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True Science for Government Leaders and Educators: The Main Cause of Global Warming

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Government leaders and educators ought to be able to rely on scientists to tell the truth about climate change, but science has been tainted by politics. Real science, unlike politics, is all about telling the truth, truth that is securely anchored to the properties of matter and radiation. The current, high-profile, politically-driven, climate-change debate centers on two disparate ideas, namely, either global warming is caused by carbon dioxide or is not occurring at all. Neither is correct. Evidence from World War II indicates that particulate pollution, not carbon dioxide, is the cause of global warming. The difference between daily high and nightly low temperature data, tracked over time over a large geographic area, provide evidence that global warming is in fact occurring, which is independent of carbon dioxide. Particles in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are heated by solar radiation and by radiant heat from the Earth, and transfer that heat to atmospheric gases by molecular collisions. The resultant heating increases atmospheric temperature, and reduces the temperature difference relative to air near the surface, which reduces atmospheric convection, and concomitantly reduces convective heat transport from the surface. This is the mechanism whereby particulate pollution causes global warming.
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Herndon, J. M. (2020).!True Science for Government Leaders and Educators: The Main Cause of Global Warming. Advances in Social
Sciences Research Journal, 7(7) 106-114.
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T'LP,/"(=)Global! warming;! Climate! change;! Particulate! pollution;! Aerosol!
Climate! change,! sometimes! called! global! warming,! is! currently! a! high-profile! subject! of! public!
debate,!and! a!matter! of!grave! concern!for! government!leaders! and!educators.! Those!individuals!
ought!to! be! able!to!rely! on! trained!scientists! for! guidance,!for!true! understanding,! but!there! is! a!
During! the! first! half! of! the! 20th! century,! when! important! discoveries! were! made! that! underpin!
place! for! administrating! civilian! science-funding! were! badly! flawed,! which! contributed! to! the!
Real!science,! unlike! politics,! is! all! about! telling! the! truth,! truth! that! is! securely! anchored! to! the!
view!is! that!global! warming! is! occurring,! caused! by! carbon! dioxide! (CO2)! and! other! greenhouse!
no!global!warming,!and!any! variation! in! global! temperature!is!natural.!Real!science,!as!described!
caused!by! particulate!pollution! [4-10].! The!good! news!is! that! reducing! particulate! pollution! will!
eight!independent! global! temperature!datasets! from! the!U.!S.! National! Oceanic!and! Atmospheric!
Figure! 1,! is! that! immediately! after! WW2! the! global! warming! rapidly! subsided.! That! behavior! is!
Herndon, J. M. (2020).!True Science for Government Leaders and Educators: The Main Cause of Global Warming. Advances in Social Sciences Research
Journal, 7(7) 106-114.
core!data! during!the!period!1936-1952!show!no!significant!increase!in!CO2!during! the!war!years,!
I!realized!a!different!explanation.!World!War!II! activities!injected!massive!amounts!of!particulate!
munition! detonations,! which! included! demolition! of! entire! cities,! and! their! resulting! debris! and!
smoke.! The! implication! is! that! the! aerosolized! pollution! particles! trapped! heat! that! otherwise!
would!have! subsided! rapidly!after! hostilities! ceased.!Rapid! cessation! of!WW2! global!warming! is!
Figure! 1,! from! [4,11],! shows! relative-value,! particulate-pollution! proxies! added! to! Gottschalk’s!
global!warming! [4].!The! rapid! non-linear! rise! in! these! curves!in! recent!decades! presumably! has!
been! greatly! accelerated! by! deliberately! emplaced! tropospheric! aerosol! particulate-pollution!
From! the! evidence! shown! in! Figure! 1,! there! is! one! inescapable! conclusion:! Aerosol! particulate!
pollution,!not! carbon!dioxide,!is!the!main!cause!of!global!warming.!That!conclusion!was!not!at!all!
climate! science! community.! The! concept! that! aerosol! particulate! pollution! is! the! main! cause! of!
Two! measurements,! the! daily! high! temperature! and! the! nightly! low! temperature,! when! tracked!
over!time!over! a! large!geographic! area,! provide!an! independent! measure! of!climate! change.! The!
range!(DTR),!is! essentially! independent!of!any!effects!of!greenhouse!gases! [13,27].!Figure!2!from!
reduction!in!Tmax!can!be! explained! by! sunlight!being!absorbed!or! scattered! by! particulates!or!by!
clouds,! the! increase! in! Tmin!is! inexplicable! within! the! current! consensus-driven! climate! science!
heat! to! atmospheric! gases! by! molecular! collisions.! The! resultant! atmospheric! heating! has! the!
