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Abstract

The objective of this study is to show the dynamics of the evolution on research of the generations by means of analysis of journal publications from the category of management and business from Clarivate Analytics Web of Science. Bibliometric analysis is used to unveil the authors, journals, institutions, and the most influential countries on the subject from 2001 to date. The most pertinent studies are presented that show the main characteristics of the five generations that can currently be found in the workplace, namely the Silent Generation , Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z. The results highlight that the studies focus on countries and regions with more developed economies. Studies are scarcer from countries and regions with emerging economies such as Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Likewise, there is evidence of the lack of qualitative studies on Generation Z, which will be of greater importance in the labour force or employment market and with higher purchasing power. The results add knowledge to academics to define their research strategies. For the practitioners it contributes information on the most pertinent academics on the study of generations, which facilitates potential candidates to contract or hire in case they need to study the characteristics of their workforce to define recruitment policies, career planning or motivation.

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... Inicialmente centrado en Estados Unidos (Strauss & Howe, 2000), y luego con alcances globales (Howe & Strauss, 2007), Howe y Strauss escriben los periodos, etiquetas y características de las generaciones o cohortes (Tabla 1), las cuales han sido contextualizadas en diversas disciplinas, incluyendo la dirección escolar (Edge, 2014). A pesar de que la evidencia es clara en resaltar las limitaciones y criticas frente a los acercamientos generacionales (Rudolph et al., 2018), diversos estudios han utilizado este marco orientador, especialmente en espacios organizacionales, explorando cómo la diversidad generacional influye en las decisiones laborales (Ortiz-Pimentel et al., 2020 ...
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Advanced bibliometric analysis is a powerful method to, first, assess with citation analysis the international influence of scientific work in a reliable, transparent and objective way, particularly in the natural science and medical fields, and in several of the engineering and social science fields; and secondly, discover with science maps patterns in the structure of fields, which enables us to identify interdisciplinarity, knowledge flows such as translational medical research, and research related to important socio‑economic issues. With advanced menu‑driven application tools for research performance assessment and monitoring of university departments and institutes, for journal indicators, ranking of universities and mapping, bibliometric methods have now reached a stage of high‑quality, reliable and very informative instruments in research evaluation practice.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to uncover the nature of job characteristics related to different generational cohorts (Baby-boomers, Generation X and Generation Y). Significant differences between four task and four social job characteristics across generational cohorts have been revealed. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical research was conducted through a field study of employees from large-sized Croatian organizations. A cross-sectional and cross-occupational research design was applied. A total of 512 knowledge workers (139 managers and 373 professionals) participated in the research. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to determine and compare work design across generations. Findings – The results indicate that job characteristics are not equally represented within different generational cohorts. While the nature of task job characteristics is mostly irrespective of generations, social job characteristics to some extent differ among generational cohorts. High task variety, reasonably high task identity, and a moderate level of both received interdependence and task significance are recognized as common job characteristics of knowledge workers across generations. However, jobs of Baby-boomers, Xers, and Yers are idiosyncratic for work autonomy, interaction with others, initiated interdependence, and teamwork. Additionally, the inclusion of the work type as a control variable revealed that interaction with others does differ but only among generations of professionals. Originality/value – The present study is the first research in which generational similarities and differences have been empirically examined through job characteristics. The authors focused on knowledge workers within an under-researched context (studies about knowledge workers, work design and generational differences are rare or non-existent in south-eastern European countries), making this systematic investigation unique and practically significant.
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Gen Z (1997-2013) is just now entering the labor market and employers need to be prepared for their arrival. While Gen Zers shares many traits with the Millennial Generation, they also bring in new patterns of behavior. Managers today not only have to understand how to best manage youthful, inexperienced employees, but also the unique characteristics of the generation shaped by their experiences. Every generation has its doubts about the younger generation’s culture and technologies. Understanding their behavior and the distinct needs that they have in the workplace will lead to better integration of the new employees and mutual success.
