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Permissive parenting of the dog associates with dog overweight in a survey among 2,303 Dutch dog owners



Overweight/obese dogs are at increased risk of health issues and it is up to the dog owner to uphold successful weight management. In children, overweight relates to their parent’s permissive style of parenting. We predicted that permissive dog-directed parenting likewise associates with a dog being overweight (including obesity). If styles in parenting dogs indeed associate with a dog’s overweight, these may provide action points for effective weight management. For 2,303 Dutch dog owners, answers on their dog’s (nine-point scale) body condition scores were compared to ways of parenting the dog. We used an adapted version of the 32-item Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire and compared the distributions of dog counts across aggregated body condition score categories of underweight (scores one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/obese (scores six to nine) with Chi-square tests across the quartiles of a given parenting style. Overweight/obese dogs were overrepresented in the quartile of dog owners with the highest level of permissive parenting, which is in line with findings on parenting styles and overweight/obesity in children. Supplementary logistic regression analyses on the likelihood of dogs being overweight/obese (i.e. having a body condition score of six or higher) confirmed the importance of parenting and identified the risk factors of dogs having little exercise, being of older age, neutered or owned by someone with lower level education. Our results indicate that strategies to promote proper weight management in dogs could benefit from addressing especially a dog owner’s permissiveness in parenting his/her dog.
Permissive parenting of the dog associates
with dog overweight in a survey among 2,303
Dutch dog owners
Ineke R. van HerwijnenID
*, Ronald J. Corbee
, Nienke Endenburg
, Bonne Beerda
Joanne A. M. van der BorgID
1Department of Animal Sciences, Behavioural Ecology Group, Wageningen University and Research,
Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 3Department of Population Health, Unit
Animals in Sciences and Society, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The
These authors contributed equally to this work.
‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.
Overweight/obese dogs are at increased risk of health issues and it is up to the dog owner to
uphold successful weight management. In children, overweight relates to their parent’s per-
missive style of parenting. We predicted that permissive dog-directed parenting likewise
associates with a dog being overweight (including obesity). If styles in parenting dogs indeed
associate with a dog’s overweight, these may provide action points for effective weight man-
agement. For 2,303 Dutch dog owners, answers on their dog’s (nine-point scale) body con-
dition scores were compared to ways of parenting the dog. We used an adapted version of
the 32-item Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire and compared the distributions
of dog counts across aggregated body condition score categories of underweight (scores
one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/obese (scores six to
nine) with Chi-square tests across the quartiles of a given parenting style. Overweight/
obese dogs were overrepresented in the quartile of dog owners with the highest level of per-
missive parenting, which is in line with findings on parenting styles and overweight/obesity in
children. Supplementary logistic regression analyses on the likelihood of dogs being over-
weight/obese (i.e. having a body condition score of six or higher) confirmed the importance
of parenting and identified the risk factors of dogs having little exercise, being of older age,
neutered or owned by someone with lower level education. Our results indicate that strate-
gies to promote proper weight management in dogs could benefit from addressing espe-
cially a dog owner’s permissiveness in parenting his/her dog.
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 1 / 14
Citation: Herwijnen IRv, Corbee RJ, Endenburg N,
Beerda B, Borg JAMvd (2020) Permissive
parenting of the dog associates with dog
overweight in a survey among 2,303 Dutch dog
owners. PLoS ONE 15(8): e0237429. https://doi.
Editor: I. Anna S. Olsson, Universidade do Porto
Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular,
Received: October 17, 2019
Accepted: July 27, 2020
Published: August 11, 2020
Peer Review History: PLOS recognizes the
benefits of transparency in the peer review
process; therefore, we enable the publication of
all of the content of peer review and author
responses alongside final, published articles. The
editorial history of this article is available here:
Copyright: ©2020 Herwijnen et al. This is an open
access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author and source are credited.
Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are
within the paper and its Supporting Information
Overweight in dogs reduces quality of life [1,2] by causing serious health problems such as
musculoskeletal disorders, neoplasia and disturbances of normal endocrine functions [3,4].
One way of assessing overweight is by means of body condition score measurement, which
is a non-invasive method that has been validated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry,
bioelectrical impedance and thoracic radiography of subcutaneous fat [57]. Body condi-
tion score measurement combines visual inspection with palpation of the dog. On a nine-
point scale the body condition score measurement expresses the broader categories of
underweight (scores one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/
obese (scores six to nine), with six and seven indicating overweight and eight and nine indi-
cating obesity [810].
Overweight (including obesity) in dogs has been studied for many years, covering aspects
of its epidemiology, pathophysiology, management and comorbidity in dog and owner [4,11
16]. Also, owner aspects of feeding and exercising the dog have been researched. Findings indi-
cate owner effects on the dog’s weight. For instance, overweight dogs, more so than healthy-
weight dogs, were found to be fed semi-moist foods [13], homemade foods, table scraps such
as bread, meat, pasta, sausage [17] and snacks/treats [13,18,19]. Next to feeding differences,
overweight dogs were found to have lower exercise levels [11,18,19]. If dog owners vary con-
siderably in how they feed and exercise their dog [11,13], how they view and relate to it may
be key to this. For instance, owners of overweight dogs were more likely to see them ‘as a baby’
and allow them to sleep on the bed [20]. Also, owners of overweight dogs tended to value the
dog less for exercise, work and/or protection purposes but spoke to it more and on a larger
variety of subjects [21].
