ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Purpose: This case study aims to examine and understand South Korea’s (S. Korea) COVID-19 response operations, a notable case for other countries to emulate, and suggests some practical implications for other countries struggling with coping with the current pandemic. Approach: To examine the case, the authors propose a new theoretical framework based on concepts of the whole community approach in the emergency management field and on co-production in public administration studies, and use the theoretical framework to analyze the details of S. Korea’s whole community co-production for COVID-19 Response. Findings: The findings demonstrate that the successful pandemic response in S. Korea is attributable to a nationwide whole community co-production among multiple actors, including government, various industries, sectors, jurisdictions, and even individual citizens, within and across relevant public service and public policy domains. Originality: This article suggests a new theoretical framework, whole community co-production, that contributes to the conceptual advancement of co-production in the field of public administration and a whole community approach in the field of emergency and crisis management. The framework also suggests practical implications for other countries to integrate whole community coproduction that may transform current response operations to cope with COVID-19.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
Whole Community Co-production:
A Full Picture Behind the Successful COVID-19 Response in S. Korea
Abstract
Purpose: This case study aims to examine and understand South Korea’s (S. Korea) COVID-19
response operations, a notable case for other countries to emulate, and suggests some practical
implications for other countries struggling with coping with the current pandemic.
Approach: To examine the case, the authors propose a new theoretical framework based on
concepts of the whole community approach in the emergency management field and on co-
production in public administration studies, and use the theoretical framework to analyze the
details of S. Korea’s whole community co-production for COVID-19 Response.
Findings: The findings demonstrate that the successful pandemic response in S. Korea is
attributable to a nationwide whole community co-production among multiple actors, including
government, various industries, sectors, jurisdictions, and even individual citizens, within and
across relevant public service and public policy domains.
Originality: This article suggests a new theoretical framework, whole community co-production,
that contributes to the conceptual advancement of co-production in the field of public
administration and a whole community approach in the field of emergency and crisis
management. The framework also suggests practical implications for other countries to integrate
whole community coproduction that may transform current response operations to cope with
COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19 response in South Korea, Whole community co-production, Pandemic
response, Public health crisis, Emergency management, Crisis management
Page 1 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
2
Introduction
Since the first outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
became a pandemic in about four months (American Library Association [ALA], 2020). As of
August 3, 2020, there have been more than 18.3 million infected cases and close to 700,000
deaths in 215 countries and territories around the world (Coronavirus Resource Center,
2020). The surge has overwhelmed health care and emergency response systems around the
world in just a few weeks from the World Health Organization’s pandemic declaration in March
2020. Medical professionals have been burnt out dealing with the steep rise of cases (Weible et
al., 2020). Treatment equipment and facilities have reached capacity. Protective gear for
medical workers has become scarce.
Facing devastation, most of the world’s governments have focused on flattening the
curve, meaning a gradual increase of COVID-19 infection rate over time. The flattened curve is
to prevent overtaxing critical infrastructure and resources. Affected countries have implemented
various measures to flatten the curve, including social distancing, travel restrictions, and various
forms and levels of lockdown. Still, many countries struggle to flatten the curve regardless of
the mass efforts, reaching a grim new record of death tolls and confirmed cases every day
(Regencia et al., 2020).
Amid the hopelessness, the Republic of Korea (S. Korea) has been recognized as a
notable model to emulate (Normile, 2020). While on February 29, 2020, it recorded the world’s
highest number by far of confirmed cases (909 new cases) outside of China, S. Korea has been
flattening and reversing the curve, rapidly reducing the total number of confirmed cases, and
maintaining fewer than 100 daily new cases without going through a strict lockdown (Beaubien,
2020; Kim, 2020).
Page 2 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
3
What has made such a difference in S. Korea? Often, effective leadership and a well-
established public service and health care system have been praised for S. Korea’s current
promising outcome (Beaubien, 2020; Kim, 2020). Some have pointed out cultural and
contextual differences such as strong collectivism, or citizens’ conformity to authority, or
citizen’s preference for safety over their privacy rights (Borowiec, 2020). Each of these factors
has been an important contributor to the country’s current successful response to the pandemic.
However, at a meta-level, what resulted in such a difference in S. Korea has been an active
nationwide co-production across diverse actors from different sectors, jurisdictions, industries,
organizations, and even individual citizens.
In response to increasing needs for a successful model to emulate, this research examines
the case of S. Korea’s successful COVID-19 response operations, asking “how has nationwide
whole community co-production across diverse jurisdictions, sectors, units, industries, and actors
in S. Korea resulted in effective and efficient pandemic response?”. To answer the research
question, the authors analyze the case and propose a new theoretical framework that is built
based on co-production in public administration studies (Ostrom, 1972, 1996; Alford, 1998,
2009; Nabatchi et al., 2017), and the ‘whole community approach’ in emergency management
literature (Waugh and Streib, 2006; Nowell and Steelman, 2015). From the case study, the
authors suggest some practical implications for other countries to consider in their own response
to COVID-19.
The following section introduces a new theoretical framework, whole community co-
production. The next section describes the methods, data, and context followed by the
descriptive findings from the case study. Then, the authors discuss the findings and suggest
Page 3 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
4
some practical implications. Lastly, the conclusion section summarizes the study with directions
for future research.
Literature Review: A Whole Community Co-production for Pandemic Management
In public administration literature, ‘co-production’ has been defined as both the processes and
outcomes produced by multiple various actors collectively contributing to the delivery of
relevant public services and achieving desired common goals (Alford, 1998, 2009; Nabatchi et
al., 2017). Evidenced by a growing amount of research and programs, co-production has
become imperative in transforming many public services and public policy domains such as
budgeting (da Silva Craveiro and Albano, 2017), education (Sicilia et al., 2016; Wybron and
Paget, 2016), environment (Association for Public Service Excellence, 2013), health (Penny et
al., 2012; Realpe and Wallace, 2010), neighborhood safety (Alford and Yates, 2016), and
transportation (Copestake et al., 2014).
Despite the increasing volume of research and programs on co-production, there have
been ongoing debates on the level of co-production and who is involved in what domains of
public service (Alford, 2014, 2016; Jo and Nabatchi, 2016). In general, existing literature
categorizes the co-producers into two groups, state actors (government professionals) and lay
actors (citizens producers), and categorizes the domain(s) of co-production as a specific issue or
several relevant issues (Nabatchi et al., 2017). In their review of co-production studies, Nabatchi
et al. (2017) propose typologies of participants, individuals, groups, and collectives based on the
scope of the role of the lay actor and the scope of the benefits of co-production in order to
eliminate the confusion of the ambiguous boundaries of co-producers and the public service
domain.
Page 4 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
5
However, given the growing complexity and interdependence of public service domains
in contemporary society, the boundaries of co-producers should be flexible and those of co-
production domains should be permeable in practice (Alford, 2014, 2016). In the emergency
management context, in particular, the types and numbers of co-producers need to be more
inclusive than other ordinary public service domains. An emergency or and a crisis may affect
all segments of society (Fisher et al., 2015; Sobelson et al., 2015; Zakocs and Edwards, 2006).
