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In this work, we show that a late fusion approach to multi-modality in sign language recognition improves the overall ability of the model in comparison to the singular approaches of Computer Vision (88.14%) and Leap Motion data classification (72.73%). With a large synchronous dataset of 18 BSL gestures collected from multiple subjects, two deep neural networks are benchmarked and compared to derive a best topology for each. The Vision model is implemented by a CNN and optimised MLP and the Leap Motion model is implemented by an evolutionary optimised deep MLP topology search. Next, the two best networks are fused for synchronised processing which results in a better overall result (94.44%) since complementary features are learnt in addition to the original task. The hypothesis is further supported by application of the three models to a set of completely unseen data where a multi-modality approach achieves the best results relative to the single sensor method. When transfer learning with the weights trained via BSL, all three models outperform standard random weight distribution when classifying ASL, and the best model overall for ASL classification was the transfer learning multi-modality approach which scored 82.55% accuracy.
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Article
British Sign Language Recognition via Late Fusion of
Computer Vision and Leap Motion with Transfer
Learning to American Sign Language
Jordan J. Bird1, Anikó Ekárt2, and Diego R. Faria1
1ARVIS Lab - Aston Robotics Vision and Intelligent Systems (https://arvis-lab.io/), Aston University,
Birmingham, United Kingdom; {birdj1, d.faria}@aston.ac.uk
2School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom;
a.ekart@aston.ac.uk
Version August 13, 2020 submitted to Sensors
Abstract:
In this work, we show that a late fusion approach to multi-modality in sign language
recognition improves the overall ability of the model in comparison to the singular approaches of
Computer Vision (88.14%) and Leap Motion data classification (72.73%). With a large synchronous
dataset of 18 BSL gestures collected from multiple subjects, two deep neural networks are
benchmarked and compared to derive a best topology for each. The Vision model is implemented
by a CNN and optimised MLP and the Leap Motion model is implemented by an evolutionary
optimised deep MLP topology search. Next, the two best networks are fused for synchronised
processing which results in a better overall result (94.44%) since complementary features are learnt in
addition to the original task. The hypothesis is further supported by application of the three models
to a set of completely unseen data where a multi-modality approach achieves the best results relative
to the single sensor method. When transfer learning with the weights trained via BSL, all three
models outperform standard random weight distribution when classifying ASL, and the best model
overall for ASL classification was the transfer learning multi-modality approach which scored 82.55%
accuracy.
Keywords: Sign Language Recognition, Multi-modality, Late Fusion
1. Introduction
Sign language is the ability to converse mainly by use of the hands, as well as in some cases
the body, face, and head. Recognition and understanding of Sign Language is thus an entirely
visuo-temporal process performed by human beings. In the United Kingdom alone, there are 145,000
deaf adults and children who use British Sign Language (BSL) [
1
]. Of those people, 15,000 report
BSL as their main language of communication [
2
] which implies a difficulty of communication with
those who cannot interpret the language. Unfortunately, when another person cannot interpret sign
language (of who are the vast majority), a serious language barrier is present due to disability.
In addition to the individuals who act as interpreters for those who can only converse in Sign
Language, or who only feel comfortable doing so, this work aims to improve autonomous classification
techniques towards dictation of Sign Language in real-time. The philosophy behind this work is
based on a simple argument, if a building were to have a ramp in addition to stairs for easier access of
the disabled, then why should a computer system not be present in order to aid with those hard of hearing
or deaf? In this work, we initially benchmark two popular methods of sign language recognition
with Computer Vision and a Leap Motion 3D hand tracking camera after gathering a large dataset
of gestures. Following these initial experiments, we then present a multi-modality approach which
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© 2020 by the author(s). Distributed under a Creative Commons CC BY license.
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Infrared
Camera
Infrared
Camera
IR
LED
IR
LED
IR
LED
Figure 1.
Photograph and labelled sketch of the stereoscopic infrared camera array within a Leap
Motion Controller, illuminated by three infrared LEDs.
fuses the two forms of data in order to achieve better results for two main reasons; firstly, mistakes and
anomalous data received by either sensor has the chance to be mitigated by the other, and secondly,
a deep neural network can learn to extract useful complimentary data from each sensor as well as
the standard approach of extracting information towards the class itself. The driving force behind
improving the ability of these two sensors is mainly cost, in that the solution presented is of extremely
minimal cost and with further improvement beyond the 18 gestures explored in this study, could
easily be implemented within public places such as restaurants, schools, and libraries etc. in order to
improve the lives of disabled individuals and enable communication with those they otherwise could
not communicate with.
