intersecting surface and subterranean channel systems that combined and regulated water flows from different sources controlled the water to and drainage from 13 terraced agricultural platforms. This design served to maintain different ground moisture levels to sustain specialty crops. Within the site are fountains and multiple water display features requiring sophisticated hydraulic engineering necessary for aesthetic displays. To understand the technology used by the Inka to design the water systems at Tipon, I used computational fluid dynamics methodology and modern hydraulic engineering theory. I made computer models of key elements of the Principal Fountain and the Main Aqueduct to reproduce water flow patterns in these features as intended by Inka engineers’ designs and calculations. The Inka hydraulic technology used complex engineering principles similar to those in modern civil engineering practice centuries ahead of their formal discovery in Western hydraulic science.
Thesis
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This work is concerned with the unusual concentration of hydraulic features located near the headwaters of the Nepeña valley. Throughout a spatial and architectural analysis we discuss the strategy(ies) of water management in the upper part of the valley and evaluate the social implication of such infrastructures. This thesis represents the first attempt to examine an archaeological watershed management in the 'Cordillera Negra' by compiling the data of Kevin Lane, Alexander Herrera and Jesús Maza.
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Archaeological investigations carried out by the Proyecto Wila Jawira in the urban center of Tiwanaku have identified specific locales of economic specialization. Extensive excavations in Ch'ji Jawira have produced substantial data concerning ceramic production in the tiwanaku core area. This evidence enhaces our understanding of the relationship between specialized craft production and the state's political economy.
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We discuss the transformation of society on the coast of Peru between 3000 and 1800 BC that sets the foundations for later Andean civilization.
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This paper discusses the social effects that a very strong El Niño event or events that occurred at the end of the Early Intermediate Period could have had on the Lima culture of the Central Coast of Peru from the perspective of the archaeological site of Huaca 20. This site was a component of the Maranga Complex in the lower Rimac Valley during the Late Lima Period. For this purpose, I use a comprehensive and diachronic approach that takes into account the whole Lima culture occupation documented at this site. Huaca 20 is one of the very few Lima culture sites that has been extensively excavated through several years since the 1970s. I compare the El Niño evidence from Huaca 20 with similar information from several other coastal Early Intermediate Period sites where El Niño impacts have been reported. I use this evidence to discuss how various contemporary coastal cultures had diverse cultural reactions to the same phenomenon.
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The use of water for domestic and agricultural purpose is not a new phenomenon. It has been used throughout centuries all over the world. After food, water is the basic component of human life and their settlement. This paper considers developments in water dams and water harvesting systems throughout history in different civilisations. The major component of this review consists of hydraulic dams during Pre-Historical Time, Bronze Ages (Minoan Era, Indus Valley Civilization, Early Ancient Egyptian Era, Hittites in Anatolia, and Mycenaean Civilization), Historical Period, (PreColumbian, Archaic Period, Classical Greek and Hellenistic Civilizations, Gandahara and Mauryan Empire, Roman Period, and early Chinese dynasties), Medieval times (Byzantine Period, Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties in China, Venetian Period, Aztec Civilization, and Incas) and Modern Time (Ottoman Period and Present Time). The main aim of the review is to present advances in design and construction of water dams and water harvesting systems of the past civilizations with reference to its use for domestic as well as agricultural purposes, its impact on different civilizations and its comparison to the modern technological era. In addition, emerging trends and perspectives are discussed.
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This paper explores the possibilities of a landscape archaeology approach, which is still rarely used in Peruvian archaeology. The basic principles are presented in order to apply them to a specific case, the Pisac complex, near modern Cuzco. This often cited complex lacks convincing historical and archeological evidence which result in diverse and basically unconvincing hypotheses. The chosen approach, however, leads to a different interpretation, that of a predominantly sacred site. Future excavations and better documentation at the site should corroborate the offered suggestions.
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The 300 BCE- CE 1100 pre-Columbian site of Tiwanaku located on the high altiplano of Bolivia demonstrated an advanced use of hydrologic and hydraulic science for urban and agricultural applications that is unique in the Andean world. From recently discovered aerial photos taken of the site in the 1930’s, new perspectives of the water system of the ancient city, beyond previous interpretations of a major drainage canal as a dividing ‘moat’ between ceremonial and secular parts of the city, are now possible from new discoveries of a network of water channels not previously known. Surrounding the ceremonial core structures of urban Tiwanaku was a large encompassing drainage canal that served as the linchpin of an intricate network of spring-fed supply and drainage channels to control both surface and groundwater aquifer flows. The drainage canal served to: (1) collect and drain off rainfall runoff into the nearby Tiwanaku River to limit flood damage; (2) accelerate post-rainy season ground drying by collecting aquifer seepage from infiltrated rainwater into the drainage canal to promote health benefits for the city’s population; (3) provide water from a newly discovered spring-fed channel to two subterranean channels to flush human waste from elite structures to the nearby Tiwanaku River, (4) maintain the groundwater level constant through both rainy and dry seasons to stabilize the foundation soil underneath massive pyramid structures to limit structural deformation; (5) facilitate rainy season water accumulation drainage from the floor of a semi-subterranean temple into the stabilized, groundwater layer to rapidly dry the temple floor and (6) provide drainage water to inner city agricultural zones. The sophistication of the water control network in Tiwanaku city is analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of transient surface and groundwater aquifer flows to illustrate the function of the drainage canal in both rainy and dry seasons.