For example, COVID-19 not only affects the public health service domain and infection control
but also other health domains such as patients with pre-existing conditions or other surgical
emergencies. Also, the response to the pandemic affects the domains of transportation, local
economy, social welfare, and information. Furthermore, a response in one public service domain
affects other domains. For example, city lockdown affects the city’s local economy. Therefore,
the co-producers of emergency management become everybody and anybody who is affected by
the incidents (Khanlou and Wray, 2014).
In response to the flexible and wider scope of who co-produces what public services, the
authors suggest a new theoretical framework, ‘whole community co-production’ to increase the
applicability of the concept of co-production in the public administration studies by combining
the whole community approach widely used in the fields of emergency management and public
health (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2020). This study defines whole community
co-production as the full engagement of the entire societal capacity—residents, emergency
management practitioners, organizations across sectors, community leaders, professional
associations, government officials, and ordinary citizens, to transform relevant and interlocking
public services to minimize damage from emergencies and to build resilience (See figure 1). The
whole community co-production framework reflects the complex nature and the localness of any
Page 5 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
6
emergency or crisis, and the collective capability of communities to transform public services
(Erkan et al., 2016; Leonard and Howitt, 2010; Sobelson et al., 2015). Hence, the approach
focuses on initiatives and encourages transformation by diverse ranges of stakeholders who
know the context and who have extra resources that can be utilized within affected areas (Kumar,
2019; Khanlou and Wray, 2014).
[Figure 1 here]
The whole community co-production approach is indispensable during large-scale
disasters and extreme events such as the COVID-19 pandemic (Weible et al., 2020). The
pandemic strains government capacities and asks communities to do more with less (Lee et al.,
2020; Weible et al., 2020). Strong leadership and good public health systems are necessary.
However, they alone are not sufficient to cope with a large-scale emergency (Boin and Hart,
2003; Comfort, 2007; Leonard and Howitt, 2010; Yeo and Comfort, 2017). While governments
make policy decisions and implement programs to respond to the current emergency, they take
inputs from their contractors, suppliers, and partners to implement their decisions. Citizens are
the general beneficiary of government programs, but their feedback reshapes both current and
future emergency services, and they can participate proactively in public programs (Kumar,
2019). In the process, whole community stakeholders share information, resources,
understandings, and responsibilities (Comfort, 2007). The multifaceted sharing leads to a greater
collective social outcome. It helps to identify best practices to organize and utilize strained
resources, transform response operations, and enhance community security and resilience in the
face of emergencies and crises (Zakocs and Edwards, 2006; Comfort, 2007; O'sullivan et al.,
2013; Sobelson et al., 2015).
Page 6 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
7
Methods
The study adopted a qualitative case study method to explore S. Korea’s whole community co-
production to cope with COVID-19. A case study method is appropriate given the research aim
focusing on 1) understanding current phenomena and the uniqueness of a situation rather than
developing a concept or testing theories (Stenhouse, 1980) assessing complex social relations
embedded in a case (George and Bennett, 2005), and 3) suggesting some practical lessons based
on findings from an in-depth analysis of an exemplary case of COVID-19 response practices in a
specific context (Yin, 2003; McNabb, 2002).
Case: COVID-19 Response in S. Korea
For its rapid control of the spread of the disease, S. Korea’s response to COVID-19 has been
recognized as an exemplary case. From the first case on January 20, S. Korea confirmed one or
two cases on average in the subsequent days. However, after February 19, the number of cases
exponentially increased due to multiple cluster infections (Ryall, 2020; Shim et al., 2020). S
Korea experienced its surge peak on February 29 with 909 new confirmed cases. Since then, the
number of new cases has decreased significantly. In particular, since April 10th, the number of
new cases per day has remained under 50 and even declared zero daily confirmed cases of
domestic origin for multiple days.
Data and Analysis
Applying the ‘whole community co-production’ approach, the authors examine how the whole
community (actors from varying scales and levels) have co-produced which kinds of public
services to contribute to the country’s notable mitigation of and response to the pandemic. This
study collects multiple qualitative data from multiple sources. First, the authors analyzed 242
Page 7 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
8
documents and press releases published by government agencies and departments such as the
Korean Center for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC)and the Ministry of Economy and
Finance, multiple newspapers from January 31, 2019, to April 30, 2020. To collect information
about changes in legislation and policies regarding S. Korea's infectious disease control, the
authors also reviewed minutes of the National Assembly published since the 2015 Middle East
Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak.
The authors conducted a documentation review and a series of systematic content
analyses of the qualitative data from multiple sources above mentioned. First, from the
documentation review, the authors identified three domains, including institutional arrangements,
incident command systems, and response operations in practice. Second, the authors conducted
content analyses to identify who were the whole community actors, how they were involved in
response to COVID-19, and what types of public services were co-produced in each domain as
well as multiple intersections of the domains. In particular, the authors analyzed minutes from
the National Assembly and associated news articles to understand institutional arrangements
supporting the whole community coproduction. The authors explored the incident command
systems domain by analyzing documents and press releases by government agencies. News
articles and government documents and press releases were analyzed to examine the contents of
the response operation domain. When analyzing the contents of the response operation domain,
the authors identified five emerging sub-domains. Each of the sub-domains has distinctive
objectives for response operations but shares collective goals that support whole community co-
production at the collective level. These sub-domains include massive testing and diagnosis,
intensive contact tracing, information sharing, expansion of health care system capacities and
patient care, and supply chain management.
Page 8 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
9
Findings: Multifaceted Whole Community Co-production in S. Korea’s Pandemic
Response
This section presents how whole community co-production has operated which public service
and policy domains in response to COVID-19 in S. Korea.
Whole Community Co-production for Institutional Arrangements
The legitimacy of S. Korea’s formal response operations to COVID-19 is supported by the
Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act, the Medical Service Act, and the Quarantine Act.
These Acts define the incident commanders and guide detailed authorities, measures, and
methods for emergency operations to control infectious diseases.
The details of supporting articles in these Acts have been added and/or amended since the
2015 MERS outbreak in S. Korea. After the outbreak, public opinion pointed out the absence of
such an established system, lack of practical power of the incident commander, and weak
information sharing and collaboration across relevant organizations as the inhibitors of early and
effective intervention to the previous infectious disease. In response to emerging public opinion
over the past five years, a series of amendments have been made which have provided a
fundamental steppingstone for the current promising COVID-19 response of S. Korea (Lee et al.,
2020).