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This research analyzes if generational segmentation moderates the relationships among self-congruity, nation brand, destination brand and the use of social media by USA tourists to create positive content about Colombia. Using the methodology of SEM, the results show that experience self-congruity influences the perception of the destination brand and the content created in social media about Colombia. Also, a positive perception of the nation brand motivates the creation of positive content about the country. Using an invariance test and a multi-group analysis, it was found that the relationship between self-congruity and the positive content created on social media can only be accepted among Generation Y tourists. Furthermore, the relationship between nation brand, destination brand and the content created on social media can only be accepted among Generation X tourists. The conclusions of the paper present the managerial implications of these findings.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the presence of generational differences in items measuring workplace attitudes (e.g. job satisfaction, employee engagement). Design/methodology/approach Data from two empirical studies were used; the first study examined generational differences in large sample, multi-organizational administrations of an employee survey at both the item and general-factor levels. The second study compared job satisfaction ratings between parents and their children from a large nationwide longitudinal survey. Findings Although statistically significant, most generational differences in Study 1 did not meet established cutoffs for a medium effect size. Type II error was ruled out given the large power. In Study 2, generational differences again failed to reach Cohen’s cutoff for a medium effect size. Across both studies, over 98 percent of the variance in workplace attitudes lies within groups, as opposed to between groups, and the distributions of scores on these variables overlap by over 79 percent. Originality/value Prior studies examining generational differences in workplace attitudes focused on scale-level constructs. The present paper focused on more specific item-level constructs and employed larger sample sizes, which reduced the effects of sampling error. In terms of workplace attitudes, it appears that generations are more similar than they are different.
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Generation Z, a unique and truly digital native generation, is now entering college and the workplace. This article identifies generational influences and distinctive characteristics of this group, which may challenge nurse educators and require changes in teaching–learning design strategies and approaches. Specific educational suggestions and ways to support members of Generation Z in higher education and the workplace are offered.
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This study investigates the use, citation and diffusion of three bibliometric mapping software tools (CiteSpace, HistCite and VOSviewer) in scientific papers. We first conduct a content analysis of a sample of 481 English core journal papers - i.e., papers from journals deemed central to their respective disciplines - in which at least one of these tools is mentioned. This allows us to understand the predominant mention and citation practices surrounding these tools. We then employ several diffusion indicators to gain insight into the diffusion patterns of the three software tools. Overall, we find that researchers mention and cite the tools in diverse ways, many of which fall short of a traditional formal citation. Our results further indicate a clear upward trend in the use of all three tools, though VOSviewer is more frequently used than CiteSpace or HistCite. We also find that these three software tools have seen the fastest and most widespread adoption in library and information science research, where the tools originated. They have since been gradually adopted in other areas of study, initially at a lower diffusion speed but afterward at a rapidly growing rate.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the differences in the perceived media richness of three marketing channels by different consumer generations as well as to indicate the importance of the perceived media richness of each of channel for the intention of online use at pre-purchase stage. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a sample of 1,103 consumers in Poland, which research sample included three generations: Baby Boomers, X generation and Y generation. Computer-assisted personal interview method was used with a standardised questionnaire; the research sample was determined using a quota-random method, with the quotas referring to age and gender and the nature of the place of residence (provincial town, town/city other than a provincial one, or a village) – the structure of the sample was maintained at the regional level. Findings Analysed channels (online, offline, phone) have different perceived media richness. Consumers from different generations can perceive media richness of the same marketing channels in various ways. Perceived media richness of the analysed marketing channels has an impact on the intention to use the channel online. Research limitations/implications First, the fact of blurring differences between consumers generation, particularly X and Y generation. As well the fact that each generation has identified an internal diversity. Second limitation refers to the type of marketing channels included in research. Finally, limitation also applies to spatial extent of the study. The above limitations can also be some directions of future research – taking into account some other marketing channels and verifying the conclusions on other consumer groups. Practical implications General recommendation refers to the need for treating customers in each marketing channel in the same way – immediate response is one of the aspects of this recommended unified customer service in multichannel environment. Online channel communications with customers should be supported by giving consumers more personalised communication via phone, chat and social media. For older consumers, it is recommended to gradually redirect them to an online channel. Information search is a good start for online customer journey, because this channel at the pre-purchase stage is the most useful and least risky for the consumer unfamiliar with online environment. Social implications Better understanding of the needs of different customers generations and their perception of different marketing channel at the pre-purchase stage. Originality/value Identification of intergenerational differences in the perception of media richness of online, phone and offline channels.