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Determining the cognitive ability of ancient civilizations to conceptualize, design and build water supply systems for agricultural use is examined through mathematical models that predict the optimum use of land, water, labor and technology resources to maximize food production. From the archaeological record of agricultural systems used by several precolumbian societies of ancient Peru and Bolivia, knowledge of agricultural system configurations permits comparison of actual to theoretically optimum agricultural systems. This comparison permits evaluation of the agro-engineering knowledge achieved by societies subject to different ecological conditions and provides insight into their technical achievements produced by evolutionary trial-and-error empirical observation of system improvements and/or engineering foresight to conceptualize an optimum design and put it into use. Use of a basic equation derived from similitude methods provides the basis to replicate the thought process and logical decision making of ancient agricultural engineers albeit in a format different from western science notational conventions. Examples of agricultural system designs from coastal Peru canal-supplied (900-1450 AD) Chimu irrigation systems, groundwater based raised -field agricultural systems of the (300 BC- 1100 AD) Tiwanaku society of Bolivia and later (1400-1532 AD) Inka terrace systems are used to illustrate conclusions derived from a first application of similitude methods to archaeological analysis.
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Along the western margin of South America, plate convergence is accommodated by slip on the subduction interface and deformation of the overriding continent(1-6). In Chile(1-4), Bolivia(6), Ecuador and Colombia(5, 7), continental deformation occurs mostly through the motion of discrete domains, hundreds to thousands of kilometres in scale. These continental slivers are wedged between the Nazca and stable South American plates. Here we use geodetic data to identify another large continental sliver in Peru that is about 300-400 km wide and 1,500 km long, which we call the Inca Sliver. We show that movement of the slivers parallel to the subduction trench is controlled by the obliquity of plate convergence and is linked to prominent features of the Andes Mountains. For example, the Altiplano is located at the boundary of converging slivers at the concave bend of the central Andes, and the extending Gulf of Guayaquil is located at the boundary of diverging slivers at the convex bend of the northern Andes. Motion of a few large continental slivers therefore controls the present-day deformation of nearly the entire Andes mountain range. We also show that a 1,000-km-long section of the plate interface in northern Peru and southern Ecuador slips predominantly aseismically, a behaviour that contrasts with the highly seismic neighbouring segments. The primary characteristics of this low-coupled segment are shared by similar to 20% of the subduction zones in the eastern Pacific Rim.
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Bedal, L.-A., K.L. Gleason, J.G. Schryver, and (with reports by J. H. Ramsay and J.Bowsher). 2007. “The Petra Garden and Pool Complex, 2003-2005.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 51: 151–176.
Thesis
The research goal of this thesis is to understand ceramic production at Tiwanaku urban center in the Bolivian Altiplano. Data recovered from excavations at Ch'iji Jawira, a potters neighborhood located in the east periphery of the city, allowed to explore the process of ceramic production, the vessels range and variation, as well as the organization and identity of potters, their relationship with the State, and the possible ways ceramics were distributed for broad consumption.
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Chapter
Our current world is characterized by life in cities, the existence of social inequalities, and increasing individualization. When and how did these phenomena arise? What was the social and economic background for the development of hierarchies and the first cities? The authors of this volume analyze the processes of centralization, cultural interaction, and social differentiation that led to the development of the first urban centres and early state formations of ancient Eurasia, from the Atlantic coasts to China. The chronological framework spans a period from the Neolithic to the Late Iron Age, with a special focus on the early first millennium BC. By adopting an interdisciplinary approach structured around the concepts of identity and materiality, this book addresses the appearance of a range of key phenomena that continue to shape our world.
Book
Halfway between Machu Picchu and the city of Cuzco, Peru, lies a civil engineering wonder that has captivated and puzzled researchers and travelers since it was first photographed in 1931. Situated on a plateau, the ancient Inca site of Moray consists of many terraced circular depressions in the earth, the largest of which is 30 meters (98 feet) deep. The difference in temperature between the top and the bottom of the circles can be as much as 15 °C (27 °F). What are the mysterious concentric circles? What do they mean? Was this a religious site? An agricultural research station? Moray: Inca Engineering Mystery reports the results of an exhaustive investigation into the surveying work underlying the site’s construction, as well as the engineered systems for collecting and delivering water. Ken Wright and his team take the reader on a tour of Moray, describing the geography and geology of the area. They explain their field evidence that led to solving the Inca mystery and resolving decades of speculation. The book includes a walking tour and map to guide visitors through Moray’s significant features. Profusely illustrated and written in nontechnical language, Moray will appeal to civil engineers interested in earthworks, water supply systems, and engineering history, as well as the tourist and armchair traveler. © 2011 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved.