In this work, the approaches of single modality learning and classification are compared to
multi-modality late fusion. The main scientific contributions presented by this work are as follows:
1.
Collection of a large BSL dataset from five subjects and a medium-sized ASL dataset from two
subjects.
2.
Tuning of classification models for Computer Vision (processing layer prior to output), Leap
Motion Classification (evolutionary topology search), and multi-modality late fusion of the two
via concatenation to a neural layer. Findings show that multi-modality is the strongest approach
for BSL classification compared to the two single-modality inputs as well as state of the art
statistical learning techniques.
3.
Transfer learning from BSL to improve ASL classification. Findings show that weight transfer to
the multi-modality model is the strongest approach for ASL classification.
The remainder of this work is as follows, Section 2explores the current state of the art for Sign
Language Classification. Section 3details the method followed for these experiments, which includes
data collection, data pre-processing and the machine learning pipeline followed. The results for all
of the experiments are presented in Section 4including indirect comparison to other state of the art
works in the field, before conclusions are drawn and future work is suggested in Section 5.
2. Related Work
Sign Language Recognition is a collaboration of multiple fields of research which can involve
pattern matching, computer vision, natural language processing, and linguistics [
3
]. Classically, sign
language recognition was usually performed by temporal models trained on sequences of video. Many
works from the late 1990’s through to the mid-2000’s found best results when applying varying forms
of Hidden Markov Models to videos [
4
7
]. More recently though, given affordable sensors that provide
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Figure 2.
Screenshot of the view from Leap’s two infrared cameras and the detected hand reproduced
in 3D. Note that this study uses a front-facing view rather than up-facing as shown in the screenshot.
more useful information than a video clip, studies have focused upon introducing this information
towards stronger and more robust real-time classification of non-verbal languages. Sign language
recognition with depth-sensing cameras such as Kinect and Leap Motion is an exciting area within the
field due to the possibility of accessing accurate 3D information from the hand through stereoscopy
similar to human depth perception via images from two eyeballs. Kinect allows researchers to access
RGBD channels via a single colour camera and a single infrared depth-sensing camera. A Microsoft
Kinect camera was used to gather data in [
8
], and features were extracted using a Support Vector
Machine from depth and motion profiles. Researchers in [
9
] found that generating synchronised
colour-coded joint distance topographic descriptor and joint angle topographical descriptor and used
as input to a two-steam CNN produced effective results; the CNNs in this study were concatenated
by late fusion similar to the multi-modality method in this study and results were around 92% for a
20-class dataset.
The Leap Motion Controller, a sketch of which can be observed in Figure 1, is a device that
combines stereoscopy and depth-sensing in order to accurately locate the individual bones and joints
of the human hand. An example of the view of the two cameras translated to a 3D representation
of the hand can be seen in Figure 2. The device measures 3.5x1.2x0.5 inches and is thus a more
portable option compared to the Microsoft Kinect. Features recorded from the 26 letters of the alphabet
in American Sign Language were observed to be classified at 79.83% accuracy by a Support Vector
Machine algorithm [
10
]. Similarly to the aforementioned work, researchers found that a different
dataset also consisting of 26 ASL letters were classifiable at 93.81% accuracy with a Deep Neural
Network [
11
]. Another example achieved 96.15% with a deep learning approach on a limited set of 520
samples (20 per letter) [
12
]. Data fusion via Coupled Hidden Markov Models was performed in [
13
]
between Leap Motion and Kinect, which achieved 90.8% accuracy on a set of 25 Indian Sign Language
gestures.
In much of the state-of-the-art work in Sign Language recognition, a single modality approach is
followed, with multi-modality experiments being some of the latest studies in the field. Additionally,
studies often fail to apply trained models to unseen data, ergo towards real-time classification (the
ultimate goal of SL recognition). With this in mind, Wang et al. proposed that sign language recognition
systems are often affected by noise, which may negatively impact real-time recognition abilities [
14
].