Convection! is! perhaps! the! most! misunderstood! natural! process! in! Earth! science.! Hypothetical!
convection! models! of! Earth’s! fluid! core! [34-37]! and! of! Earth’s! mantle! [38,39]! continue! to! be!
fluid( is( heated( from( below( and( an( adverse( temperature( gradient( is( maintained( [( i.e.(
bottom( hotter( than( top].( The( adjective( ‘adverse’( is( used( to( qualify( the( prevailing(
temperature(gradient,( since,(on(account(of(thermal(expansion,(the(fluid(at(the(bottom(
Herndon, J. M. (2020).!True Science for Government Leaders and Educators: The Main Cause of Global Warming. Advances in Social Sciences Research
Journal, 7(7) 106-114.
To! the! best! of! my! knowledge,! consequences! of! the! adverse( temperature( gradient,! described! by!
Chandrasekhar! [48]! have! not! been! explicitly! considered! in! either! solid-Earth! or! tropospheric!
provide! critical! insight! for! understanding! how! convection! works! that! is! applicable! to! both!
The( convection( classroom-demonstration( experiment( was( conducted( using( a( 4( liter(
a(ceramic(tile( was( placed(atop(the( beaker( to(retard(heat( loss,( thereby(increasing(the(
temperature( at( the( top( relative( to( that( at( the( bottom,( thus( decreasing( the( adverse(
after!placing! the! tile! atop! the! beaker.! In!only! 60! seconds! the! number! of! celery! seeds! in!motion,!
to! air! near! the! surface.! The! reduction! of! adverse! temperature! gradient,! as! demonstrated! by! the!
above! classroom-demonstration,! concomitantly! reduces! convective! heat! transport! from! the!
bombarded! by! potentially! variable! solar! radiation! from! above! [51,52]! and! potentially! variable!
planetary!energy!from!below![40-43,47].!Even!now!there! is! natural! variability.! Heat! exiting! from!
can! learn! to! adapt! to! natural! variability! and! can! prosper.! But! unnatural!variability! is! not! only!
reflect! sunlight! [56],! a! disastrous! “cure”! that! in! the! extreme! might! even! initiate! a! new! ice! age.!
Significantly!reducing! tropospheric!particulate!pollution,!as!real!scientific!evidence!indicates,!will!
quickly!lead!to! reduced!global!anthropogenic!warming!and!to! great!improvements!in!human!and!
death,! including! ischemic! heart! disease,! chronic! obstructive! pulmonary! disease,! and! respiratory!
infections![58].!Long-term,!cumulative!exposure! to! fine! particulate!matter!in!the!United! States! is!
associated!with!all-cause!mortality,!cardiovascular! disease,! and! lung! cancer! [59].! In! recent! years,!
air! pollution! [60].! Children! residing! in! highly! polluted! urban! environments! were! found! to! have!
frame! by! reducing! industrial! and! deliberate! particulate! pollution.! But! corrective! actions! hinge!
embracing! the! real! climate-science! paradigm-shift! [4,7,9,25,26]! and! not! continuing! to! promote!
flawed!and!harmful!political!dictums! that! serve! vested! self-interests.!In!the!light!of!real!scientific!
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... In one series of experiments, Ramana et al. [61] measured relative heating rates in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere using vertically stacked multiple lightweight autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles and found in that instance that the "contribution of absorbing aerosols to the heating rate was an order of magnitude larger than the contribution of CO2 and one-third that of the water vapour." Causing Regional and Global Warming As described previously, but in greater detail [48,[62][63][64][65][66][67], particulate pollution causes regional and global warming. The academic climate science community, including and especially those involved with the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), have deceived the broader scientific community by systematically failing to acknowledge the existence and consequences of the jet-emplaced tropospheric particulates. ...
... Moreover, the IPCC-associated academic climate science community embraced a flawed climatescience methodology, considering global warming solely as a radiation-balance issue [68][69][70] governed by assumptions principally related to greenhouse gas inventory. In doing so, they failed to grasp the consequences of tropospheric particulate pollution on convection-driven heat loss from Earth's surface as I did [48,[62][63][64][65][66][67]. ...