Book
Water and water worship were integral to the spiritual life of the Inca. The Incamisana, an ancient water temple that is part of the royal estate at Ollantaytambo, is a hydraulic masterpiece that serves as historical evidence of the importance of water to the Inca. Preserved under a massive amount of alluvial soil following the 1679 flood, the Incamisana was rediscovered in 1980, revealing a complex water system. The water system of open channels, buried conduits, hydraulic drop structures, eight fountains, and orifices was a well-designed and balanced flow system based on the same engineering principles employed in modern waterworks. Created several centuries before Bernoulli formulated the relationship between flow, energy, and elevation, the Inca were able to control the flow of water with a degree of sophistication that rivals modern engineers. In Incamisana: Engineering an Inca Water Temple, Ken Wright and his team analyze and explain the masterful design of the temple, which incorporates hydraulic works into an aesthetically pleasing ceremonial complex. Additional studies at the nearby Lip Fountain and Bath of the Princess Fountain further illustrate the engineering skills of the Inca. Set against a backdrop of impressive and mysterious cliff-face rock carvings, the Incamisana is also part of a larger water supply system for the region. Wright’s team investigates the mountainside hydrology, geology, and paleohydrology supporting the fountains and the surrounding agricultural terraces necessary to support the Inca community. Extensively illustrated with photos and drawings, this book provides engineers, archaeologists, tourists, and armchair travelers with an appreciation of the civil engineering skills of the Inca people.
Chapter
This chapter reviews two general categories of mathematical methods that are suitable in some measure for modeling cultural transformations. The first type includes methods of dynamical systems theory in which influences causing short-term changes are specified and the long-term behavior from these is derived. The second class of methods is directed more toward discrete entities and the structural relations or patterns among them. The theory of games, mathematical theories of optimization, and graph theory are among the fields included here. A study of the dynamics of large systems that contain complex interconnections or feedbacks among the constituent parts falls within the domain of systems theory. An important aspect of human cultural systems is their orientation toward achieving goals. Various mathematical theories have been proposed to provide a framework for analyzing phenomena of this sort. Generally, these may be called prescriptive or optimization models, in contrast to descriptive or predictive models. Dynamic programming introduces a dynamic element in mathematical programming permitting decisions to be made on the basis of a current assessment of the situation at each stage. The mathematical theory of games is another method available for the study of decision making.
Chapter
This chapter discusses several features of a system collapse and the aftermath of such a collapse. It has been observed that there are cases where suddenly, and without any very obvious cause, a brilliant and flourishing society with a highly structured, central administrative organization disappears from the archaeological record. The immediate aftermath is always less clearly understood because the range of archaeological evidence is much less adequate. The early state society fragments into a whole number of smaller units that are at a much lower level of sociopolitical integration. The collapse of central power is followed by competition among various small power groups inside the former territory and on its borders. The new central organization that in many cases develops in the same area often after a few centuries traces its origins back to one of these small groups.
Chapter
The misuse and the overexploitation of resources are the main causes of desertification which according to the United Nations Convention is defined as: “deterioration of the lands in the arid, semiarid and semi humid dry areas due to different factors including climate changes and human activity” (UNCCD 1994, article 1a, 1995, 1995a). The definition highlights two fundamental aspects of desertification: a) desertification is not the creation of a desert but of soil degradation; and b) human intervention is a fundamental factor besides the role of climate conditions.
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Book
How do landscapes-defined in the broadest sense to incorporate the physical contours of the built environment, the aesthetics of form, and the imaginative reflections of spatial representations-contribute to the making of politics? Shifting through the archaeological, epigraphic, and artistic remains of early complex societies, this provocative and far-reaching book is the first systematic attempt to explain the links between spatial organization and politics from an anthropological point of view. The Classic-period Maya, the kingdom of Urartu, and the cities of early southern Mesopotamia provide the focal points for this multidimensional account of human polities. Are the cities and villages in which we live and work, the lands that are woven into our senses of cultural and personal identity, and the national territories we occupy merely stages on which historical processes and political rituals are enacted? Or do the forms of buildings and streets, the evocative sensibilities of architecture and vista, the aesthetics of place conjured in art and media constitute political landscapes-broad sets of spatial practices critical to the formation, operation, and overthrow of polities, regimes, and institutions? Smith brings together contemporary theoretical developments from geography and social theory with anthropological perspectives and archaeological data to pursue these questions.
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Seven thousand years ago, in northern Peru, the processing of lime, most likely for use with coca, launched a community toward social complexity.