Whole Community Co-production for Multi-tier Incident Command Systems
Based on the Infectious Disease Prevention and Management Act, the KCDC became the
nation’s first incident commander for infectious disease control on December 31, 2019. As the
country experienced an abrupt surge of cases in early February 2020, the country declared an
emergency alert level. Accordingly, the Central Disaster and Safety Countermeasures
Page 9 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
10
Headquarters (CDSCH) assembled under the Prime Minister’s office on February 23, 2020, to
assist the KCDC. In the CDSCH, the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MoHW) has assisted the
KCDC with public health capacities and the Ministry of the Interior and Safety has assisted the
KCDC with its emergency management capacity.
[Figure 2 here]
Regardless of the confirmed number of cases in their jurisdictions and in accordance with the
national incident commanders’ directions, the 17 municipal governments voluntarily assembled
the Local Disaster and Safety Countermeasures Headquarters (LDSCH). Since then, LDSCH
has been identifying critical information, requesting national assistance for local sites, assisting
local public health facilities, and sharing information with local citizens.
At the community level, multiple medical professional organizations, such as the Korean
Society for Preventive Medicine, the Korean Medical Association has promoted a social
distancing campaign (Hong, 2020). With a couple of extreme exceptions, most individual
citizens, as incident commanders of their own life, have voluntarily followed government
recommendations such as self-quarantine and minimizing contact with other people. They, also
have continuously practiced safe health habits such as washing hands, wearing masks,
minimizing person-to-person contact throughout the incident (Yoon, 2020).
Whole Community Co-production for Pandemic Response Operations in Practice
Massive testing and diagnosis: S. Korea has taken the most aggressive testing strategy in the
world (Yoon and Martin, 2020). As of August 3, 2020, a total of 1,579,757 people has been
tested for COVID 19 in S. Korea (ALA, 2020) by 638 testing centers including 60 drive-through
centers operated by 8,638 public health centers and medical institutions. Samples collected have
Page 10 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
11
been analyzed at 118 diagnostic centers (MoHW, 2020). The service is free of charge to all
suspected, referred, and/or confirmed cases. Currently, S. Korea can test and analyze up to
20,000 samples per day (3,000 in March 2020) (MoHW, 2020).
S. Korea’s testing and diagnosis capacity has been co-produced by the government,
medical professionals, and medical industries. First, KCDC, the Korean Society for Laboratory
Medicine, and the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service have developed
and approved the current testing methods. Then, KCDC shared the information with
manufacturers and assisted them to develop and mass-produce a commercialized version of the
testing kit. The commercialized version has significantly reduced the time for the diagnosis from
24 hours to 6 hours (Kwon, 2020a). Since February 7, the manufacturers have supplied the
testing kits to the testing centers, continuously supporting the massive testing capacities
(Normile, 2020).
Intensive contact tracing: The S. Korean government has been intensively tracing the possible
points of contact of confirmed cases to identify potential confirmed cases and to prevent further
disease transmission. The epidemiological investigation has been integrated as one of the
services provided at the 638 testing centers. Upon arrival and registration at a testing center, the
person is asked to provide recent travel histories (both domestic and overseas) to the
investigators. If the person’s case is diagnosed as positive, then the person’s travel log is
anonymized and shared with the municipal and national government to inform the public. If
further information is necessary, the government formally requires investigation of multiple
CCTV recordings, the person’s mobile phone GPS data, and credit card transactions based on the
Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act (MoEF, 2020). The functional operations of this
Page 11 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
12
additional data collection have been coordinated through multiple private service providers, such
as mobile phone or credit card companies.
Information sharing: Information sharing has been the key to the response operation in S. Korea.
KCDC first shared the information about the virus outbreak in China on December 31, 2019.
COVID-19 information, such as symptoms, testing centers, and protocols, has been shared
through the official COVID 19 website (http://ncov.mohw.go.kr) and KCDC’s hotline 1339 (or
regional code+120).
Since January 20, the day of the first case, the chief deputy of the KCDC has held a daily
briefing at 2 p.m. to share information such as the number of new cases and mortality, and cases
treated and recovered (Kwon, 2020b). During the briefing, anonymized travel logs of all the
confirmed cases are presented for early identification and treatment of potentially infected cases,
and prevention of further spread. The daily briefing records have been shared on the official
homepage of KCDC, the official COVID-19 website, 17 municipal government websites, and
their social media webpages
The information shared by the government has been reiterated and redistributed by
multiple channels. Both national and local media and broadcasting companies have been
providing summaries of the information. The Naver, the major web portal used by S. Koreans,
has set up a banner on its main page to provide the most up-to-date information. Utilizing the
published information, ordinary citizens have developed free mobile phone applications that
display all the travel logs of all the confirmed cases on a map and send alerts to users within a
100-meter radius from the route. The first application was downloaded and used by 2.4 million
people within about 20 days from its launch date on February 3, 2020 (Ha, 2020). All these
Page 12 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
13
private, nonprofit, and individual’s efforts have contributed to citizens’ information accessibility
and disease awareness.
Expansion of health care system capacities and patient care: During the response, S. Korea has
continuously expanded the health care system capacity to prevent overtaxing of the core medical
staff and facilities. A total of 9.62 billion USD has been assigned to the nation’s response to
COVID-19.
Initially, 29 public hospitals were assigned as COVID-19 treatment facilities (KCDC
2020). However, in the face of a shortage of hospital beds and emergency rooms during the
surge, patients have been triaged based on their symptoms, and only severe cases have been
admitted for hospital care to protect medical staff and provide needed care to all patients (Yoon,
2020). Meanwhile, 16 treatment support centers were opened to isolate and treat cases with mild
symptoms. Initially, the government designated seven public employee training facilities to be
used as treatment centers. Later, nine treatment support centers were added with the donation of
space by several large corporations such as Samsung, LG, Hyundai Motors, Hanhwa, Kia
Motors, a university, and a Catholic Church organization (CDSCH, 2020b). The confirmed
asymptotic cases have been ordered to self-quarantine at home for 14 days and report their
symptoms to designated officers of the district government through a ‘safety protection
application’ on their mobile phone (MoHW, 2020). With some exceptions, the majority of
individual citizens who self-identified their possible contact with confirmed cases or traveled
abroad have self-quarantined for 14 days.
Furthermore, tons of donations of medical supplies, goods, food, and lodging have been
provided to support medical staff on the front line of the response (Kang, 2020). Thousands of
Page 13 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
14
citizens, nurses, doctors, social workers, community organizations, and nonprofits have
volunteered for patient care and facility care at hospitals and treatment centers across the country
(Kang, 2020). All these efforts together have eased the burden on the core medical staff and
facilities and have contributed to raising the nation’s public health capacity to combat the disease
(Kang, 2020).