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In 2015, in response to an urgent call for assistance to understand the geological association of high aluminum mobility with human health in the Ganga Alluvial Plain, I published a General Article in Current Science entitled "Aluminum poisoning of humanity and Earth's biota by clandestine geoengineering activity: implications for India". The events that transpired following its publication led to evidence and documentation that the furtherance of that activity is tantamount to waging environmental warfare against Indian citizens, and citizens of other countries. Its publication, however, triggered an assault by one or more disinformation professionals that may have "poisoned the well" at the Indian Academy of Sciences. The truth is laid out here. During the following five years many questions were answered, such as: Why were the particles being placed into the lower-atmosphere (troposphere), not into the upper-atmosphere (stratosphere)? Why was there no public mention of the jet-emplaced particulate trails except through dissemination of false information, i.e. the contrail lie? What is the legal justification? What are the dangers to human and environmental health? The survival of Indian citizenry is critically dependent upon the natural weather cycles. No one has the right to poison the air people breathe or to disrupt the natural environment that makes life possible. The United Nations' sanctioned "peaceful environmental improvement" constitutes, I allege, covert, hostile, environmental warfare. By virtue of their abilities and advanced training, scientists have an implicit responsibility toward humanity. Scientific integrity is even more important for members of the Indian Academy of Sciences who must now muster courage to confront a very real threat to the survival of their nation.
... Wholesale altering of Earth's natural environment by deliberately polluting the troposphere with particulate matter, especially coal fly ash and the new lignin-like substance shown in the right image of Figure 8, is destroying life on Earth [27]. Undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering will lead to unimaginably large increases in global warming [54][55][56] and in the demise of stratospheric ozone [39][40][41]43], with associated increases in deadly ultraviolet UV-B and UV-C [53]. ...
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The toxicity of ultraviolet radiation in wavelength range 100-280 nm (UV-C) is well documented. UV-C irradiation can cause skin cancer, premature aging, visual problems and blindness. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation can kill both plants and animals, including entire forests. There are numerous assertions in the medical, public health, and geoscience literature that no UV-C reaches Earth's surface, despite several studies to the contrary including one in 2007 by NASA. Naysayers blame technical problems such as stray light. Low-level UV-C measurements are difficult, if not nearly impossible, when using low integration values in the CCD Imaging Spectral Radiometers. This is due to the instrument's internal and external atmospheric stray light issues, issues which even occur during calibration procedures that employ heated filament or gas-filled lamps. To obviate these inherent problems, one of us (RDH) designed, engineered, and constructed a Double Monochromator utilized in conjunction with the ILT950UV Spectral Radiometer operating in the raw data mode. Each of the initial measurements of solar irradiance displayed evidence of UV-C arriving at Earth's surface, not high in the mountains, but just 176 meters above sea-level. These data were taken in the raw data mode, corrected for prism loss, with instrument noise, i.e. machine errors, subtracted. The non-zero value for relative spectral irradiance clearly shows the existence of UV-C at Earth's surface, in the range 250-300 nm, even when measured under less than optimum atmospheric conditions. Research and development continue. We must know with certainty the condition of the stratospheric ozone layer that shields surface life from solar UV-C. Covert geoengineering atmospheric particulate pollution, in combination with industrial pollution of the atmosphere, is killing Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. If unabated, it will sound the death knell for much of life on Earth.
... Second, subtracting two large numbers, radiation from the sun minus radiation from the Earth, yields a small number that is overwhelmed by errors. Third, and most important, global warming and regional warming are caused mainly by tropospheric particulates reducing convective heat loss from the surface [146][147][148][149][150][151][152], not greenhouse gases. . All the while, the World Health Organization ignores and suppresses mention of the adverse public health consequences of the tropospheric jetemplaced toxic coal fly ash [145]. ...
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Five hundred years ago the Roman Catholic Church wrongly opposed science. In my fifty years as a scientist, I have observed the Catholic Church reaching out to science, wholly unaware of widespread corruption and cartel-like behavior under guise of science, which leads, I allege, to the Vatican aiding and abetting activities that are not only anti-Christian, but which pose grave risks to human and environmental health.
... Anthropogenic aerosol particles, especially coal fly ash, metals, and soot particles, are transported long distances to affect ecosystems, human health, and climate changes [17]. Coal fly ash and other aerosol particles in the troposphere cause regional and/or global warming by absorbing radiation, transferring that heat to atmospheric gases, which reduces the adverse temperature gradient relative to surface air, which concomitantly reduces convective heat loss from the surface [18][19][20]. ...