Differences in how owners see and treat their dog can be studied through the recently
discovered dog-directed parenting styles [22,23] and in humans associations exist between
parenting styles and a child’s overweight, including obesity [24]. Parenting styles encompass
the overarching ‘emotional climate’ in the relationship between a care provider such as a
dog owner and a care receiver such as a dog [23]. This emotional climate is characterized by
variation in dimensions of responsiveness and demandingness [25]. Responsiveness is
about recognising the needs and emotions of the care receiver. Demandingness is about
providing boundaries, exerting control and monitoring of behaviour and performance [25].
Scoring high on both responsiveness and demandingness is described as an authoritative
style of parenting, which is considered as balanced and most optimal [25]. The permissive
style is characterized by high levels of responsiveness and low levels of demandingness,
reflecting unbalanced parenting. Another form of unbalanced parenting is the authoritarian
style with high levels of demandingness and low levels of responsiveness [25]. Similar styles
of dog-directed parenting reflect the differences in responsiveness and demandingness with
added reflections of correction, intrinsic value or training orientations towards a dog’s par-
enting [23].
Findings on child-directed parenting suggest that permissive parenting promotes over-
weight/obesity [24] and in the owner-dog relationship this may work for example by an
eagerness to please the dog with food (high responsiveness) without a counterbalancing
demandingness regarding exercise and, ultimately, body condition scores. This study aims to
test a presumed influence of dog owners on dog overweight/obesity, focussing on parenting
styles directed at the dog. Revealing associations between dog-directed parenting styles and
body condition scores in dogs may point out new weight management strategies as to promote
healthier dogs.
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 2 / 14
Funding: The authors received no specific funding
for this work.
Competing interests: The authors have declared
that no competing interests exist.
General approach and ethical considerations
We tested how dog-directed parenting styles associated with dog weight status, as reflected in
body condition scores. Our sample consisted of dog owners recruited via advertising online
and in hardcopy dog magazines, with press releases in national and regional news channels,
including newspapers. For responding to the survey, the participants were not invited to a
research location, but presumedly responded to our web-based survey on a private computer,
at home or elsewhere, hence minimizing social pressure to provide certain answers. Anyone
owning a dog and caring for it at for least half of the time was eligible to participate in the
study. Caring for the dog was described as walking/training the dog, feeding the dog and per-
forming other husbandry tasks. Additional criteria, such as fluency in Dutch were not made.
The aim of the survey was explained to participants generally, without mentioning the specific
element of a dog’s weight status. Specifically, the aim was explained as ‘each dog owner having
his/her own view on the dog and on raising it; and Wageningen University and Research wish-
ing to study people’s views on raising the dog and possible outcomes thereof for the dog and
the relationship with the dog’.
The survey was taken once, we did not contact the participants for a second survey, did not
include questions that were psychologically burdening, that is psychologically difficult to bear
such as on mental health status, meaning it was unlikely to interfere significantly with normal
daily life. This exempted the study from review by our ethics committee, according to the
guidelines of Wageningen University Medical Ethics Review Committee (Medisch Ethische
Toetsingscommissie van Wageningen University, METC-WU).
The web-based survey was in Dutch and gathered information on dog and owner characteris-
tics such as gender, age and dog-directed parenting styles between August 2017 and September
2018. Sample sizes were not estimated through power calculations before making the survey
available online and we did not predetermine a survey period. However, 95% of the data was
collected in the first three months after starting the survey advertisement. Parenting styles
were measured with 32 parenting style items on a five-point Likert scale, rating the likelihood
of scenarios occurring as never (score zero), nearly never (one), neutral (defined as about half
of the time, two), nearly always (three) and always (four). These items were based on the Par-
enting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (32-PSDQ) commonly used with children [26]
and transformed for use with dogs [23]. Here we used the 32 items measuring on the three
‘original’ parenting styles of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting, as to facili-
tate comparisons of our study outcomes with similar studies done with children. We did an
additional analysis using the twenty items that make up the previously determined dog-
directed parenting styles (DD-PSDQ) of authoritative-training orientated, authoritative-
intrinsic value orientated and authoritarian-correction orientated parenting and which largely
overlap the 32 items, but for the addition of two items as described in the earlier mentioned
study by Van Herwijnen et al. [23] and S1 Appendix lists these parenting style questions. For
each parenting style the scores were calculated by combining item scores into a percentage of
the theoretical maximum of 100%. Note that we did not study associations with the parenting
style of uninvolvedness as the original child-directed measurement tools did not measure this
style [27].
Body condition scores were measured on a scale of one to nine (BCS 1–9, 9 inclusive).
Scores one to three represented underweight (BCS 1–3), four and five healthy-weight (BCS
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 3 / 14
4–5), six and seven overweight (BCS 6–7) and eight and nine obesity (BCS 8–9). Dog owners
were presented with pictures and descriptions of body condition scores as propagated by the
World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) in their nutrition toolkit, as for the
owners to determine their dog’s weight status (see S1 Appendix for details). Thus, they
assessed their dog’s body condition score themselves, based on this text/image-based
The survey included six general questions about the participating owners and their dogs
and we used this information to test for modifiers of the relationship between dog-directed
parenting and the likelihood of dogs being overweight/obese, as well as explaining variation in
the latter. The questions about the dogs involved: how long they were exercised on a typical
day (<30 minutes, 30–59 minutes, 60–89 minutes, 90 minutes), their age (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 10 years) and sex/neutering status (intact males, neutered males, intact females, neutered
females). The participating dog owners reported their level of education (elementary school
level only, high school level, undergraduate level, master degree or higher), age (<25 years,
25–34 years, 35–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65 years) and gender (male/female).