Supply chain management: There have been no observable panic buying behaviors or
exceptional shortages of daily necessities or protective gear for medical staff in S. Korea. The
only exception was the shortage of face mask supplies and the abrupt price increase of masks in
early and mid-February. The government immediately intervened with the mask supply chain by
producing state-sponsored KF 94 masks through 123 mask manufacturers. Each manufacturer
has contributed 50% of its production to the government supplies (CDSCH, 2020a). In addition,
the government halted unauthorized international export of masks and discouraged profiteers by
imposing up to $5,000 fine or a two-year prison sentence. Violations are detected and
investigated through coordinated investigations by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, the
Fair-Trade Commission, the National Tax Service, the17 municipal governments, or individual
citizens’ reports of violators and profiteers. As a result, the government was able to initially
release 24,000 state-sponsored masks (1.2 USD per mask) through district post offices on
February 27, 2020, and since then has been able to maintain national inventories that support
stable mask supplies (two per person weekly). Citizens have contributed to supply change
management at the local level by developing mobile phone applications updating mask
inventories at district levels. The applications also contributed to managing social distancing
between people wanting to buy masks.
Page 14 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
15
Discussion
S. Korea’s effective COVID-19 response operation is based on co-production by whole
community actors in multiple public service domains including legislation, incident management
systems, massive testing, intensive tracing, public health capacity, patient care, information
sharing, and supply chain management that all contributed to the notable COVID-19 response in
S. Korea. Each of these public services represents the outputs of co-production among
multifaceted actors at all levels who have acted on their shared responsibilities. Furthermore,
whole community co-production in one domain has supported co-production in other domains
during the response period. Putting the people’s safety first, a wider range of actors have
contributed to the pandemic response operations with respect, care, and trust. The whole
community’s efforts across multifaceted actors have resulted in S. Korea’s continuing
effectiveness in COVID-19 response operations.
Whole community co-production should not be unique to S. Korea. Many countries have
established policy frameworks that encourage a whole community approach in emergency
management practice. In addition, co-production has been an imperative part of public service
around the world. In many countries, there is strong involvement in COVID-19 response by
citizens, professions, and communities, as well as co-production between governments and
companies, industries, and nonprofit organizations (Weible et al., 2020; Yeo, 2020). Yet, as the
situation demands everyone to do more with less, it seems the previously taken-for-granted
whole community approach has not been incorporated well with the co-production operating in
practice. In this situation, co-production has become something to be reintroduced or
reintegrated into the whole community response operation in practice. It is, also possible that
Page 15 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
16
COVID-19 might have been recognized as just one of many public health issues. Thus,
emergency response systems for COVID-19 have operated differently than for other types of
hazards, such as natural disasters, that could immediately mobilize a whole community co-
production. Furthermore, facing the wicked nature of the novel virus, societies might have been
easily distracted by nonessential issues (Weible et al., 2020) such as fighting about wearing
masks or scapegoat hunting. Such distractions could encourage defensive routines in relevant
public organizations that were expected to take lead in response to the situation (Comfort et al.,
2019; Weible et al., 2020). Meanwhile, issues, problems, systems, and people might be more
segmented and isolated, thereby wasting limited information and resources that could be utilized
in COVID-19 response.
Concerning these possible impediments, we suggest several ways for other countries to
reintroduce or reintegrate whole community co-production into their response to COVID-19.
The authors suggest it is important to approach the pandemic as a large-scale emergency, just
like other hazards, which needs a whole community approach for effective responses (Yeo and
Comfort, 2017; Comfort et al., 2019; Weible et al., 2020). In addition, countries may establish
an ultimate goal for the situation, putting the people, and saving their lives, first. This goal
cannot be stressed enough to develop distributed cognition on collective pandemic response
across all segments of society. Lastly, connectedness among all the issues and needs in the
current situation can be iteratively communicated with everybody and anybody who are currently
or potentially affected by the pandemic to establish shared responsibilities of stakeholders at all
levels. Government agencies and policymakers may transform current communication from one-
way—government push information down to the public, to two-way—the public and government
directly exchange information (Houston et al., 2015). The transformation may be achieved by
Page 16 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
17
utilizing information and communication technologies and social media (da Silva Craveiro and
Albano, 2017; Malawani et al., 2020).
Conclusions
This study aims to introduce a new emergency management approach, whole community co-
production, to current pandemic management practice by examining how the approach has
worked and resulted in the successful COVID-19 response practice of S. Korea. Findings
indicate that S. Korea’s effective COVID-19 response operation is based on co-production
among whole community actors in multiple public service domains including legislation,
incident management systems, massive testing, intensive tracing, public health capacity, patient
care, information sharing, and supply chain management.
Whole community co-production may not sound very new in all-hazards emergency
management since either a whole community approach or co-production systems might have
operated well in the past. However, given the complexity of disease control and subsequent
social and policy issues, government, society, and communities may not relate their existing
whole community emergency response capacities to managing the novel type of public health
crisis. The lack of whole community co-production might be attributable to ongoing struggles to
flatten the curve in many countries. Concerning possible impediments for pandemic
management, this article suggested several implications to encourage or enhance whole
community co-production.
Despite the contributions of this case study to theory and practice, this study has
limitations to be addressed in future research. This is an exploratory single case study of whole
community co-production for pandemic response systems in a single country. Therefore, to
Page 17 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
18
expand our discussion and findings, future research may utilize different methodologies or data
sources to examine the same case. Through surveys or in-depth interviews, researchers may
measure factors or conditions that facilitate whole community co-production in the country or
examine the impact of whole community co-production on pandemic response performance.
Furthermore, to expand theoretical implications and understanding for the whole community co-
production, future studies may apply the theoretical framework, whole community co-
production, to analyze or access the pandemic response systems of other countries. Or they may
conduct a large-N case study by either comparing similar cases or contrasting different cases.
References
American Library Association (2020), “Coronavirus testing: criteria and numbers by country”,
available at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/covid-19-testing/ (accessed 3 August
2020)
Alford, J. (1998), “A public management road less traveled: clients as co-producers of public
services”, Australian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 57 No. 4, pp.128-137.
Alford, J. (2009), Engaging public sector clients: from service delivery to co-production.
Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.
Alford, J. (2014), “The multiple facets of co-production: building on the work of Elinor
Ostrom”, Public Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp.299-316.
Alford, J. (2016), “Co-production, interdependence, and publicness: extending public service-
dominant logic”, Public Management Review, Vol. 18 No. 5, pp.673-691.
Alford, J. and Yates, S. (2016), “Coproduction of public services in Australia: the roles of
government organisations and CoProducers”, Australian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.
75 No. 2, pp.159-175.
Association for Public Service Excellence (2013), Making co-production work—lessons from
local government, Trades Union Congress, London, UK.
Beaubien, J. (2020), “How South Korea reined in the outbreak without shutting everything
down”, NPR, 21 March, available at:
https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/26/821688981/how-south-korea-reigned-in-
the-outbreak-without-shutting-everything-down (accessed 11 April 2020)
Page 18 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
19
Borowiec, S. (2020), “How South Korea’s coronavirus outbreak got so quickly out of control”,
TIME, 24 February, available at: https://time.com/5789596/south-korea-coronavirus-outbreak/
(accessed 20 April 2020)
Boin, A. and Hart, P. (2003), “Public leadership in times of crises: mission impossible”, Public
Administration Review, Vol. 63 No. 5, pp.544-553.