In this work, we benchmark two single-modality approaches as well as a multi-modality late fusion
approach of the two both during training, and on unseen data towards benchmarking a more realistic
real-time ability. Additionally, we also show that it is possible to perform transfer learning between
two ethnologues with the proposed approaches, for British and American Sign Languages.
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CNN
(VGG16)
DEvoMLP
MLP DenseInterpretation
Network
Final
Prediction
(Softmax)
LeapData
Image
ImageClassificationNetwork
BoneDataClassificationNetwork
Text
BoneData
Extraction
HigherOrder
Function
RGBChannel
Separation
Preprocessing Denseconnectionsfrom
previousnetworks
1DVectors
LeapMotion
Camera
Synchronous
DataRecording
Figure 3.
An overall diagram of the three benchmarking experiments. Above shows the process of
image classification and below shows Leap Motion data classification for the same problem of sign
language recognition. The higher order function network shows the late fusion of the two to form a
multi-modality solution.
The inspiration for the network topology and method of fusion in this work comes from [
15
] (albeit
applied to scene recognition in this instance), similarly, this work fuses two differing synchronous data
types via late-fusion by benchmarking network topologies at each step. In the aforementioned work
though, weights of the networks were frozen for late fusion layer training (derived from benchmarking
the two separate models). In this experiment, all weights are able to train from the start of the late fusion
network from scratch, and thus, the networks can extract complimentary features from each form of
data for classification in addition to the usual method of extracting features for direct classification and
prediction.
3. Proposed Approach: Multi-modality Late Fusion of Deep Networks
Within this section, the proposed approach for the late fusion experiments are described. The
experiments that this section mainly refers to can be observed in Figure 3which outlines the image
classification, Leap Motion classification, and multi-modality late fusion networks.
3.1. Dataset Collection and Pre-processing
Five subjects contributed to a dataset of British Sign Language. 18 differing gestures were recorded
at a frequency of 0.2s each using a laptop, an image was captured using the laptop’s webcam and Leap
Motion data is recorded from the device situated above the camera facing the subject. This allowed for
’face-to-face’ communication, since the subject was asked to communicate as if across from another
human being. The ’task-giver’ was situated behind the laptop and stopped data recording if the subject
made an error while performing the gesture.
From the Leap Motion sensor, data was recorded for each of the thumb, index, middle, ring,
and pinky fingers within the frame (labelled ’left’ or ’right’). The names of the fingers and bones
can be observed in the labelled diagram in Figure 4. For each hand, the start and end positions, 3D
angles between start and end positions, and velocities of the arm, palm, and finger bones (metacarpal,
proximal, intermediate and distal bones) were recorded in order to numerically represent the gesture
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Distal Intermediate Proximal Metacarpal
(Notshown)
Thumb
Index
Middle
Ring
Pinky
Palm
Arm
Wrist
Figure 4.
Labelled diagram of the bone data detected by the Leap Motion sensor. Metacarpal bones are
not rendered by the LMC Visualiser.
being performed. The pitch, yaw, and roll of the hands were also recorded. If one of the two hands
were not detected then its values were recorded as ’0’ (eg. a left handed action will also feature a vector
of zeroes for the right hand). If the sensor did not detect either hand, data collection was automatically
paused until the hands were detected in order to prevent empty frames. Thus, every 0.2 seconds, a
numerical vector is output to describe the action of both hands. The 3D angle
θ
between two points
a
and bin space is calculated by the following:
θ=arccos ab
|a|| b|, (1)
where |a|and |b|are:
|a|=qax2+ay2+az2
|b|=qbx2+by2+bz2,
(2)
with regards to the
x
,
y
, and
z
co-ordinates of each point in space. The start and end points of each
bone in the hand from the LMC are treated as the two points.
The 18 British Sign Language
1
gestures recorded were selected due to them being common useful
words or phrases in language. A mixture of one and two-handed gestures were chosen. Each gesture
was recorded twice where subjects switched dominant hands.