The answering of questions in the survey was not mandatory and as a consequence unan-
swered questions represent missing values. From the received survey records a total of 732 rec-
ords was removed. Reasons for removal were a record being a replicate of another survey
record, containing more than 50% empty values, and/or empty values that prevented us from
calculating parenting style scores or body condition scores (52 surveys). Thus, a total number
of 2,303 surveys was available for our statistical analyses.
Statistical analyses
The survey data were checked for replicates via the combination of the dog’s name and postal
code, which we used to label the data recognisably, while allowing participants to participate
anonymously. We calculated if dog counts for the body condition score categories under-
weight (scores one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/obese
(scores six to nine) were spread differently over the first, second, third and fourth quartile of
the parenting style scores. These quartiles were based on the actual data distribution and
range, not the theoretical value range of 0–100%.
For the classification of body condition scores into these three categories, we followed ear-
lier studies using the same range of body condition scores [8,9,10] and we opted for this
approach as the dogs’ weights were not evenly spread over all body condition score categories,
resulting in low counts in some categories. We did not presume normal distribution and there-
fore present descriptive data as medians (ranges). Our main interest was to study if over-
weight/obesity in dogs associates with parenting styles, following findings in child-directed
studies, and we used Chi-square tests to test for a relationship between the categorical variables
body condition score and parenting style. Chi-square tests outcomes were evaluated with the
threshold of significance set at P<0.001. This instead of P<0.05 to separate the more biologi-
cally meaningful associations from weaker ones that reached significance by the large sample
size (N = 2,303). With the Chi-square tests, we present standardized residuals to identify the
cells with the largest contribution to the Chi-square test results. We mark residuals |>2| bold
as this threshold is commonly accepted as a sufficiently large deviation between observed and
expected values [28]. To check for possible overlap between the parenting styles, we calculated
Spearman’s rank correlations as to provide insight into the basic characteristics of our study
sample. Statistical analyses were performed with GenStat (18th edition) software.
Our survey was designed primarily to establish the relation between a dog’s body condition
score and its owner’s dog-directed parenting style, but supplementary to this we evaluated the
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 4 / 14
(modifying) effects of six basic characteristics of owners or dogs. For this we used logistic
regressions on the dog’s overweight/obese body condition scores (BCS 6–9) as the binary
response variate (1; versus BCS 1–5 as 0). The explanatory dog variables were the amount of
daily exercise (four levels), sex/neutering status (four categories) and age (ten levels). The
owner variables were educational level (four levels), age (six levels) and gender (two catego-
ries). Explanatory variables were expressed as (continuous) co-variates, but for sex/neutering
status and gender. The six different parenting style scores, expressed as a percentage of theoret-
ical maximum, were included as co-variates and analysed one by one. Two types of regression
models were used. First, we analysed the twelve explanatory variables singly. Next, we ran
regressions with one parenting style plus six owner/dog variables, including two-way interac-
tions with the parenting style, and reduced the models by stepwise backwards elimination,
though maintaining parenting style as a main effect. The least significant variable that was not
marginal to another was eliminated from the model using a threshold of P<0.05 (Wald tests).
The logistic regression predicted mean fractions of dogs with overweight/obesity (±s.e.) are
presented for the range of the 50% middle values of parenting styles, meaning the two central
quartiles; i.e. the range of common values. This, to enable meaningful comparisons between
parenting styles regarding the relationship strengths with overweight/obesity in dogs.
Participants and their dogs
The study sample included 2,303 dog owners who filled out the online survey between August
2017 and September 2018, excluding 52 surveys that had a missing value for the dog’s body
condition score. The answering of questions in the survey was not mandatory and unanswered
questions resulted in missing values. Table 1 presents the sample distribution of owner-
reported body condition scores (BCS), of dogs being underweight (BCS 1–3), healthy-weight
(BCS 4–5) and overweight/obese (BCS 6–9) and of parenting style median scores and ranges.
Table 1. Descriptive study sample data on dog Body Condition Score (BCS) and parenting styles.