Article
Purpose Workplace mistreatment and aggression have become pressing issues in today’s multi-generational workplace. Yet, to date, the issue of investigating the impacts of passive and active types of mistreatment simultaneously on different generations has been widely neglected in the management literature. This paper empirically explores the resultant effects of active (i.e., workplace tolerance to incivility) and passive (i.e., workplace ostracism) mistreatment on negative emotion and intention to sabotage, a generational perspective. Design/methodology/approach Data was garnered from bank employees in Nigeria (n=320) and analyzed with the aid of a structural equation modeling. Findings The data reveal that: (1) active and passive workplace mistreatment are relevant factors inflicting negative emotions and intention to sabotage; and (2) that negative emotion inflict the intention to sabotage. Furthermore, the impact of passive workplace mistreatment on negative emotion is higher among gen-x and gen-y cohorts; and its impact on intention to sabotage is higher among baby boomers cohorts. The impact of active workplace mistreatment on negative emotion is higher among gen-y and baby boomers cohorts; and its impact on intention to sabotage is higher among gen-x and gen-y cohorts. Originality/value This article advance our knowledge concerning the reactional response of employee’s to workplace mistreatment's generation wise. Based on the study findings, theoretical and practical implications are identified and discussed.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, taking into account generational cohort and life cycle stage differences. Design/methodology/approach Survey participants (428 employed individuals with families) represented different generations and life cycles. Key variables were work/family characteristics and centrality, work-family and family-work conflict, and age. Findings Generational differences in both directions were found. Gen X-ers reported the most work-family conflict, followed by Millennials and then Baby Boomers. Baby Boomers exhibited family-work conflict the most, followed by Gen X-ers, and then Millennials, a surprising finding given generational stereotypes. Some of these differences remained after controlling for children in the household (based on life cycle stage theory) and age. Millennials were highest in work centrality, whereas Baby Boomers were highest in family centrality. Employees with children ages 13-18 reported the most work-family conflict, and employees with children under the age of six reported the most family-work conflict. Research limitations/implications This study found that generation and children in the household make a difference in work-family conflict, but it did not support some of the common generational stereotypes. Future studies should use a time-lag technique to study generational differences. To reduce work-family conflict, it is important to consider its directionality, which varies across generations and life cycle stages. Practical implications This informs organizations on how to tailor interventions to help employees balance work/life demands. Originality/value This study is the first to simultaneously examine both generation and life cycle stage (children in the household) in regard to work-family conflict.
Article
This study investigates the relationship between consumers' sustainable consumption behaviour and both gender and generation-related individual differences in a sample of Turkish consumers. A total of 393 participants from different generations and gender took part in the study. To measure sustainable consumption behaviour, we used four-dimensional sustainable consumption behaviour scale. The results showed that generation is associated with unneeded consumption as a dimension of sustainable consumption behaviour. Consumers who are Baby Boomers found to have the highest level of unneeded consumption behaviour while Gen-Zers have fewest. Additionally, data supported the association between gender and sustainable consumption behaviour. Women showed a higher level of sustainable consumption behaviour both in overall behaviour and tendency to reuse products. Taken together, the findings suggest that gender and generation of consumers can differentiate sustainable consumption behaviour. The implications of these findings, as well as the limitations and future directions, are also discussed.
New evidence suggests Millennial men are assuming the role for household shopping at a growing pace. This study employs the generational cohort theory to examine differences among male shoppers. Specifically, exploring the variables of family structure and social class relative to male enjoyment of their shopping experience through an online questionnaire. ANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze the data of 443 respondents. The results show significant differences in the impact of family structures across generations. Present social class and the social class during ones upbringing lead to key differences in Millennials in terms of entertainment facilities and willingness to wait on purchases.