Central Disaster and Safety Countermeasures Headquarters (2020a), “Regular briefing
materials”, 1 February, available at:
http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/tcmBoardView.do?brdId=&brdGubun=&dataGubun=&ncvContSeq=35
2635&contSeq=352635&board_id=145&gubun=BDH (accessed 6 April 2020) (Korean)
Central Disaster and Safety Countermeasures Headquarters (2020b), “Regular briefing
materials” 16 March, available at:
http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/tcmBoardView.do?brdId=&brdGubun=&dataGubun=&ncvContSeq=35
3565&contSeq=353565&board_id=140&gubun=BDJ (accessed 6 April 2020) (Korean)
Comfort, L.K. (2007), “Crisis management in hindsight: cognition, communication,
coordination, and control”, Public Administration Review, Vol.67 No. s1, pp.189-197.
Comfort, L.K., Yeo, J., and Scheinert. S.R. (2019), “Organizational adaptation under stress:
tracing communication processes in four California county health departments during the H1N1
threat, April 28, 2009, to March 11, 2011”, The American Review of Public Administration, Vol.
49 No. 2, pp.159-173.
Copestake, P., Sheikh, S., Johnston, S., and Bollen, A. (2014), Removing barriers, raising
disabled people’ s living standards, OPM, London, UK, available at:
https://www.opm.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Removing-barriersraising-living-
standards.pdf (accessed 30 June 2020)
Coronavirus Resource Center (2020), “COVID-19 dashboard”, available at:
https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html (accessed 3 August 2020)
da Silva Craveiro, G. and Albano, C. (2017), “Open data intermediaries: coproduction in budget
transparency”, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp.119-
131.
Erkan, B., Ertan, G., Yeo, J., and Comfort, L.K. (2016), “Risk, profit, or safety: sociotechnical
systems under stress”, Safety Science, Vol. 88, pp.199-210.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (2020), “A whole community approach to emergency
management: principles, themes, and pathways for action”, available at:
https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/23781 (accessed 7 April 2020)
Fisher, A.D., Callaway, D.W., Robertson, J.N., Hardwick, S.A., Bobko, J.P., and Kotwal, R.S.
(2015), “The ranger first responder program and tactical emergency casualty care
implementation: a whole-community approach to reducing mortality from active violent
incidents”, Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp.46-53.
Page 19 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
20
George, A.L. and Bennett, A. (2005), Case study and theory development in the social sciences,
The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Ha, S. (2020), “Glancing at the contact tracing ... 'corona map' created by college students in
their 20s”, JoongAng Ilbo, 1 February, available at: https://news.joins.com/article/23695373
(accessed 6 April 2020) (Korean)
Hong, W. (2020), “Is it possible to prevent COVID19 with social distancing?”. Doctor's News, 9
March, available at: https://www.doctorsnews.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=133758
(accessed 6 April 2020) (Korean)
Houston, J.B., Hawthorne, J., Perreault, M.F., Park, E.H., Goldstein Hode, M., Halliwell, M.R.,
McGowen, S., Davis, R., Vaid, S. McElderry, J.A., and Griffith, S.A. (2015), “Social media and
disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and
research”, Disasters, Vol. 39 No. 1, pp.1-22.
Jo, S. and Nabatchi, T. (2016), “Getting back to basics: advancing the study and practice of
coproduction”, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 39 No. 13, pp.1101-1108.
Kang, D. (2020), “To prevent the medical staff who came to help Daegu from suffering from
lack of accommodation… The boss who provided his own accommodation for free”, DongA
Ilbo, 28 February, available at: http://www.donga.com/news/article/all/20200228/99916728/1
(accessed 6 April 2020) (Korean)
Kim, T.H. (2020), “Why is South Korea beating coronavirus? its citizens hold the state to
account”, The Guardian, 11 April, available at:
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/11/south-korea-beating-coronavirus-
citizens-state-testing (accessed 11 April 2020).
Khanlou, N. and Wray, R. (2014), “A whole community approach toward child and youth
resilience promotion: a review of resilience literature”, International journal of mental health
and addiction, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp.64-79.
Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (2020), “Press release”, 28 January, available
at: https://www.cdc.go.kr/board/board.es?mid=a20501000000&bid=0015 (accessed 6 April
2020) (Korean)
Khanlou, N. and Wray, R. (2014), “A whole community approach toward child and youth
resilience promotion: a review of resilience literature”, International Journal of Mental Health
and Addiction, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp.64-79.
Kumar, A. (2019), "Citizen-centric model of governmental entrepreneurship: transforming
public service management for the empowerment of marginalized women", Transforming
Government: People, Process and Policy, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 62-75.
Kwon, M. (2020a), “Keys to reducing COVID19 inspection time from 24 hours to 6 hours?”,
Healthcare, 3 March, available at:
Page 20 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
21
http://m.healthcaren.com/news/news_article_yong.jsp?mn_idx=349293 (accessed 6 April 2020)
(Korean)
Kwon, S. (2020b), “COVID-19: lessons from South Korea”, Health Systems Global, 31 March,
available at: https://www.healthsystemsglobal.org/blog/406/COVID-19-Lessons-from-South-
Korea.html (accessed 17 April 2020).
Lee, S., Yeo, J., and Na, C. (2020), “Learning from the past: distributed cognition and crisis
management capabilities for tackling COVID-19”, The American Review of Public
Administration, (online first) https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074020942412.
Leonard, H.B., and Howitt, A. (2010), “Organizing response to extreme emergencies: the
Victorian bushfire of 2009”, Australian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 69 No. 4, pp.372-
386.
Malawani, A.D., Nurmandi, A., Purnomo, E.P., and Rahman, T. (2020), “Social media in aid of
post disaster management”, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Vol. 14 No.
2, pp.237-260.
McNabb, D.E. (2002). Research methods in public administration and nonprofit management.
ME Sharpe, Armonk, NY.
Ministry of Economy and Finance, S. Korea. (2020), “Tackling COVID-19: Korean experience”,
available at:
http://english.moef.go.kr/pc/selectTbPressCenterDtl.do?boardCd=N0001&seq=4868 (accessed 9
April 2020)
Ministry of Health and Welfare, S. Korea. (2020), “Coronavirus disease-19, the Republic of
Korea”, available at: http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/en/ (accessed 6 April 2020)
Nabatchi, T., Sancino, A., and Sicilia, M. (2017), “Varieties of participation in public services:
the who, when, and what of coproduction”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 77 No. 5, pp.
766-776.
Normile, D. (2020), “Coronavirus cases have dropped sharply in South Korea. What’s the secret
to its success?”, Science, 17 March, available at:
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/03/coronavirus-cases-have-dropped-sharply-south-
korea-whats-secret-its-success (accessed 11 April 2020)
Nowell, B., and Steelman, T. (2015), “Communication under fire: the role of embeddedness in
the emergence and efficacy of disaster response communication networks”, Journal of Public
Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp.929-952.