Dog body condition score (BCS)
BCS % (total) BCS category (scores) % (total)
BCS 1 <1% (N= 2) Underweight (BCS 1–3) 18.5% (N= 427)
BCS 2 <1% (N= 15)
BCS 3 18% (N= 410)
BCS 4 24% (N= 554) Healthy-weight (BCS 4–5) 75% (N= 1,727)
BCS 5 51% (N= 1,173)
BCS 6 4% (N= 100) Overweight/obese (BCS
6.5% (N= 149)
BCS 7 2% (N= 40)
BCS 8 <1% (N= 5)
BCS 9 <1% (N= 4)
Parenting style score medians (ranges) for original 32-PSDQ and for DD-PSDQ
Parenting style Median (range)
Authoritative style 75.0% (20.0–100%)
Authoritarian style 22.9% (0–83.3%)
Permissive style 25.0% (0–91.7%)
Authoritative-training orientated style 87.5% (8.3–100%)
Authoritarian-correction orientated style 23.0% (0–84.4%)
Authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style 65.0% (4.2–100%)
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 5 / 14
Over all dogs, the body condition score median was 5 (range 1–9), with low counts in the high-
est and lowest BCS categories. The dogs were of varying breeds and 60% (N = 1,372) had a
pedigree (N = 908 non-pedigree) (N = 23 missing values). Most dogs were walked for 90
minutes daily (71%, N = 1,617). A walking duration of 60–89 minutes was reported for 23% of
dogs (N = 524), of 30–59 minutes for 6% (N = 136) and of <30 minutes for <1% (N = 16) (10
missing values). Intact dogs made up 51% (N = 1,125, with 693 males and 432 females), neu-
tered dogs 49% (N = 1,071, with 463 males and 608 females) (107 missing values). Weights of
the dogs distributed as 3% (N = 79) <5 kilos, 12% (N = 284) 5–10 kilos, 20% (N = 457), 11–20
kilos, 30% (N = 691) 21–30 kilos, 23% (N = 516) 31–40 kilos, 8% (N = 191) 41–50 kilos and 4%
(N = 80) >50 kilos (5 missing values). The majority of the participants was female (86%, N =
1,971; male: 14%, N = 317) (15 missing values). Elementary school level only was obtained by
1% (N = 23), high school level by 20% (N = 447), undergraduate level by 67% (N = 1,535) and
master degree or higher by 12% (N = 284) (14 missing values). The participants’ age distribu-
tion comprised that 7% (N = 162) was <25 years, 21% (N = 462) 25–34, 19% (N = 421) 35–44,
30% (N = 681) 45–54, 18% (N = 392) 55–64, and 5% (N = 113) 65 years or older (72 missing
We checked for overlap between the three original parenting styles of authoritative, author-
itarian and permissive parenting (32-PSDQ), between the DD-PSDQ and between the
32-PSDQ and DD-PSDQ and found correlations in line with the earlier study done by us. The
Spearman’s rank correlations are provided in S1 Table.
Parenting style scores and body condition score categories
We used Chi-squares to test if the dog count distribution across the three main body condition
score categories (underweight, healthy-weight and overweight/obese) differed between the
four levels of each of the dog-directed parenting styles of the first, second, third and fourth
quartile of parenting style scores. The association between body condition score and parenting
was significant at the level of P<0.001 only for permissive parenting. Here, the number of
overweight/obese dogs was higher than expected for the higher (fourth) quartile of permissive
style scores and lower than expected for the lower (first) quartile of permissive style scores (χ
= 33.8, P<0.001, df = 6, N= 2,303; see Table 2 and S2 Table presents all counts for all parenting
Modifiers of relationships between parenting style and overweight/obesity
The relationships between dog-directed parenting styles and overweight/obesity in dogs were
investigated in more detail by means of logistic regressions (BCS 6–9 as 1 versus scores 1–5 as
0), including the testing of six candidate modifiers that characterized dogs or owners (dog’s
Table 2. Counts of underweight, healthy-weight, overweight/obese dog body condition scores per quartiles of an owner’s permissive parenting style scores.
Underweight (BCS 1–3) Healthy-weight (BCS 4–5) Overweight/obese (BCS 6–9)
Permissive style score 0–18.75% 121 (1.62) 441 (0.51) 20 (-3.44)
Permissive style score 18.76–25.00% 138 (1.72) 488 (-1.21) 40 (-0.58)
Permissive style score 25.01–35.00% 87 (-1.64) 420 (1.80) 32 (-0.57)
Permissive style score 35.01–91.67% 81 (-1.89) 378 (-1.03) 57 (4.80)
A dog’s body condition score (BCS) being underweight (grouping BCS 1–3), healthy-weight (BCS 4–5) or overweight/obese (BCS 6–9) was calculated to fall into an
owner’s first to fourth quartile of scores for each parenting style. These quartiles were based on the actual data distribution, not the theoretical value range of 0–100%.
Chi-square tests for these frequencies were significant only for permissive parenting and we present counts (residuals), marking in bold the observed counts that deviate
(residual |>2|) from expected counts (χ
= 33.8, P<0.001, df = 6, N= 2,303; all other P>0.001).
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 6 / 14
exercise time, age, sex/neutering status, and owner’s educational level, age and gender). These
characteristics were furthermore evaluated for explaining variation in the likelihood of dogs
being overweight/obese. Regressions with single explanatory variables confirmed the earlier
findings for permissive parenting (predicted mean ±s.e. fractions of dogs with overweight/obe-
sity of 0.05±0.01 at 19% permissive parenting and 0.07±0.01 at 35%, which represents the
range of 50% middle values, P<0.001). Similarly, the authoritarian styles were related directly
with overweight/obesity (authoritarian, 0.05±0.01 at 15% and 0.07±0.01 at 33%, P = 0.006;
authoritarian-correction, 0.06±0.01 at 13% and 0.07±0.01 at 31%, P = 0.007), whereas the par-
enting style authoritative-training related inversely (0.07±0.01 at 75% and 0.05±0.01 at 92%,
P<0.001). However, this latter effect was a trend only (P = 0.076) when owner/dog characteris-
tics were added to the statistical model and for an overview of all results see S3 Table.
Risks of overweight/obesity in dogs were little exercise of the dog, old age, neutering, and
lower education in owners. For daily exercise time the predicted fractions of overweight/obese
dogs ranged from 0.20±0.05 (<30 minutes) to 0.05±0.01 (90 minutes, P<0.001 for regres-
sion with a single explanatory variable). For dog age the range was from 0.04±0.00 (1–2 years)
to 0.14±0.02 (10 years, P<0.001). Neutered dogs had higher predicted fractions (0.09±0.01
for both males and females) than intact dogs (0.05±0.01 for females and 0.03±0.01 for males,
with pairwise differences of t-probability P<0.001 for intact males compared to neutered
males and females and P<0.05 for intact females compared to neutered males and females).