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This study reviewed current literature on generational issues in Korea, specifically in relation to the workplace. Based on the results, this study concluded that distinct generations of workers exist in Korea. While there are similar generational characteristics between Korea and the United States because of the unique societal, historical, and cultural factors in each country, there are noticeable differences such as the existence of Generation 386 in Korea. Due to rapid industrialization and social transformation during the past few decades, Korean society seems to exhibit wider gaps between older and younger generations than the United States. The roles of Generation 386 and Generation Y in organizations should be considered for the future.
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The Truth Initiative strives to protect a new generation of youths who are prime prospects for the tobacco industry, by engaging that audience and reigniting their interest. The current authors oversaw a three-phase study that included recruiting a national cohort sample-believed to be the first of its kind-of more than 10,000 members of Generation Z, ages 15 to 21 years old. The authors’ methods informed a new cross-platform campaign that fueled brand awareness and prompted changes in attitudes against smoking, while generating $88.6 million in earned media value with 78.5 million earned media impressions. © 2016, World Advertising Research Center. All rights reserved.
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The concept of ‘generation’ denotes the biological reality of being, the historical reality of living, and the epistemological problem of knowing. These multiple meanings often operate simultaneously, making generation a powerful concept for understanding the social world; and also a slippery concept, which is difficult to define and apply. This chapter summarises the ways in which sociology has approached the study of generations over the twentieth century, and, following Mannheim, situates the problem of generations within the sociology of knowledge.
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It is generally accepted that the universe is in a constant state of formation and change. Naturally, change affects the social, political and economic systems and the companies develop strategies in order to keep up with change as a part of the whole and need change leaders to lead them. It is observed that companies are able to utilize one third of the human resources at best in researches conducted. It is accepted that the change teams generally consist of the persons who are committed to their jobs and naturally, the lowness of this ratio decreases the speed of change of the companies. According to the results of a research conducted within the workforce, the percentage of persons who are most willingly committed to their jobs has been determined as 27 % even for the United States of America, where the percentage is the highest, and as 6 % for Singapore, where the percentage is the lowest. These results may indicate that the leaders have a lot of tasks to carry out either with respect to change or to commitment to work. As already known, the literature suggests that, successful leadership implementations can be achieved through an appropriate style of leadership behaviour. Today, it is accepted that there are four generations with different characteristics and needs sharing the same workplace. These are the Silent Generation, the Baby Boomers, Gen X and Gen Y. It is discussed in this article that the direction of individuals with different behaviour patterns upon considering the generational differences during company change processes helps the change process to be faster and the change to be more productive. It is predicted that the implementation of Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership behaviour can have a huge contribution.
Article
Scholars and practitioners alike have recognized that younger workers, collectively known as Millennials or GenMe, are different from workers in prior generations. Employees of this generation hold different expectations regarding the centrality of work to their lives and bring different personalities and attitudes to the workforce. As the number of Millennials in the workforce grows each year, the divide between them and their older counterparts become more salient and pose unique challenges for organizational leaders. In this paper, we explore how these changes may force the need for reconsideration of five of the most frequently used leadership theories in an effort to understand important boundary conditions and how leadership research must evolve to keep pace with a changing workforce.
The current study examines self-confidence, perceived quality, extrinsic attributes and perceived risk as drivers and inhibitors of Generation Y’s purchase intentions of prototypical and me-too brands. A survey of 348 respondents demonstrated that self-confidence and perceived quality produced significant positive effects on purchase intentions for the me-too brands. Extrinsic attributes produced a significant positive effect on purchase intentions for the prototypical brand. Perceived financial/performance risk produced a significant negative effect on purchase intentions for both the prototypical and me-too brands, while perceived psychological risk produced a significant negative effect on purchase intentions for the prototypical brand. Understanding the factors underlying Gen Y’s consumer behaviour is crucial, particularly due to their considerable consumption potential and the increasing sophistication of brand marketing in the marketplace.