The useful gestures for general conversation were:
1. Hello/Goodbye
2. You/Yourself
3. Me/Myself
4. Name
5. Sorry
6. Good
1Visual examples of the BSL gestures can be viewed at https://www.british-sign.co.uk/british-sign-language/dictionary/
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Figure 5. The sign for ’Hello’ in British Sign Language
Figure 6. The sign for ’Hello’ in American Sign Language
7. Bad
8. Excuse Me
9. Thanks/Thank you
10. Time
The gestures for useful entities were:
1. Airport
2. Bus
3. Car
4. Aeroplane
5. Taxi
6. Restaurant
7. Drink
8. Food
Following this, a smaller set of the same 18 gestures but in American Sign Language
2
are collected
from two subjects for thirty seconds each (15 per hand) towards the transfer learning experiment.
’Airport’ and ’Aeroplane/Airplane’ in ASL are similar, and so, ’Airport’ and ’Jet Plane’ are recorded
instead. Figures 5and 6show a comparison of how one signs ’hello’ in British and American sign
languages; though the gestures differ, the hand is waved and as such it is likely that useful knowledge
can be transferred between the two languages.
2Visual examples of the ASL gestures can be viewed at https://www.handspeak.com/
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BritishSign
Language
LargeDataset
AmericanSign
Language
Mediumdataset
CVModel LMModel Multi-modality
Model
CVModel LMModel Multi-modality
Model
InitialWeight
Transfer
BSLModelsTrained
ASLModelsTrained
Figure 7.
Transfer Learning Experiments which train on BSL and produce initial starting weight
distributions for the ASL models
3.2. Deep Learning Approaches
For the image classification network, VGG16 [
16
] convolutional layers are used as a starting
point and the three 4096 neuron hidden layers are removed. The convolutional layers are followed
by 2, 4, 8, ..., 4096 ReLu neuron layers in each of the ten benchmarking experiments to ascertain a
best-performing interpretation layer. For the Leap Motion data classification problem, an evolutionary
search is performed [
17
] to also ascertain a best-performing neural network topology; the search is set
to a population of 20 for 15 generations, since during manual exploration, stabilisation of a final best
result tends to occur at around generation 11. The evolutionary search is run three times in order to
mitigate the risk of a local maxima being carried forward to the latter experiments.
With the best CNN and Leap Motion ANN networks derived, a third set of experiments is then
run. The best topologies (with softmax layers removed) are fused into a single layer of ReLu neurons
in the range 2, 4, 8, ..., 4096.
All experiments are benchmarked with randomised 10-fold cross validation, and training time is
uncapped to a number of epochs and rather executed until no improvement of accuracy occurs after
25 epochs. Thus, the results presented are the maximum results attainable by the network within this
boundary of early stopping.
Following the experiments on BSL, initial preliminary experiments for Transfer Learning between
languages is performed. Figure 7shows the outline for the transfer experiments, in which the
learnt weights from the three BSL models are transferred to their ASL counterparts as initial starting
weight distributions and ultimately compared to the usual method of beginning with a random
distribution. This experiment is performed in order to benchmark whether there is useful knowledge
to be transferred between each of the model pairs.
3.3. Experimental Hardware
The deep learning experiments in this study were performed on an Nvidia GTX 980Ti which
has 2816 1190MHz CUDA cores and 6GB of GDDR5 memory. Given the memory constraints, images
are resized to 128x128 although they were initially captured in larger resolutions. All deep learning
experiments were written in Python for the Keras [18] library and TensorFlow [19] backend.
The statistical models trained in this study were performed with a Coffee Lake Intel Core i7 at a
clock speed of 3.7GHz. All statistical learning experiments were written in Python for the SciKit-Learn
library [20].
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2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Interpretation Neurons
Image Classification Accuracy (%)
Figure 8.
Mean Image 10-fold Classification Accuracy corresponding to interpretation neuron numbers.
Table 1.
Final results of the three Evolutionary Searches sorted by 10-fold validation Accuracy along
with the total number of connections within the network.
Hidden Neurons Connections Accuracy
171, 292, 387 243,090 72.73%
57, 329, 313 151,760 70.17%
309, 423, 277 385,116 69.29%
4. Experimental Results
4.1. Fine Tuning of VGG16 Weights and Interpretation Topology
Figure 8shows the results for tuning of the VGG network for image classification. Each result is
given as the classification ability when a layer of neurons are introduced beyond the CNN operations
and prior to output. The best result was a layer of 128 neurons prior to output which resulted in a
classification accuracy of 88.14%. Most of the results were relatively strong except for 2-8 neurons and,
interestingly, layers of 256 and 2048 neurons. Thus, the CNN followed by 128 neurons forms the first
branch of the multi-modality system for image processing alongside the best Leap Motion network (in
the next section). The SoftMax output layer is removed for purposes of concatenation, and the 128
neuron layer feeds into the interpretation layer prior to output.