For the owner’s levels of education the fractions ranged from 0.12±0.03 for elementary school
only to 0.04±0.01 for master degree or higher (P = 0.006). Owner age did not relate to the frac-
tion of dogs with overweight/obesity (P = 0.45), although women seemed more likely to have a
dog with overweight/obesity than men (0.07±0.01 versus 0.04±0.01, P = 0.035).
Relationships between parenting styles and overweight/obesity (BCS 6–9) may be modified
by the aforementioned characteristics of owners and dogs, which was tested with regression
models of one parenting style and the six owner/dog characteristics, including two-way inter-
actions with parenting style. Models were then reduced by stepwise backward elimination (for
the results see S3 Table). For permissive parenting there was a significant interaction effect
identifying the dog’s sex/neutering status as a modifier (Wald test P = 0.044, from 0.03±0.01 to
0.06±0.01 for intact females, 0.03±0.01 to 0.03±0.01 for intact males, 0.06±0.01 to 0.07±0.01
for neutered females, from 0.04±0.01 to 0.08±0.01 for neutered males over the range of 19–
35% permissive parenting). Using intact males as the reference for the pairwise comparisons
for sex/neutering status (as these intact males had the lowest predicted means) a significant
contrast was found between permissive parenting x intact male and permissive parenting x
intact female (t-probability of pairwise differences P = 0.038).
Overweight/obese dogs are at increased risk of poor health and it is important that dog owners
adopt effective long-term weight management as part of a healthy owner-dog relationship.
Weight management of the dog could be one expression of dog-directed parenting, similarly
to child-directed parenting associating with a child’s weight. Indeed, we found that dog owners
who reported to be strongly permissive in their dog-directed parenting were more likely to
own a dog that was overweight/obese (i.e. body condition scores above six on a scale of one to
A relation between permissive dog-directed parenting and higher weight in dogs corre-
sponds with findings on permissive child-directed parenting relating to higher weight in chil-
dren, as concluded from a review of 23 cross-sectional studies, seven longitudinal and one
randomized control trial [24]. As an example, a regression coefficient of 0.35 was found for
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 7 / 14
permissiveness and the child’s higher weight (P<0.05), thus explaining twelve percent of varia-
tion in child weight after controlling for factors such as parent affect, parent weight and child
temperament [29]. This in a survey on 718 parents, of which 240 parented permissively [29].
Some studies reported the permissive style to even double a child’s chances on overweight
[30]. However, other studies report mixed results for the associations between a child’s weight
and parenting styles in general [31,32]. This indicates a need for more causal evidence [33] as
the influence of the parenting environment on a child’s weight status is complex [34], though
probably existent with child-directed parenting styles logically relating to several child-
directed feeding/exercise behaviours [3541]. Specifically, parental permissiveness combined
with poorer quality of children’s diets, less monitoring of food intake, less meal-time structure,
fewer food rules [3537], and with higher levels of sedentary behaviour in the form of watch-
ing television [38]. Contrastingly, parental authoritativeness combined with more rules in
place regarding ‘television-time’ [39,40]. Finally, parental demandingness, which is low in per-
missive parenting, combined with a child’s higher perceived abilities to exercise [41], increas-
ing the chances of sufficient exercise being a part of daily routines.
There is a proposed mechanism through which parenting styles affect weight statuses long-
term, at least in children [24,4244]. Parenting styles are thought to affect weight status in
children through influencing the child’s mechanisms of self-regulation/control [24,4244].
Self-regulation/control are regulatory responses that need to be practiced and developed dur-
ing childhood and adolescence [42,44]. The development is facilitated by authoritative parent-
ing which combines parental demandingness and responsiveness. Firstly, appropriate parental
demandingness ensures that the child is given tasks it can fulfil and this is combined by the
parent monitoring/controlling the outcomes of these tasks. This allows the child to practice
the tasks, which could be about eating vegetables or being active instead of sitting behind the
television or tablet. When the child performs the tasks successfully and repeatedly, the proper
food/exercise habits become internalized and are thus shown long-term. Secondly, the devel-
opment of self-regulation/control is facilitated by responsiveness. Responsiveness ensures that
a child’s innate hunger/satiation signals are not overruled by parental constraints [31,44]. An
example of parental constraint is obligatory finishing a meal when the child feels satiated
already. The consequence may be diminished satiation recognition over time, leading to over-
eating by lack of self-regulation long-term. Assumingly, the balance in parental demanding-
ness and responsiveness allows children to develop appropriate self-regulated/controlled
habits that benefit weight management.
Internalized food/exercise habits and self-regulation/control as underlying factors of
healthy food/exercise habits may be of lesser importance to dogs than children. A child, when
moving into adulthood, will increasingly form habits and self-regulate/control food/exercise
behaviour as it becomes more and more independent [45,46]. In contrast to this, most dogs
remain dependent on the owner throughout life. For instance, the owner’s regulation of food
provision will determine the dog’s food intake more than a dog’s self-regulation if access to
food is not freely provided to the dog. Consequently, demandingness in dog owners may not
have similar long-term effects on dogs as demanding parents on children. Overruling a dog’s
innate hunger/satiation signals or suppressing a dog’s internal exercise motivation will not
affect an adult dog’s weight status if the dog’s food/exercise habits are still controlled by the
owner during the dog’s adult life. How exactly ways of parenting may relate to a dog’s weight
is therefore less easy to predict. We find some evidence for an increased risk of overweight/
obesity in authoritarian parented dogs and particularly permissively parented dogs (and this in
contrast to those parented authoritatively). However, the findings were not consistent across
different statistical analyses and require further validation.