Ostrom, E. (1972), “Metropolitan reform: propositions derived from two traditions”, Social
Science Quarterly, Vol. 53 No. 3, pp.474-493.
Ostrom, E. (1996), “Crossing the great divide: coproduction, synergy, and development”, World
Development, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp.1073-1087.
Page 21 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
22
O'sullivan, T.L., Kuziemsky, C.E., Toal-Sullivan, D., and Corneil, W. (2013), “Unraveling the
complexities of disaster management: a framework for critical social infrastructure to promote
population health and resilience”, Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 93, pp.238-246.
Penny, J., Slay, J., and Stephens, L. (2012), People powered health: co-production catalogue,
Nesta, London, UK.
Realpe, A., and Wallace, L.M. (2010), What Is co-production?, The Health Foundation. London,
UK.
Regencia, T., Stepansky, J., and Varshalomidz, T. (2020), “Global coronavirus death toll exceeds
100,000: live updates”, Aljazeera, 10 April, available at:
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/coronavirus-deaths-rise-signs-progress-live-updates-
200409231002574.html (accessed 11 April 2020)
Ryall, J. (2020), “Coronavirus: Surge in South Korea virus cases linked to church super-
spreader”, The Telegraph, 20 February, available at:
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/02/20/coronavirus-surge-south-korea-virus-cases-
linked-church-super/ (accessed 1 May 202)
Shim, E., Tariq, A., Choi, W., Lee, Y., and Chowell, G. (2020), “Transmission potential and
severity of COVID-19 in South Korea”, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 93, pp
339-344.
Sicilia, M., Guarini, E., Sancino, A., Andreani, M., and Ruffini, R. (2016), “Public services
management and co-production in multi-level governance settings”, International Review of
Administrative Sciences, Vol. 82 No. 1, pp.8-27.
Stenhouse, L. (1980), “The study of samples and the study of cases”, British Educational
Research Journal, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp.1-6.
Sobelson, R.K., Wigington, C.J., Harp, V., and Bronson, B.B. (2015), “A whole community
approach to emergency management: strategies and best practices of seven community
programs”, Journal of Emergency Management, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp.349-357.
Waugh, W.L., Jr. and Streib, G. (2006), “Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency
management”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 66, No. Suppl.1, pp.131-140.
Weible, C.M., Nohrstedt, D., Cairney, P., Carter, D.P., Crow, D.A., Durnová, A.P., Heikkila, T.,
Ingold, K., McConnell, A., and Stone, D. (2020), “COVID-19 and the policy sciences: initial
reactions and perspectives”, Policy Sciences, (Online First, 18 April), available at:
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11077-020-09381-4
Wybron, I., and Paget, A. (2016), Pupil Power, Demos, London, UK.
Yeo, J. (2020), “Collective action and vulnerable populations: interorganizational collaboration
for undocumented immigrants’ disaster safety following hurricane Irma 2017”, Natural Hazards
Review, Vol. 21 No. 1, available at: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000344
Page 22 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
23
Yeo, J., and Comfort, L.K. (2017),An expected event, but unprecedented damage”, Disaster
Prevention and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp.458-470.
Yin, R. K. (2003), Case study research: design and methods (Vol. 5), Sage Publications,
Washington, DC.
Yoon, D. and Martin, T.W. (2020), “How South Korea put into place the world’s most
aggressive coronavirus test program”, The Wall Street Journal, 16 March, available at:
https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-south-korea-put-into-place-the-worlds-most-aggressive-
coronavirus-testing-11584377217 (accessed 19 April 2020)
Yoon, S.A. (2020), “30 minutes for the way to the hospital… best practice video by confirmed
case no.3”, Gyeongin Daily, 13 March, available at:
http://www.kyeongin.com/main/view.php?key=20200312010003564 (accessed 6 April 2020)
(Korean)
Zakocs R.C., and Edwards, E.M. (2006), “What explains community coalition effectiveness? a
review of the literature”, American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp.351-361.
Page 23 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
Page 24 of 25Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
Page 25 of 25 Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
... In reality, it is nearly impossible to have a political leader equipped with all these qualities. The current pandemic situation and subsequent problems are very complex and dynamic (Lee et al., 2020;Yeo & Lee, 2021). The impact of the pandemic has grown quickly to an unprecedented scale. ...
... While a president is a commander in chief, there are professionals, agencies, and institutions that are more knowledgeable about a crisis, such as the Center for Disease Control in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic, and they can serve as the actual incident commanders for the crisis management. In addition, as every crisis is local, crisis management requires a whole community co-production involving organizations, agencies, and people across sectors and levels (FEMA, 2011;Yeo & Lee, 2021). In this sense, every relevant organization, agency, and person works for the public interest, regardless of their formal positions of power, and becomes colleagues collaborating to achieve excellence in crisis management. ...
Article
Full-text available
Observing frequent ethical leadership vacuums and subsequent response failures in many countries during the recent pandemic, this article aims to identify major ethical traits of political leaders during crisis management. Based on a review of relevant research in crisis management, public administration, and management studies, the authors develop a conceptual framework on ethical-political leadership for effective crisis management. The conceptual framework first presents three realms of obligations of ethical-political leaders for crisis management, including (1) obligation to the public interest, (2) obligation to authorizing processes and procedures, and (3) obligation to colleagues, then presents details of the corresponding internal goods and virtues. The article concludes with a discussion of the contribution and limitations of this research.
... COVID-19 and COVID-19 responses have an enormous effect on social welfare [34,35]. Thus, governments have created policies to try to diminish these threats [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has created enormous challenges for society due to the various ways of impacting health. This paper focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people's food consumption patterns in the online environment. We investigate food app reviews and examine whether countries with a high rate of success with COVID-19 control consume more unhealthy food through mobile apps. We also investigate whether the population of countries with low social welfare eat more unhealthy food during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to countries with high social welfare. We take a hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to calculate indexes based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to an ideal solution, complex proportional assessment, and VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje. Results show that country social welfare and success in COVID-19 control negatively affect the perceived utility of the apps. Also, success in COVID-19 control and the perceived utility of food apps positively affect the proportion of unhealthy reviews, whereas social welfare has a negative impact. The results have important implications for public health policymakers, showing that the online food environment can be an important setting for interventions that seek to incentivize healthy eating.
... From a managerial point of view, the results of the analysis suggest that it is necessary to invest in the accountability of local governments initiatives in order to strengthen the trust of citizens by ensuring the transparency in data flow and decision-making initiatives [32]. Especially in light of Covid-19 pandemic, a coordinated response across different sectors based on cooperation mind-set, digital platforms, and service providers can definitely improve the global response to the crisis. ...