4.2. Evolutionary Search of Leap Motion DNN Topology
The evolutionary search algorithm [
17
] is applied three times for a population of 20 through 15
generations. The maximum number of neurons was 1024, and the maximum number of layers was 5.
After an initial random initialisation of solutions, the algorithm performs roulette selection for each
solution and generates an offspring (where number of layers, number of neurons per layer are bred).
At the start of each new generation, the worst performing solutions outside of the population size
20 range are deleted, and the process runs again. The final best result is reported at the end of the
simulation. Table 1shows the best results for three runs of the Leap Motion classification networks.
Of the three, the best model was a deep neural network of 171, 292, 387 neurons which resulted in
a classification accuracy of 72.73%. Interestingly, the most complex model found was actually the
worst performing of the best three results selected. This forms the second branch of the multi-modality
network for Leap Motion classification in order to compliment the image processing network. Similarly
to the image processing and network, the SoftMax output layer is removed and the final layer of 387
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2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Interpretation Neurons
Sign Language Recognition Accuracy (%)
Figure 9.
Multi-modality 10-fold Classification Accuracy corresponding to interpretation neuron
numbers towards benchmarking the late-fusion network.
Table 2. Sign Language Recognition scores of the three models trained on the dataset
Model Sign Language Recognition Ability
Computer Vision 88.14%
Leap Motion 72.73%
Multi-modality 94.44%
neurons for Leap Motion data classification is connected to the dense interpretation network layer
along with the 128 hidden neurons of the image network.
4.3. Fine Tuning the Final Model
Figure 9shows the results of fine-tuning the best number of interpretation neurons within the late
fusion layer, the best set of hyperparameters found to fuse the two prior networks was a layer of 16
neurons which achieved an overall mean classification ability of 94.44%. This best-performing layer of
16 neurons receives input from the Image and Leap Motion classification networks and is connected to
a final SoftMax output. Given the nature of backpropagation, the learning process enables the two
input networks to perform as they were prior (that is, to extract features and classify data) but a new
task is also then possible; to extract features and useful information from either data format which may
compliment the other, for example, for correction of common errors, or for contributing to confidence
behind a decision.
4.4. Comparison and Analysis of Models
Table 2shows a comparison of the final three tuned model performances for recognition of British
Sign Language through the classification of photographic images (Computer Vision) and bone data
(Leap Motion) compared to the multi-modality approach that fuses the two networks together. The
maximum classification accuracy of the CV model achieved 88.14%, the Leap Motion model achieved
72.73% but the fusion of the two allowed for a large increase towards 94.44% accuracy. A further
comparison to other statistical approaches can be observed in Table 3; although the DNN approach is
relatively weak compared to all statistical models except for Gaussian Naive Bayes, it contributes to
the Multi-modality approach by extracting features complimentary to the CNN prior to late fusion
as well as the task of classification - this, in turn, leads to the multi-modality approach attaining the
best overall result. The best statistical model, the Random Forest, was outperformed by the CNN
by 1.07% and the Multi-modality approach by 7.37%. Performance aside, it must be noted that the
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Table 3. Comparison of other statistical models and the approaches presented in this work.
Model Input Sensor(s) Sign Language Recognition Ability
MM(DNN, CNN) LMC, Camera 94.44%
CNN Camera 88.14%
RF LMC 87.07%
SMO SVM LMC 86.78%
QDA LMC 85.46%
LDA LMC 81.31%
LR LMC 80.97%
Bayesian Net LMC 73.48%
DNN LMC 72.73%
Gaussian NB LMC 34.91%
Table 4. Results of the three trained models applied to unseen data
Approach Correct/Incorrect Classification Accuracy
Computer Vision 1250/1800 69.44%
Leap Motion 752/1800 41.78%
Multi-modality 1377/1800 76.5%
statistical approaches are far less computationally complex than deep learning approaches; should the
host machine for the task not have access to a GPU with CUDA abilities, a single-modality statistical
approach is likely the most realistic candidate. Should the host machine, on the other hand, have
access to a physical or cloud-based GPU or TPU, then it would be possible to enable the most superior
model which was the deep learning multi-modality approach.