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
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Notwithstanding the need for further validation, higher levels of responsiveness without
demandingness, as characteristic to permissive parenting was here found to relate to higher
dog weight. Permissiveness may play an adverse role in a dog’s weight maintenance in similar
ways as parent-child situations [3537]. In the owner-dog situation also, a lack of demanding-
ness could result in providing low quality diets to the dogs, a lack of household rules on food
giving and a sedentary/minimal exercise life style. In turn, high responsiveness may make dog-
owners vulnerable to feed the dog according to its requests for food giving, resulting in more
frequent snack/treat giving [19]. The increased number of overweight/obese dogs in the quar-
tile of our most permissive owners may be explained in this way. Future studies have to unravel
how permissive dog-directed parenting actually expresses in the feeding and exercising of dogs
in the way that builds up unwanted levels of adipose tissue.
How parental demandingness may or may not factor in a dog’s weight status remains open
to further studying. Particularly the DD-PSDQ style of authoritative-training orientation
seems of interest as a style that may benefit a healthy weight in dogs. We found an indication
for a possibly protective role in a logistic regression model. However, this remained a trend
only when other explanatory variables were added to the statistical model and our Chi-square
tests did not reveal this relation. We emphasize the characteristics of our study sample which
was a self-selected convenience sample. Consequently, participating dog owners, who were
mainly female, educated and willing to make the effort to participate in research, will not
reflect a general population of dog owners. The relatively high percentage of owners walking
their dogs for 90 minutes or more daily indicates a willingness to invest in the dog through
exercise. Likely, our study sample is willing to invest in the dog in more ways than exercising it
for longer durations. Such compassion for the dog may come with only rarely displaying
extremely weak parental demandingness and/or responsiveness. This is seen for instance in
the high levels of authoritative parenting in the sample. We searched for demographics of the
Dutch dog owner population but were unable to find statistics that could be used for compari-
son with our study group. Recruiting participants with extremely weak demandingness/
responsiveness levels is complex, but necessary for a complete picture of dog-directed parent-
ing styles and possible consequences thereof. Our study sample was further characterized by
dogs mainly being reported to have a healthy weight. Our found percentage of 75% healthy-
weight is higher than the 64% of dogs reported to be normal weight in a study on 3,185 Euro-
pean dog owners (underweight: 19% versus 14%; overweight/obese: 7% versus 22%) as mea-
sured on a body condition scores ranging from one to five [47]. Additionally, a limitation of
our study is it being based on dog owner self-reports. We supported valid body condition
score assessments by providing both clear textual descriptions as well as graphics on the nine
possible body condition scores, but owner reports may have been inaccurate or biased towards
reporting lower body condition scores. Previous studies indicated that dog owners underre-
port their dog’s weight. For instance, 44% of 680 dogs’ body condition scores were misinter-
preted by their owners, as compared to veterinarians, with 77% of the discrepancies being
underestimations [48]. Seemingly, using a body condition score measurement does not
improve underestimation, as in another study 65% of 110 owners incorrectly estimated the
dog’s weight status regardless whether they did or did not use a body condition score measure-
ment [49]. Underestimation and underreporting would particularly affect our study when
entangled with parenting styles. This would be an interesting topic to address in future studies
on a dog’s weight and parenting styles. High demandingness could come with considering it
important to have a ‘perfect weight dog’, thus influencing reporting of body condition scores
through a mechanism of social desirability. Follow-up studies could address this issue by
involving expert rates on the dogs’ body condition scores. Furthermore, hypotheses-driven
experimental study set ups are needed to confirm causality of our here found associative
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 9 / 14
results. We also suggest to investigate a possible entanglement between permissiveness in dog-
directed parenting and other variables that may affect a dog’s weight, such as the decision to
neuter a dog or not. Effects of permissiveness on weight may vary depending on a dog’s sex
and neutering status, as indicated by our finding of permissiveness particularly affecting pre-
dicted means of being overweight/obese in intact female dogs in the logistic regression model.
Finally, future studies could investigate if addressing permissiveness in dog owners may
help them to resist a dog’s food giving requests, adhere to proper exercise schemes and conse-
quently facilitate a dog’s healthy weight. This, as especially longer-term weight management in
dogs seems challenging [1,50,51]. Therefore, such science could assist veterinarians in tailor-
ing their advice to an individual owner. Already, by indicating alternative ways for being
responsive than giving in to feeding requests, veterinarians can help owners to obtain and
maintain healthy-weight in their dog. The alternatives would allow the owner to express
responsiveness, but in a healthy way: playful active interactions, allowing the dog to do so-
called ‘nose work’, search games and the like. Dogs are known to enjoy working with the
owner and for daily food rations [52], a concept generally known as contrafreeloading [53].
The strong parental responsiveness in permissive dog owners may coincide with a strong will-
ingness to invest in their dog. Weight management strategies could tap into this while recog-
nising such owners’ particular pitfalls.