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We provide further compelling evidence that aerosolized coal fly ash and its various components, especially iron, is the primary cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, not chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, as "decreed" by the Montreal Protocol of 1989. Aerosolized coal fly ash is a toxic "witches' brew" of numerous elements and substances that destroy ozone directly and indirectly by numerous chemical reactions, the full extent of which is not yet known. The prevailing CFC-ozone depletion theory is simply wrong, and does not account for multiple chemical and photochemical reactions that kill stratospheric ozone. We discuss the primary role of coal fly ash particles in ice nucleation and cloud formation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, and dispel the notion that meteoric or extra-terrestrial material is responsible for polar stratospheric clouds. We provide extensive documentation that iron and several other elements found in coal fly ash are trapped in polar stratospheric clouds and destroy ozone by various means, especially when they are released in the spring. Recent scientific discoveries "fit together" to strongly support the New Paradigm of stratospheric ozone depletion by coal fly ash. The "World Not Avoided" by the Montreal Protocol is already here: The biosphere is in collapse with runaway global warming, and lethal ultraviolet radiation penetrating to Earth's surface. This new paradigm shift must be operationalized. Time is critically short to salvage what we can of Earth's vital life support systems, including the stratospheric ozone layer. We reiterate that all sources of aerosolized coal fly ash must be reduced and/or eliminated. All forms of geoengineering must stop immediately if we are to survive as a species. The deliberate assault on Earth's natural processes, we allege, constitutes no less than acts of planetary treason.
... First, there is no mention of the climate consequences of the jet-sprayed particulate matter, such as shown in Figure 2. Second, subtracting two large numbers, radiation from the sun minus radiation from the Earth, yields a small number that is overwhelmed by errors. Third, and most important, global warming and regional warming are caused mainly by tropospheric particulates [11,[39][40][41][42][43][44], not greenhouse gases. ...
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Earth's life support systems are breaking down, including the stratospheric ozone layer, which protects all higher life on the planet from deadly ultraviolet radiation. This breakdown is a direct result of human activities including the large-scale manipulation of processes that affect Earth's climate, otherwise known as geoengineering. We present further evidence that coal fly ash, utilized in tropospheric aerosol geoengineering, is the primary cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, not chlorofluorocarbons, as "decreed" by the Montreal Protocol. The misdiagnosis was a potentially fatal mistake by mankind. Coal fly ash particles, uplifted to the stratosphere, are collected and trapped by polar stratospheric clouds. In springtime, as these clouds begin to melt/evaporate, multiple coal fly ash compounds and elements are released to react with and consume stratospheric ozone. Contrary to the prevailing narrative, the stratospheric ozone layer has already been badly damaged and now increasingly deadly ultraviolet radiation, UV-B and UV-C, penetrates to Earth's surface. Our time is short to permanently end all geoengineering activities, and to reduce and/or eliminate all sources of aerosolized coal fly ash, including first and foremost the jet-sprayed emplacements into the troposphere that are systematically breaking down Earth's support systems and poisoning life on this planet.
... • Solar System formation primarily according to the protoplanetary theory, minimally by the planetesimal theory [21,22] • Stored energy of protoplanetary compression as the primary energy driving geodynamics [22][23][24] • Nuclear fission georeactor at Earth's center [25][26][27][28][29][30] • Terracentric nuclear fission energy as the secondary energy driving geodynamics [23,24,29] • Basis of heat transport within the Earth [13,22,31] • Earth's magnetic field powered and produced by the Terracentric nuclear fission georeactor [29,32] • Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics, the fundamental basis of geodynamics and geology [23,33], not requiring physically impossible mantle convection [13], including o New concept for the origin of mountains characterized by folding [34] o New concept for the origin of fjords and submarine canyons [35] • Georeactor origin of deep-Earth helium-3 [28] • Planetocentric nuclear reactors as the basis for magnetic field generation in planets and large moons [36,37] • Aerosol particulate pollution, not carbon dioxide, as the main cause of global warming [38][39][40][41][42][43] • New explanation for the near-side/far-side lunar maria disparity [44] During the first half of the 20 th century, there was debate and discussion. Scientists challenged new ideas that led to further new ideas and discoveries, which provided a basis for today's technology. ...
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A recent publication in Nature unintentionally disclosed major problems in the physical science community, existing for more than four decades that pose potential weaknesses as a basis for future technologies. The science of today, the basis for tomorrow's technology, could benefit in a major way, simply by asking the question "What's wrong with this picture?"