Table 4shows the final comparison of all three models when tasked with predicting the class
labels of unseen data objects, 100 per class (18 classes). The error matrix for the best model, which
was the multi-modality approach at 76.5% accuracy can be observed in Figure 10. Interestingly,
most classes were classified with high confidence with the exception of three main outliers; ’thanks’
was misclassified as ’bus’ in almost all cases, ’restaurant’ was misclassified as a multitude of other
classes, and ’food’ was often mistaken for ’drink’ although this did not occur vice-versa. Outside
of the anomalous classes which must be improved in the future with more training examples, the
multi-modality model was able to confidently classify the majority of all other phrases.
Table 5shows a comparison of state of the art approaches so Sign Language recognition. The
training accuracy found in this work is given as comparison since other works report such metric,
but it is worth noting that this work showed that classification of unseen data is often lower than the
training process. For example, the multi-modality approach score of 94.44% was reduced to 76.5%
when being applied to completely unseen data.
4.5. Transfer Learning from BSL to ASL
Table 6shows the results for transfer learning from BSL to ASL. Interestingly, with the medium
sized ASL dataset and no transfer learning, the Multi-modality approach is worse than both the
Computer Vision and Leap Motion models singularly. This, and considering that the best model
overall for ASL classification was the Multi-modality model with weight transfer from the BSL model,
suggests that data scarcity poses an issue for multi-modality models for this problem.
The results show that transfer learning improves the abilities of the Leap Motion and
Multi-modality classification approaches to sign language recognition. With this in mind, availability
of trained weights may be useful to improve the classification of other datasets regardless of whether
or not they are in the same sign language. Overall, the best model for ASL classification was the
multi-modality model when weights are transferred from the BSL model. This approach scored 82.55%
classification ability on the ASL dataset. The results suggest that useful knowledge can be transferred
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HELLO
YOU
I
NAME
SORRY
GOOD
BAD
EXCUSE_ME
THANKS
TIME
AIRPORT
BUS
CAR
PLANE
TAXI
RESTAURANT
DRINK
FOOD
HELLO
YOU
I
NAME
SORRY
GOOD
BAD
EXCUSE_ME
THANKS
TIME
AIRPORT
BUS
CAR
PLANE
TAXI
RESTAURANT
DRINK
FOOD
100000000000000000
00.94 000.060000000000000
0.03 0 0.8 000000000.160.0100000
0.05 0 0 0.95 00000000000000
0.28 0 0 0.05 0.59 00000000.0800000
000000.96 0 0 0 0.01 0 0.01 0.01 0 0 0 0.01 0
0 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.95 00000.01000000
0 0 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.94 0 0 0 0.01 0 0 0 0 0.01 0
000000000000.99 0.01 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0.02 0 0.86 0 0.07 0.02 0 0 0 0.02 0
0.01 0.01 0 0 0.01 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.83 0.07 0.02 0 0 0.01 0.01 0
0 0 0.05 0 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.01 0 0.91 000000
0.01 0 0 0.03 0.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.82 00000
00000000000000.99 0 0 0.01 0
0.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.01 0 0.94 000
0 0.01 0 0 0.01 0 0.01 0.04 0 0.09 0 0.56 0.15 0 0.01 0 0.12 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0 0.01 0.06 0 0 0 0.92 0
000000000000.010.10000.52 0.37
Figure 10.
Confusion matrix for the best model (multi-modality, 76.5%) on the set of unseen data (not
present during training).
Table 5.
