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Human population is increasing day by day, but land resources is limited. To meet with the growing food demand, crop production needs to be increased as well. Normally, Land sharing ensures maximum yield from a single land where land sparing provides less yield. A vital debate arises here, which land use type is better for biodiversity conservation. Bird community is widely used to assess biological quality of an environment. The study aims to investigate the diversity and abundance of birds in both land sharing and land sparing types of eastern Bangladesh. We took 33 sampling points each from both land use types with a 250 m interval for bird survey between May–June 2018. Bird calls were recorded and identified using a reference bird calls library. Sample-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves showed higher species richness of birds in land sparing land type. There was significant (p < 0.001) difference in species richness between two landuse types. There was also significant (p < 0.05) difference in bird species abundance. Lower diversity and abundance of bird species in land sharing compared to land sparing are mostly due to the use of chemical fertilizer, lack of grass and decrease of insects in ecosystem.
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