... Public health emergency preparedness includes multiple aspects, from prevention and mitigation to recovery activities, and governments at all levels implement diverse public health interventions to reduce the risks of a communicable disease and minimize the disease's impact (French & Raymond, 2009;Nelson, Lurie, Wasserman, & Zakowski, 2007). In such intervention efforts, scholars and practitioners alike emphasize the collaborative approach, suggesting that tackling emerging infectious diseases requires collaborative governance between government and nonprofit and community organizations as well as engaging key community stakeholders (French & Raymond, 2009;Lai, 2012;Schwartz & Yen, 2017;Yeo & Lee, 2020). The close connection between income inequality and the spread of pandemics confirms that pandemic crisis management and other public health interventions must begin with diagnosing the existing inequalities in society and finding their remedies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The failure to take account of socioeconomic disparities when discussing COVID-19's impacts on society distorts the reality of the pandemic. This study examines how the impacts of pandemics are intertwined with economic inequality, using the case of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. The analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic data in U.S. counties shows that the number of hospitalizations per 1,000 population is positively associated with the income inequality while controlling for other county-specific social and economic contexts. These results suggest that pandemics not only have more catastrophic impacts on the poor, but they also pose a greater threat to the communities with a greater degree of income inequality. Based on the findings, we conclude that managing public health crises should accompany a commensurate effort in addressing and reducing the existing economic inequality in society as well as the absolute poverty.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information and communication technology (ICT) and digitalization are often seen as enablers of co-production. But if its potential is not implemented, technology will rather act as a barrier. In Sweden, new types of "hybrid" co-production initiatives that engage civil citizen volunteers as first responders emerged a decade ago. Even though the benefits are recognized, the initiatives' expansion are hampered by the ICT solutions. In this study, we explore why, by comparing the perspectives of national authorities, needs-owners, suppliers, and end-users. We describe the barriers, e.g., insufficient geofencing, to develop ICT for various mobile platforms, unavailability of a joint API, competitiveness and double roles among stakeholders, and ICT costs. We suggest how to address the barriers and argue that digitalized co-production of the type presented will likely increase. Here our study can contribute to the successive accumulation of knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
The study assessed the key areas in humanitarian organizations to pave the way to effectiveness in disaster relief operations. The study employed a sequential explanatory research design; this design was used purposely by converging quantitative and qualitative data with a sample of 150 respondents from humanitarian organizations. Questionnaires and key informant interviews were used to collect data. The nature and strength of association between independent variables and dependent variables were tested using multiple regressions. The study found that the determinants of humanitarian logistics performance for effective disaster relief operations include having trained experts, a dedicated humanitarian organization, supportive policies, supportive financial resources, and dedicated logistics service providers. Therefore, it was concluded that the overall effectiveness of disaster relief operations depends on proper structures in humanitarian logistics that capture efficiency in logistics cooperation and involvement of logistics service in providing disaster relief operations. The study recommended that the government should recognize the importance of public-private partnerships in disaster relief operations and ensure proactive actions in having reliable infrastructure and empowering the operations of logistics service providers and humanitarian organizations and agencies in Tanzania. This study could aid policymakers to institute frameworks that could guide nations to undertake procedures that may enhance the movement of people and materials to the affected areas and cooperation between stakeholders. The study had theoretical implications that enrich the structuring of stakeholders in stakeholders theory and add knowledge on this undertaking and strengthening humanitarian logistics systems.
Article
Full-text available
The capacity of public sector of co-creating with other stakeholders is challenged by the increasing presence of disruptive turbulent events, such as the COVID-19. At this regard, robustness has been identified as a suitable response to deal with this kind of events. Through a systematic literature review, we analysed how public sector organisations have co-created with other actors during the COVID-19 and what have been the contribution of robust governance strategies. Our findings point firstly to the empirical validity of the robustness concept, providing evidence of the extensive use of robust governance strategies into the co-creation processes. Secondly, we identified a configurational approach to robustness, with governments co-creating by simultaneously employing several robust strategies. Thirdly, we observed a more active involvement of societal stakeholders, with emergence of proto-institutions and potential threats to the political system.
Article
Full-text available
This study attempts to explore the contextual factors that play a significant role in promoting collaborative governance using mobile phones in developing countries. The study utilises review of academic literature and experts’ opinion to identify critical conversion factors and their interrelationship. Affordance Theory is used as a theoretical lens to identify eight significant factors covering development of infrastructure, citizen up-skilling, cost of access, ease of use, reliable infrastructure, ensured privacy & security, process accountability and a standardised m-governance policy. A combination of Total Interpretative Structure Modelling (TISM) and Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis is employed to prioritise these conversion factors and classify them based on their dependence and driving power. A priority-based hierarchical model is proposed for establishing a sustainable m-governance ecosystem.
Article
This case study explores Florida’s emergency management response during the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and transboundary crisis literature, this article identifies how state attributes, institutions, multi-sector stakeholders, and their interactions may have influenced the state’s response to the pandemic. Findings from the content analyses of government policies, documents, and news reports indicate that some aspects of Florida’s response were politically motivated, inflexible, and driven by a small circle of advisors, often ignoring expert opinions and the needs of uniquely vulnerable populations. Furthermore, the findings indicate that public health departments had sidelined locally-controlled emergency management departments. This research offers insight into effective decision-making practices during the response phase of a pandemic and contributes knowledge to the literature in emergency management and public administration focusing on transboundary crises.
Chapter
As a safety-empowerment strategy, technology innovation is likely to play a pivotal role in the restaurant sector’s recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. However, its impact on customers’ perceptions is still unexplored in the literature. To fill this gap, this research attempts to provide an innovative contribution to the existing literature by investigating the relationship between customers’ safety perception (CSP) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the restaurant sector during the coronavirus pandemic period. Drawing upon a sample of customers resident in the Campania region, the research provides early evidence about the positive impact exerted by ICT on CSP. More specifically, our findings show that the use of ICT, on the one hand, should reduce customers’expected interactions. On the other hand, enhance the level of expected cleanliness. Accordingly, academics and restaurant managers can rely on these results to implement resilience strategies. Results may be also beneficial for policymakers who can develop guidelines and measures to support restaurateurs in maturing resilience to the ongoing health crisis.