Overweight/obese dogs were overrepresented in the group of dog owners that scored highest
for permissive dog-directed parenting. The combination of weak parental demandingness
with strong responsiveness seems to hamper effective weigh management in dogs, challenging
us to look at how to optimally support such dog owners when we ask them to feed the dog less
calories and up their exercise time. Promoting the appropriate levels of demandingness and
responsiveness towards dogs may help dog owners persist in those feeding/exercise behaviours
that benefit a dog’s healthy weight, quality of life and longevity.
Supporting information
S1 Table. Spearman rank correlations between the parenting styles directed at the dog.
Spearman rank correlations were calculated between the original 32-PSDQ parenting styles of
authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting and the DD-PSDQ parenting styles
determined in the previous study by Van Herwijnen et al., 2018 of authoritative-training ori-
entated, authoritative-intrinsic value orientated and authoritarian-correction orientated par-
enting (N = 2,303, P<0.001 for all).
S2 Table. Counts of underweight, healthy-weight, overweight/obese dog body condition
scores per quartile of an owner’s parenting style scores. A dog’s body condition score (BCS)
being underweight (grouping body condition scores one to three), healthy-weight (score four
and five) or overweight/obese (score six to nine) was calculated to fall into an owner’s first to
fourth quartile of parenting style scores for each of the three parenting styles of authoritative,
authoritarian and permissive parenting and the additionally analysed specific styles of authori-
tative-training orientated, authoritative-intrinsic value and authoritarian-correction orientated
parenting. Chi-square tests for these frequencies were significant only for permissive parenting
= 33.8, P<0.001, df = 6, N= 2,303; all other P>0.001).
Permissive parenting of the dog and dog overweight
PLOS ONE | August 11, 2020 10 / 14
S3 Table. Predicted mean fractions of overweight/obese dogs from logistic regressions
with parenting styles and other explanatory variables. Dog overweight’s (including obesity)
association with parenting styles was tested with logistic regression. The binary response vari-
ate of overweight discriminated Body Condition Scores (BCS) 6–9 (score 1) from BCS 0–5 (0).
Regression models with single parenting styles only were extended with other possibly weight-
explaining variables (exercise duration, dog age, dog sex/neutering status, owner educational
level, owner age, owner gender), including two-way interactions with the styles. Full models
with these seven explanatory variables and six interaction terms, were reduced by stepwise
backwards elimination using Wald statistics, omitting the least significant term that was not
marginal to another term at a threshold of P<0.05. For the pairwise comparisons for sex/neu-
tering status we chose the lowest predicted mean of intact males as the reference. We present
predicted mean fractions (±s.e.) for significant main effects/interactions (Wald test P<0.05)
for the range of the 50% middle values (the two central quartiles; i.e. the range of common val-
ues) of each parenting style. Differences were significant for authoritarian (correction orien-
tated), authoritative-training orientated and permissive parenting (P<0.05) in the single factor
model and for authoritarian (correction orientated) and permissive parenting (interaction
with dog sex/neutering status in the backwards elimination model (P<0.05)).
S1 Appendix. Questionnaire items. For this survey-based research we tested the association
between a dog owner’s parenting style directed at the dog and the dog’s body condition scores.
Parenting style questionnaire items follow Van Herwijnen et al., 2018. Body condition scores
were measured with pictures and descriptions of body condition scores-chart as propagated by
the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) in their nutrition toolkit, and fol-
S1 Data.
Author Contributions
Conceptualization: Ineke R. van Herwijnen, Bonne Beerda, Joanne A. M. van der Borg.
Formal analysis: Ineke R. van Herwijnen, Bonne Beerda.
Methodology: Ineke R. van Herwijnen, Ronald J. Corbee, Bonne Beerda.
Supervision: Ineke R. van Herwijnen, Bonne Beerda, Joanne A. M. van der Borg.
Writing – original draft: Ineke R. van Herwijnen.
Writing – review & editing: Ineke R. van Herwijnen, Ronald J. Corbee, Nienke Endenburg,
Bonne Beerda, Joanne A. M. van der Borg.
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Obesity is a common nutrition-related disorder leading to reduced life expectancy in both humans and dogs. With the aim of identifying new prevention and control options, the study objectives were (1) to investigate dog-owner perceptions about obesity in terms of themselves and their dogs, and (2) to identify factors associated with obesity and possible social, environmental and economic drivers for its development in dog owners and their pets. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed across multiple countries. The questionnaire focused on human and canine obesity, associated factors and potential drivers, and was distributed online and in the form of hard copies among dog owners in 11 European countries. In total, 3,185 responses from ten countries were included in multivariable analyses. Between 19.1% and 48.8% of the dog owners reported to be overweight/obese. Owner-reported overweight/obesity in dogs ranged from 6.0% to 31.3% based on body condition score charts, and 31.8% to 69.4% based on body fat index charts. Common factors associated with obesity in owners and their dogs were age, gender and owners’ attitudes to diet and physical activity. Dog owners who did not consider obesity to be a disease were more likely to have obese dogs.