Article
Generation Y is regarded as the elusive new youth market, whose members are as resistant to advertising efforts as were members of Generation X before them. To investigate various factors that influence the use of advertising among the college segment of Generation Y, a survey was administered to a random sample of 368 college students. Questions probed self-identity, relevance of depictions in the media, and the informational value of advertising across eight media. Results show that gender and a variety of personality traits such as introversion/extroversion affect both the perceived value of advertising as an information source and the relevance of depictions in the media. Depictions in movies and television were rated significantly better than depictions in advertising. Implications are drawn for both media planners and marketing strategists trying to communicate with this elusive group.
Article
The paper investigates the ethical decisions of Millennials, who are not only part of an expanding cohort of the workforce, but also represent potential future managers with a growing influence on work practices and employment relationships. In the conceptual model, we propose that three ethical frames of reference, represented by perceived organisational ethics, perceived employee ethics and reflective moral attentiveness, antecede ethical judgements, which further influence the ethical intentions of Millennials. Using structural equation modelling, we test the model for three different business ethics scenarios: paying a consulting fee, dumping hazardous waste, and running an offensive advertising campaign. The findings confirm the link between ethical judgements and intentions across the board, while the influence of the ethical frames of reference varies among the scenarios. We propose that the differences in the predictive ability of the ethical frames of reference depend on the nature of the ethical issue, which holds important implications for today's managers in their attempts to encourage ethical behaviour of Millennial employees.
Article
Citation impact indicators nowadays play an important role in research evaluation, and consequently these indicators have received a lot of attention in the bibliometric and scientometric literature. This paper provides an in-depth review of the literature on citation impact indicators. First, an overview is given of the literature on bibliographic databases that can be used to calculate citation impact indicators (Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar). Next, selected topics in the literature on citation impact indicators are reviewed in detail. The first topic is the selection of publications and citations to be included in the calculation of citation impact indicators. The second topic is the normalization of citation impact indicators, in particular normalization for field differences. Counting methods for dealing with co-authored publications are the third topic, and citation impact indicators for journals are the last topic. The paper concludes by offering some recommendations for future research.
Chapter
This chapter introduces some landmark works in quantitative studies of science and science mapping in particular. We introduce scientometric techniques and procedures for co-word and co-citation analyses, including author co-citation analyses and document co-citation analyses. We discuss the differences between multidimensional scaling, minimum spanning trees, and Pathfinder network scaling techniques in handling network models of scientific knowledge. Examples of citation and co-citation structures produced by HistCite and CiteSpace are included in this chapter.
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Purpose – Given the entitlement and job mobility associated with Generation Y, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of psychological entitlement and tenure on the felt accountability-job satisfaction relationship. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data from a sample of resident assistants were examined using hierarchical moderated regression analysis. Findings – Entitled employees responded to accountability favorably, demonstrating lower job satisfaction than non-entitled employees when accountability was low, but nearly equal levels when accountability was high. All participants reported higher job satisfaction when job tenure was lower, but entitlement-driven satisfaction differences were observed only when accountability was low. Research limitations/implications – Cross-sectional data warrants longitudinal replication to establish causation and to give insight into how much time must pass before accountability begins to reduce the negative effects of entitlement. Practical implications – Findings suggest that managerial tactics that increase employees’ felt accountability could reduce the negative impact of psychological entitlement on job attitudes and related outcomes. Originality/value – Using a unique sample of Generation Y employees, the results provide an indication of how supervisors from earlier generations can improve the workplace attitudes of younger workers.
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Mannheim's 1923 essay 'The Problem of Generations' has often been described as the seminal theoretical treatment of generations as a sociological phenomenon. Yet in practice scant attention has been paid to the sociology of generations by British sociologists. This is despite the notion of generation being widespread in everyday language as a way of understanding differences between age groups and as a means of locating individuals and groups within historical time. This paper aims to raise the profile of the sociology of generations within British sociology. It is shown that Mannheim's essay can be read as a text which contributes to our understanding of key sociological issues, in addition to 'the problem of generations'. These issues include the nature of time, the relationship between biology and the social, and socio-psychological connections of language and knowledge.