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented an unprecedented public health crisis across the globe. Governments have developed different approaches to tackle the complex and intractable challenge, showing variations in their effectiveness and results. South Korea has achieved exceptional performance thus far: It has flattened the curve of new infections and brought the outbreak under control without imposing forceful measures such as lockdowns and travel ban. This commentary addresses the South Korean government’s response to COVID-19 and highlights distributed cognition and crisis management capabilities as critical factors. The authors discuss how the South Korean government has cultivated distributed cognition and three core capabilities—reflective-improvement, collaborative, and data-analytical capabilities—after its painful experience with 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). South Korea’s adaptive approaches and its learning path examined in this commentary provide practical implications for managing potential additional waves of COVID-19 and a future public health crisis
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to examine tweet posts regarding Typhoon Washi to contend the usefulness of social media and big data as an aid of post-disaster management. Through topic modelling and content analysis, this study examines the priorities of the victims expressed in Twitter and how the priorities changed over a year. Design/methodology/approach Social media, particularly Twitter, was where the data gathered. Using big data technology, the gathered data were processed and analysed according to the objectives of the study. Topic modelling was used in clustering words from different topics. Clustered words were then used for content analysis in determining the needs of the victims. Word frequency count was also used in determining what words were repeatedly used during the course period. To validate the gathered data online, government documents were requested and concerned government agencies were also interviewed. Finding Findings of this study argue that housing and relief goods have been the top priorities of the victims. Victims are seeking relief goods, especially when they are in evacuation centres. Also, the lack of legal basis hinders government officials from integrating social media information unto policymaking. Research limitation This study only reports Twitter posts containing keywords either, Sendong, SendongPH, Washi or TyphoonWashi. The keywords were determined based on the words that trended after Typhoon Washi struck. Practical implication For social media and big data to be adoptable and efficacious, supporting and facilitating conditions are necessary. Structural, technical and financial support, as well as legal framework, should be in place. Maintaining and sustaining positive attitude towards it should be taken care of. Originality/value Although many studies have been conducted on the usefulness of social media in times of disaster, many of these focused on the use of social media as medium that can efficiently spread information, and little has been done on how the government can use both social media and big data in collecting and analysing the needs of the victims. This study fills those gaps in social big data literature.
Article
Full-text available
The world is in the grip of a crisis that stands unprecedented in living memory. The COVID-19 pandemic is urgent, global in scale, and massive in impacts. Following Harold D. Lasswell’s goal for the policy sciences to offer insights into unfolding phenomena, this commentary draws on the lessons of the policy sciences literature to understand the dynamics related to COVID-19. We explore the ways in which scientific and technical expertise, emotions, and narratives influence policy decisions and shape relationships among citizens, organizations, and governments. We discuss varied processes of adaptation and change, including learning, surges in policy responses, alterations in networks (locally and globally), implementing policies across transboundary issues, and assessing policy success and failure. We conclude by identifying understudied aspects of the policy sciences that deserve attention in the pandemic’s aftermath.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Since the first case of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) identified on Jan 20, 2020 in South Korea, the number of cases rapidly increased, resulting in 6,284 cases including 42 deaths as of March 6, 2020. To examine the growth rate of the outbreak, we aimed to present the first study to report the reproduction number of COVID-19 in South Korea. Methods The daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in South Korea were extracted from publicly available sources. By using the empirical reporting delay distribution and simulating the generalized growth model, we estimated the effective reproduction number based on the discretized probability distribution of the generation interval. Results We identified four major clusters and estimated the reproduction number at 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6). In addition, the intrinsic growth rate was estimated at 0.6 (95% CI: 0.6, 0.7) and the scaling of growth parameter was estimated at 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7, 0.8), indicating sub-exponential growth dynamics of COVID-19. The crude case fatality rate is higher among males (1.1%) compared to females (0.4%) and increases with older age. Conclusions Our results indicate early sustained transmission of COVID-19 in South Korea and support the implementation of social distancing measures to rapidly control the outbreak.
Article
Full-text available
Urgent public health threats present a growing problem for public health surge. This study addresses tensions that occur in organizations as they confront unexpected, urgent demands for performance that exceed their existing allocation of resources and personnel, patterns of adaptation in response, and consequences for continued functionality in their mission. We view the problem through a conceptual lens of complex adaptive systems and distributed cognition to focus on patterns of organizational communication as critical factors in shaping organizational response to crisis operations. We employ a mixed-methods approach to examine communication and coordination patterns in a small-N comparative case study of four California county health departments during the H1N1 threat in late spring–summer of 2009 and the following 24 months. Findings indicate factors that contribute to, or inhibit, the communication process, such as organizational structure, past experiences, exercise of authority, and document the occurrence of defensive routines as a distortion of internal communication practices. Communication and coordination within and among entities engaged in response operations are critical to managing urgent public health threats, indicating that mechanisms which place a cognitive burden on staff exacerbate existing problems in performance.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Although more public sector information is disclosed in an open format, the intermediaries are the key element to have value creation from it. This study aimed to identify elements about the role of these stakeholders: their characteristics, resources and partnerships within an ecosystem of budget transparency and open government data, in particular, to identify initiatives and opportunities that enable the co-production of value from public sector information. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted in four Latin American countries, and data collection was carried out through interviews and document analysis. Findings The paper identifies intermediaries’ profiles, their network, results achieved and lessons learned. Originality/value This is the first study to cover in depth the intermediaries in a regional budget transparency ecosystem. Some findings emphasize the intermediary’s role, and others offered the authors elements to propose a framework for citizen coproduction that extends citizen sourcing and government as platform models, as some co-production initiatives identified seem to extrapolate their limits definitions.
Article
This qualitative case study aims to gain a greater understanding of collective action among organizations assisting undocumented immigrants in South Apopka, Florida, following Hurricane Irma in 2017. In-depth semistructured interviews serve as the primary data sources. In addition, analysis of relevant documentation triangulates the interview data and identifies converging themes. For data analysis, qualitative data is structured through multiple coding steps: open coding, using the language of informants; axial-coding, using labels created by the researcher; and core-coding, central themes and constructs of the study. The following themes are identified as common descriptors of the collective action patterns in the context: heterogeneity, constituents, mediators, and collaboration. In addition, six themes emerge as factors of the collective action: acquaintance, boundary, communication, dedication, events, and flexibility. The author further discusses the themes and suggests policy strategies to encourage interorganizational collective action to protect vulnerable people from institutional blindness in disasters.
Article
Purpose The paper aims to examine a citizen-centric model of governmental entrepreneurship that transforms public service management for the empowerment of marginalized women. Design/methodology/approach The study adopts a qualitative methodology to analyze the distinctive model of a rural livelihoods program in India. A fieldwork was conducted in four villages, a total of 250 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and eight focus-group discussions were conducted. The data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis and discourse analysis. Finally, the findings were shared with women in the study area. Findings The analysis suggests that the adoption of distinct management for social welfare program results in social legitimacy and social value creation. JEEViKA illustrates that citizen-centric social entrepreneurship model is an outcome of internal and external governance mechanisms, strategy that thrusts on skills and capacity as investment, tools local women (community resource persons) as instruments and targets spatial saturation as an intervention creates political and economic participation, and that marketability promotes power over economic resources that enable freedom from servitude. Research limitations/implications The model provides a direction to overcome multiple barriers to addressing poverty and marginalization. Practical implications Poor and government can leverage through the collaborative capacity to meet ever-evolving social needs by developing a state-society partnership in citizen-centric governmental entrepreneurship. Social implications The policies to overcome large-scale marginalization can adopt citizen-centric model to create social legitimacy that furthers social value among the poor and marginalized rural women. Originality/value This study provides a model that illustrates government ability to transform marginalized poor as co-producers of development benefits.