... The goal seems to be to control or shut down fossil fuel use in favor of renewable energy sources to ameliorate global warming. Yet through its ENMOD treaty the United Nations has simultaneously sanctioned secret activities that in fact cause global warming [50][51][52][53][54][55][56]. This must be the greatest scientific fraud ever perpetrated. ...
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The title might suggest that this is a fictional work about an invasion from outer space. Wrong. It is a true recitation of forensic scientific and medical investigations of a near-global, near-daily conspicuous activity whose actual nature and intent is cloaked in secrecy and disinformation.
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In 2015, Tyler J. Williams authored “Cataclysmic Polarity Shift: Is U. S. National Security Prepared for the Next Geomagnetic Pole Reversal?” That document provides an extremely cogent and thorough description of some of the risks to national security and infrastructure expected to result from a geomagnetic polarity reversal. However, it describes geomagnetic field generation solely as currently promoted by the geophysics community which is based upon old ideas, circa 1940s-1960s, that are taken to be factual without any attempt to understand their limitations or to evaluate their validity in light of subsequent scientific developments. Moreover, the security concerns Williams described are relevant to humanity globally. Here I have reviewed the historical development of those old ideas, pointed out their problematic nature, and reviewed subsequent published advances that overcome their inherent problems and lead to a better understanding of the geophysics related to geomagnetic polarity reversals, geomagnetic excursions, and, at some yet unknown time, the permanent demise of the geomagnetic field. Mechanisms of rapid geomagnetic field collapse, both natural and potentially human-induced, are described. The present state of nuclear georeactor activity, whether geomagnetic field collapse leads to increased georeactor output, and whether it is likely to trigger earthquakes and volcano eruptions are yet unknown matters of seriously troubling human security concerns. Global security preparedness, even though addressed by sovereign nations, should be predicated upon the latest and most correct scientific understanding. In some areas that may be the case, but in the scientific areas described here there are clearly problems. The inherent problems, I submit, do not result from inadequate funding, but from inadequate methodologies, expectations and responsibilities of scientists, their national and parent institutions, publishers, and respective funding-agencies.
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The 1978 "Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques" [ENMOD] obligates signatory nations to fundamentally compromise their own sovereignty and to bring about widespread, permanent agricultural devastation. Instead of prohibiting "Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques " , as its title suggests, ENMOD obligates signatory nations to participate in unspecified " peaceful " environmental modification activities performed by unspecified entities, under unspecified circumstances, without limitation to harm, whether inflicted on a nation or region's agriculture, its environment, or on health of its population, that is, its citizenry. Large-scale environment modification cannot be construed as "peaceful"; it is instead fundamentally hostile. Ongoing undisclosed tropospheric aerosol particulate geoengineering has already begun to have devastating consequences for agriculture, as well as widespread, long-lasting, and severe effects on human and environmental health. These effects include lung cancer, cardiac, neurodegenerative, respiratory, and other diseases; the disruption of once stable weather patterns; the decimation of insect, bat, and bird populations; the exacerbation of wildfires and the death of forests; the propagation of harmful algae in our waters; and the destruction of the ozone layer that shields life from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation. Ongoing sanctioned covert environmental modification activities constitute de facto warfare on sovereign nations. Moreover, those activities are blatantly contradictory to the missions of other United Nations' entities, including, but not limited to, the World Health Organization, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Agricultural collapse and mass starvation are one of the potential consequences of environmental modification "for peaceful purposes." Covert global environmental modification activities must be halted immediately, and permanently, if we and our progeny are to survive. The operation should be exposed to public scrutiny. When aerial particulate tropospheric emplacement ceases, the last geoengineered particulates will fall to Earth in a matter of days or weeks and global warming will be reduced. Agricultural production and public health will improve worldwide.
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U. S. President Donald J. Trump is leading America and the world against the elitist-globalist goal of a One World Government. His efforts to free American entrepreneurs from unwarranted control by others are producing an economic renaissance. From a lifetime of first-hand knowledge and experience, I describe the problems that beset American science, and posit solutions for producing the cutting-edge science that Trump’s economic renaissance requires.