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Background: This study investigated whether the body condition score (BCS) and/or culture influences the quality of life (QoL) of dogs, as evaluated by the owner, and whether the BCS is influenced by feeding and exercise and its owner's culture. To this end, a questionnaire was administered to 355 selected dog owners (Thai and Dutch). Their dogs had a BCS of 3 (normal weight), 4 (overweight) or 5 (obese) but no other physical problems. Instead of using Likert scales, continuous scales were used. Further, data for the questionnaire items were transformed using an integrated z-score methodology. Results: The magnitude of factor loadings was similar to that reported in a previous study, indicating that the questionnaire is not culture specific. QoL scores for general sickness were significantly higher (worse) in dogs with a higher BCS. Thus even though the dogs were apparently healthy, the BCS influenced the perceived QoL of the dog. Immobility was seen more often in dogs with a higher (poorer) BCS than in dogs with a lower (better) BCS; however, there was no clear relationship between immobility and total activity. The higher the BCS, the less owners felt in control of feeding and exercise. The BCS was higher in the dogs of owners who did not like to exercise. The Thai dogs showed more separation-related behaviour problems when their owner left home than did the Dutch dogs. Conclusions: The QoL of overweight and obese dogs is mainly influenced by the dog's physical status. The owners of dogs with a high BCS have less perceived control over feeding and exercise. Our findings indicate that owner attitudes and beliefs essentially cause obesity as a result of a lack of knowledge and perceived control.
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Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a fundament for determining their possible impact on the different aspects of a dog’s life.
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This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome. Pets and people share a number of obesity-related comorbidities. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in people and in cats, but this association is not recognized in dogs. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for a number of human cancers, but there are fewer data available describing this association with canine neoplastic disease. One approach to addressing the problem of obesity is by taking a ‘One Health’ perspective. Comparative clinical research examining shared lifestyle and environmental risk factors and the reasons underlying species differences should provide new perspectives on the fundamental biology of obesity. One Health programmes involving human healthcare professionals and veterinarians could help address obesity with simple interventions at the community level.
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Much of the global canine population is now overweight, and this can adversely affect health, lifespan and quality of life. Undesirable behaviours are also common in pet dogs, and these can adversely affect welfare, as well as being stressful to owners. However, links between obesity and behavioural disorders have never previously been explored. An online survey was conducted between June and August in 2014, coinciding with the broadcast of a National UK television programme, exploring dog health, welfare and behaviour. Information gathered included signalment, overweight status and the prevalence of a range of undesirable behaviours. Fisher's exact test and OR were used to determine associations between overweight status and owner-reported behaviours. A total of 17 028 responses were received. After data verification, the final dataset comprised 11 154 dogs, 1801 (16·1 %) of which were reported by owners to be overweight. Owners of overweight dogs were more likely to see them as ‘a baby’ ( P < 0·0001) and allow them to sleep on their bed ( P < 0·0001). Overweight dogs were also more likely to guard food ( P < 0·0001) and steal food ( P < 0·0001). Other undesirable behaviours more commonly reported in overweight dogs included barking, growling or snapping at strangers ( P = 0·0011) and other dogs ( P = 0·0015), being fearful of outdoors ( P < 0·0001), and not always coming back when called ( P = 0·0011). Finally, owners were more likely to report that unsociable behaviours adversely affected their dog's health ( P < 0·0001). Overweight status is associated with a number of undesirable behaviours in dogs. Further studies are now required to explore the reasons for these associations.
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Background: Parenting style may be an important determinant of an individual's future weight status. However, reviews that evaluate the relationship between parenting style and weight-related outcomes have not focused on prospective studies. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and PsychInfo for studies published between 1995 and 2016 that evaluated the prospective relationship between parenting style experienced in childhood and subsequent weight outcomes. Results: We identified 11 prospective cohort studies. Among the eight studies that categorized parenting style into distinct groups (i.e. authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful), five provided evidence that authoritative parenting was associated with lower body mass index gains. Among the six highest quality studies, four suggested a protective role of authoritative parenting style against adverse weight-related outcomes. However, only one study controlled for a comprehensive set of confounders, and the small number of studies conducted within certain age groups precluded our ability to ascertain critical periods when parenting style is most strongly related to child weight. Conclusions: The present literature supports the idea that authoritative parenting may be protective against later overweight and obesity, although findings are mixed. More prospective cohort studies of longer durations, with more sophisticated methods that examine age-varying relationships, and that control for a comprehensive set of confounders, are needed.
Parents exert a strong influence on their children's diet. While authoritative parenting style is linked to healthier weight and dietary outcomes in children, and authoritarian and permissive parenting styles with unhealthy eating, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate these relationships. Feeding styles are often examined in relation to child diet, but they do not consider the social and physical environmental contexts in which dietary behaviors occur. Therefore, this study examined whether parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) were associated with three specific food-related parenting practices - mealtime structural practices (e.g., eating meals as a family), parent modeling of healthy food, and household food rules and whether these parenting practices mediated the association between parenting styles and children's diet. Participants were 174 mother-child dyads. Mothers (68% married, 58% college graduates, Mage = 41 years [SD = 6.2]) reported on their parenting practices using validated scales and parenting style using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Children (52% female, Mage = 10 years [SD = 0.9]) completed two telephone-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary outcomes included the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 score, and fruit and vegetables and added sugar intake. Using PROCESS, multiple mediation cross-sectional analyses with parallel mediators using 10,000 bootstraps were performed. Significant indirect effects were observed with mealtime structure and the relationships between authoritative parenting and HEI-2010 score (b = 0.045, p < .05, CI = [0.006, 0.126]), authoritarian parenting and HEI-2010 score (b = -0.055, p < .05, CI = [-0.167, -0.001]), and permissive parenting and HEI-2010 score (b = -0.093, p < .05, CI = [-0.265, -0.008]). Child diet quality is affected by mealtime structural practices. Further examination of the features by which mealtime structural practices serve as a mechanism for parents to support healthy eating among their children may improve children's diet quality.