Other state of the art works in autonomous Sign Language Recognition, indirectly compared
due to operation on different datasets and with different sensors. Note: it was observed in this study
that classification of unseen data is often lower than results found during training, but many works do
not benchmark this activity
Study Sensor Input Approach Classes Score (%)
Huang et al. [21] Kinect Skeleton DNN 26 97.8
Filho et al. [22] Kinect Depth KNN 200 96.31
Morales et al. [23] Kinect Depth HMM 20 96.2
Hisham et al. [24] LMC Point Cloud DTW 28 95
Kumar et al. [25] LMC Point Cloud HMM, BLSTM 50 94.55
Quesada et al. [26] RealSense Skeleton SVM 26 92.31
Kumar et al. [9] MoCap Skeleton 2-CNN 20 92.14
Yang [27] Kinect Depth HCRF 24 90.4
Cao Dong et al. [28] Kinect Depth RF 24 90
Elons et al. [29] LMC Point Cloud MLP 50 88
Kumar et al. [30] Kinect Skeleton HMM 30 83.77
Chansri et al. [31] Kinect RGB, Depth HOG, ANN 42 80.05
Chuan et al. [10] LMC Point Cloud SVM 26 79.83
Quesada et al. [26] LMC Skeleton SVM 26 74.59
Chuan et al. [10] LMC Point Cloud KNN 26 72.78
This study LMC, RGB Hand feats, RGB CNN-MLP-LF 18 94.44
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Table 6.
Results of pre-training and classification abilities of ASL models, with and without weight
transfer from the BSL models
Model Non-transfer from BSL Transfer from BSL
Epoch 0 Final Ability Epoch 0 Final Ability
Computer Vision 2.98 80.68 13.28 81.82
Leap Motion 5.12 67.82 7.77 70.95
Multi-modality 5.12 65.4 21.31 82.55
between sign languages for image classification, Leap Motion classification, and late-fusion of the two
towards multi-modality classification.
Though future work is needed for further explore the transfer learning hypotheses, the results
in these initial experiments suggest the possibility of success when transferring knowledge between
models and ultimately improving their recognition performances.
5. Conclusions and Future Work
This work has presented multiple experiments for the singular sensor and multi-modality
approaches to British and American Sign Language. The results from the experiments suggest
that a multi-modality approach outperforms the two singular sensors during both training and
for classification of unseen data. This work also presented a preliminary Transfer Learning experiment
from the large BSL dataset to a medium-sized ASL dataset, in which the best model for classification
of ASL was found to be the multi-modality model when weights are transferred from the BSL model.
All of the network topologies in this work that were trained, compared, and ultimately fused together
towards multi-modality were benchmarked and studied for the first time. Accurate classification of
Sign Language, especially unseen data, enables the ability to perform the task autonomously and
thus provide a digital method to interpretation of non-spoken language within a situation where
interpretation is required but unavailable. In order to realise this possibility, future work is needed.
The hypotheses in these experiments were argued through a set of 18 common gestures in both British
and American Sign Languages. In future, additional classes are required to allow for interpretation
of conversations rather than the symbolic communication enabled by this study. In addition, since
multi-modality classification proved effective, further tuning of hyperparameters could enable better
results, and other methods of data fusion could be explored in addition to the late fusion approach
used in this work. Transfer learning could be explored with other forms of non-spoken language such
as, for example, Indo-Pakistani SL which has an ethnologue of 1.5 million people and Brazilian SL
with an ethnologue of 200,000 people.
A cause for concern that was noted in this work was the reduction of ability when unseen data
is considered, which is often the case in machine learning exercises. Such experiments and metrics
(ability on unseen dataset, per-class abilities) are rarely performed and noted in the State of the Art
works within sign language recognition. Since the main goal of autonomous sign language recognition
is to provide a users with a system which can aid those who otherwise may not have access to a method
of translation and communication, it is important to consider how such a system would perform
when using trained models to classify data that was not present in the training set. That is, real-time
classification of data during usage of the system and subsequently the trained classification models. In
this work, high training results were found for both modalities and multi-modality, deriving abilities
that are competitive when indirectly compared to the state of the art works in the field. When the
best performing 94.44% classification ability model (multi-modality) was applied to unseen data, it
achieved 76.5% accuracy mainly due to confusion within the ’thanks’ and ’restaurant’ classes. Likewise,
the Computer Vision model reduced from 88.14% to 69.44% and the Leap Motion model reduced from
72.73% to 41.78% when comparing training accuracy and unseen data classification ability. Future
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work is needed to enable the models a better ability to generalise towards real-time classification
abilities that closely resemble their abilities observed during training.
Author Contributions
Conceptualization, Jordan J. Bird; Investigation, Jordan J. Bird; Methodology, Jordan J. Bird;
Software, Jordan J. Bird; Supervision, Aniko Ekart and Diego R. Faria; Writing – original draft, Jordan
J. Bird; Writing – review editing, Jordan J. Bird, Aniko Ekart and Diego R. Faria.
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