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At about the same time that Russian President declared that “We are really witnessing global warming, the reasons, however, remain obscure....”, I published the first of six scientific articles disclosing the evidence and basis for understanding that particulate pollution, not anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is the main cause of global warming. The global warming that occurred during World War II, but which quickly subsided after hostilities ceased, was key to that understanding. The disquieting parallel of scientific behaviour during World War II and at present is key to understanding the challenges humanity faces today concerning science and society.
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Although solar geoengineering (alternatively 'solar radiation management' or 'solar radiation modification') appears to offer a potentially effective, inexpensive and technologically feasible additional response to climate change, it would pose serious physical risks and social challenges. Governance of its research, development and deployment is thus salient. This article reviews proposals for governing solar geoengineering. Its research may warrant dedicated governance to facilitate effectiveness and to reduce direct and socially mediated risks. Because states are not substantially engaging with solar geoengineering, non-state actors can play important governance roles. Although the concern that solar geoengineering would harmfully lessen abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is widespread, what can be done to reduce such displacement remains unclear. A moratorium on outdoor activities that would surpass certain scales is often endorsed, but an effective one would require resolving some critical, difficult details. In the long term, how to legitimately make decisions regarding whether, when and how solar geoengineering would be used is central, and suggestions how to do so diverge. Most proposals to govern commercial actors, who could provide goods and services for solar geoengineering, focus on intellectual property policy. Compensation for possible harm from outdoor activities could be through liability or a compensation fund. The review closes with suggested lines of future inquiry.
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The climate science community and the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have misinformed world governments by failing to acknowledge tropospheric particulate geoengineering that has been ongoing with ever-increasing duration and intensity for decades, and by treating global warming solely as a radiation-balance issue, which has resulted in a seriously incomplete understanding of the fundamental factors that affect Earth’s surface temperature. Here we review the consequences of tropospheric particulate heating by absorption of short- and long-wave solar radiation and long-wave radiation from Earth’s surface. Generally, black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum; brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light; iron oxides are good absorbers, the most efficient being magnetite. Pyrogenic coal fly ash, both from coal burning and from tropospheric jet-spraying geoengineering (for military purposes and/or climate engineering), contains carbon and iron oxides, hematite and magnetite. The recently published climate-science paradigm shift discloses that the main cause of global warming is not carbon dioxide heat retention, but particulate pollution that absorbs radiation, heats the troposphere, and reduces the efficiency of atmospheric-convective heat removal from Earth’s surface. In addition to the World War II data, three other independent lines of supporting evidence are reviewed: (1) Passage overhead of the Mt. St. Helens volcanic plume; (2) Radiosonde and aethalometer investigations of Talukdar et al.; and, (3) convection suppression over the tropical North Atlantic caused by the Saharan-blown dust. The risks associated with the placement of aerosol particulates into the stratosphere, whether lofted naturally, inadvertently, or deliberately as proposed for solar radiation management, poses grave risks, including the destruction of atmospheric ozone. To solve global warming humanity must: (1) Abruptly halt tropospheric particulate geoengineering; (2) Trap particulate emissions from coal-fired industrial furnaces (especially in India and China) and from vehicle exhaust; and, (3) Reduce particulate-forming fuel additives.
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Convection is a fundamental physical process in the fluid cores of planets. It is the primary transport mechanism for heat and chemical species and the primary energy source for planetary magnetic fields. Key properties of convection—such as the characteristic flow velocity and length scale—are poorly quantified in planetary cores owing to the strong dependence of these properties on planetary rotation, buoyancy driving and magnetic fields, all of which are difficult to model using realistic conditions. In the absence of strong magnetic fields, the convective flows of the core are expected to be in a regime of rapidly rotating turbulence¹, which remains largely unexplored. Here we use a combination of non-magnetic numerical models designed to explore this regime to show that the convective length scale becomes independent of the viscosity when realistic parameter values are approached and is entirely determined by the flow velocity and the planetary rotation. The velocity decreases very rapidly at smaller scales, so this turbulent convective length scale is a lower limit for the energy-carrying length scales in the flow. Using this approach, we can model realistically the dynamics of small non-magnetic cores such as the Moon. Although modelling the conditions of larger planetary cores remains out of reach, the fact that the turbulent convective length scale is independent of the viscosity allows a reliable extrapolation to these objects. For the Earth’s core conditions, we find that the turbulent convective length scale in the absence of magnetic fields would be about 30 kilometres, which is orders of magnitude larger than the ten-metre viscous length scale. The need to resolve the numerically inaccessible viscous scale could therefore be relaxed in future more realistic geodynamo simulations, at least in weakly magnetized regions.
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Review of published data from the 1980 Mt. St. Helens volcanic eruption and diurnal temperature range data provide further new evidence that particulate pollution, not CO2, is the main cause of global warming. A mechanism is reviewed that accounts for both local and global warming resulting from (1) aerosol particulate pollutants absorbing radiation and being heated in the troposphere, (2) the transfer of that heat to the surrounding atmosphere, (3) the lowering of the atmospheric adverse temperature gradient relative to the Earth’s surface, (4) the consequent reduction of atmospheric convection, and (5) concomitant reduction of convection-driven surface heat loss. Graphic data shows global warming in lockstep with tropospheric aerosol particulate pollution, with both processes increasing in exponential fashion in recent decades. Particulate pollution health risks are reviewed, noting for example that fine pollution particles penetrate deep into lungs and systemic circulation and contribute to stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, COPD, respiratory infections, asthma and neurodegenerative disease. The good news is that global warming can be substantially and quickly reduced if particulate-trapping and particulate-reducing technologies are universally applied and the covert geoengineering aerial particulate jet-spraying ceases. The bad news is that dominant segments of academic and other significant institutional communities – government and government-contractors, intelligence agencies, environmental organizations, media, military and military contractors – are complicit and profit from poisoning the air we breathe. No one should derive benefit therefrom; something is fundamentally wrong.
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Several authors have suggested that mantle convection is primarily resisted by strong subduction zones, which if true implies small or even negative values of the exponent β in the Nusselt number/Rayleigh number relation Nu ∼ Ra β. To evaluate this hypothesis, we use the boundary element method (BEM) to study the energetics of subduction in a two-dimensional system comprising two purely viscous plates, a subducting plate (SP) and an overriding plate (OP), immersed in an infinitely deep ambient fluid beneath a free-slip surface. The negative buoyancy of the slab is the only driving force. The principal quantity of interest is the fraction R of the total viscous dissipation that occurs in the upper convective boundary layer comprising the SP, the OP and the subduction interface (SI) between them. Scaling analysis and BEM solutions of the instantaneous flow driven by an isolated SP yield R ∼ St/[St + F(θ)], where St is the flexural stiffness of the SP and F (θ) is a function of the dip θ of the plate's leading edge. More realistic time-dependent solutions for the SP+OP case show that R(t) ≤ 0.4 for reasonable viscosity contrasts η SP /η ambient ∈ [250, 2500], indicating that the dissipation is dominated by the ambient mantle contribution. Finally, we formulate a parameterized model of mantle convection to evaluate the influence of subduction-zone dissipation on the effective value of β, motivated by the possibility that the use of the classical value β = 1/3 in global parameterized convection models may be the cause of their failure to predict reasonable thermal histories. Using the correct length scale to describe bending (the 'bending length'; Ribe (2010)), we find β ∈ [0.25, 0.34], which is not much different than the classical result. We conclude that subduction zone dissipation is not large enough to change substantially the classical Nus-selt number/Rayleigh number scaling law. It is therefore probably necessary to look elsewhere to reconcile geodynamical and geochemical arguments regarding the thermal history of the Earth.
We investigate the influence of the deep mantle water cycle incorporating dehydration reactions with subduction fluxes and degassing events on the thermal evolution of the Earth as a consequence of core–mantle thermal coupling. Since, in our numerical modeling, the mantle can have ocean masses ∼12 times larger than the present-day surface ocean, it seems that more than 13 ocean masses of water are at the maximum required within the planetary system overall to partition one ocean mass at the surface of the present-day Earth. This is caused by effects of water-dependent viscosity, which works at cooling down the mantle temperature significantly so that the water can be absorbed into the mantle transition zone and the uppermost lower mantle. This is a result similar to that without the effects of the thermal evolution of the Earth's core (Nakagawa et al., 2018). For the core's evolution, it seems to be expected for a partially molten state in the deep mantle over 2 billion years. Hence, the metal–silicate partitioning of hydrogen might have occurred at least 2 billion years ago. This suggests that the hydrogen generated from the phase transformation of hydrous-silicate-hosted water may have contributed to the partitioning of hydrogen into the metallic core, but it is still quite uncertain because the partitioning mechanism of hydrogen in metal–silicate partitioning is still controversial. In spite of many uncertainties for water circulation in the deep mantle, through this modeling investigation, it is possible to integrate the co-evolution of the deep planetary interior within that of the surface environment.