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Improving the Numeracy Mathematics Ability: The Role of Abacus Learning Model

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  • Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo

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The addition and subtraction materials in mathematics were considered to be difficult to understand by most elementary school students. The aimed of this study was to improve the ability to calculate the addition and subtraction of numbers in mixed count material in mathematics using the Abacus learning model in second grade students of Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia. This study was an action research employing the Abacus learning model with the Kurt Lewin model approach with two cycles and consists of four main steps for each cycle: planning, action, observation, and reflection. The data were gathered through documentation, interview, observation, and tests. The data analysis was done by using the individual and classical learning mastery. The results of this research indicated that the implementation of the Abacus learning model can improve the second grade students score of Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia up to 86.66% and can raise the learning achievement process as “Good” criteria between teachers and students
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Improving the Numeracy Mathematics Ability: The Role of Abacus
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The 1st Progress in Science and Technology Research Symposium (PSTRS) 2019
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1594 (2020) 012041
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1594/1/012041
1
Improving the Numeracy Mathematics Ability: The Role of
Abacus Learning Model
Fatkul Anam1, Jefry Ravanely Suteja2, Andre Septianto3, Agung Purnomo4, Yuni
Putri Utami5
1Universitas Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya, Indonesia
2Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo, Indonesia
3Bina Nusantara Institute of Creative Technology Malang, Indonesia
4Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia
5Universitas Bahaudin Mudhary Madura, Indonesia
fatkulanam@yahoo.co.id
Abstract. The addition and subtraction materials in mathematics were considered to be
difficult to understand by most elementary school students. The aimed of this study was to
improve the ability to calculate the addition and subtraction of numbers in mixed count
material in mathematics using the Abacus learning model in second grade students of
Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia. This study was an action research
employing the Abacus learning model with the Kurt Lewin model approach with two cycles
and consists of four main steps for each cycle: planning, action, observation, and reflection.
The data were gathered through documentation, interview, observation, and tests. The data
analysis was done by using the individual and classical learning mastery. The results of this
research indicated that the implementation of the Abacus learning model can improve the
second grade students score of Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia up to
86.66% and can raise the learning achievement process as “Good” criteria between teachers
and students.
Keywords: Numeracy Mathematics, Abacus Learning Model
1. Introduction
The high level of apprehensive in learning mathematics leads student to feel antipathy to mathematics.
In this case, students generally have low enthusiasm to understand mathematics [1]. Mathematics is
first become compulsory subject in the elementary school. Elementary school pupils have a good
possibility to dislike or like mathematics. Elementary school as the first gate in the journey of
mathematics is an important thing to investigate [2]. Many elementary school pupils have trouble in
understanding mathematics taught by the teacher. Numeracy is known as a hard subject to
comprehend, without function and usefulness. Students usually experience indifference, confusion and
burnout whenever they are given numeracy lessons [3].
The 1st Progress in Science and Technology Research Symposium (PSTRS) 2019
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1594 (2020) 012041
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1594/1/012041
2
In general, students who study mathematics face many problems in sharing the form of calculation
problems. Numeracy is part of mathematics which includes dividing, multiplication, addition, and
subtraction [4]. The case that most commonly faced by elementary school pupils is subtraction and
addition [5]. Generally, problems in subtraction and addition are caused by: 1) Submission of
mathematical concepts including reduction of whole numbers by teachers that was not use teaching
aids that were suitable with the material. Even the learning media that are provided was limited. Even
though the learning media was available, the teacher does not know how to use the teaching aids, 2)
the teacher lacks mastery of evaluation methods and tools, 3) the teacher is accustomed to conveying
the material with only one method, such as the lecture method, 4) the teacher often assumes that
students have already understood so they quickly move to other materials, 5) the teacher often gives
homework, while the material has not been mastered by students, and 6) the teacher checks homework
and gives grades without giving a correction by making completion of the work [6]. Every child has
different abilities to solve arithmetic problems [7]. Students commonly make mistakes and have
difficulties in learning mathematics, including solving calculation problems [8]. Action Research is a
contextual research activity carried out to solve learning problems faced by teachers, increase the
standard and learning outcomes of pupils and try new things in learning for the sake of improving the
learning outcomes and quality especially in primary schools [9]. The main focus is the interactions
between students with different students in the class, interaction between students-teacher, students-
math assignments and students-learning tools [10]. One of mathematics problems facing by the second
grade of Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia, was that the conventional learning
method-lecture method. The lecture method is the most common method used by teachers at all levels
starting from elementary school, junior high school and high school. However, this method has been
considered to be ineffective since some students tend to remember things through objects and visuals
[11].
One learning model that can be applied by teachers in the learning process to improve students'
thinking skills in mathematics is the Abacus media model. The Abacus model can help students to
understand mathematics which has the following parts: a frame, a divider, a lane of 13 lanes and beads
where each row contains five beads, four beads for the bottom and one bead for the top, under the
lane, a base made of carpet or similar cloth is aimed at keeping the beads from sliding easily when
used in working counts. Abacus media length ± 20 cm and width ± 10 cm. Abacus functions to: 1)
recognize place values, 2) perform operations of multiplication, addition, division, and subtraction of
whole numbers and decimal numbers, 3) length measurement conversions in the metric system, 4)
Lighting in buying and selling and precisely determining cash back. Abacus media users who are
accustomed to apply the Abacus were able to calculate without those media, but only by imagining it
[12].
The implementation of Abacus learning model can improve the numeracy skills of second-grade
students of Elementary School 52 Tokang Sekayan, Indonesia. The the pre-test and post-test result
indicated an increased in the number of students after the application of the Abacus learning model to
the 2nd grade students of Elementary School 52 Tokang Sekayan [13]. The education implementation
can enhance the student achievement [14]. Efforts are needed to make improvement, in curriculum
development, and the quality of education and skills in learning and teaching activities gradually and
continuously. Since the growth of education in a nation is one of the tangible proofs to the successful
country. The role of educational management is to utilize all resources to support the achievement of
educational progress that starts from improving the caliber of learning in the classroom. Therefore, the
purpose of this study is to improve the ability to calculate the addition and subtraction of numbers in
mixed count material in mathematics using the Abacus method in the second grade of Elementary
School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia. In short, students are expected to easily understand the
teaching of mathematics provided by the teacher by using Abacus learning model.
2. Research Methods
This study employed an action research by using Abacus learning model with two cycles. Each cycle
contains four main actions as followed: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The population of
The 1st Progress in Science and Technology Research Symposium (PSTRS) 2019
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1594 (2020) 012041
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1594/1/012041
3
the research was the second grade student of Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia in
the academic year of 2018/2019. The observation data were gathered through 30 students, 14 female
and 16 male students. This research started from April to Mei 2019. The variable used by researcher
was X variable Abacus learning method as the main variable and Y variable was the students’
numeracy mathematics ability as a supporting variable. The data were gathered through observation,
test and documentation. To analyze the achievement level of the students, the written test was done in
the end of cycle. The students should achieve the score > 75 to reach the minimum criteria of mastery
learning. If the most students in the class (85%) were able to operate the addition and subtraction and
were achieved the Minimum Criteria of Mastery Learning (MCML) that was 75% from tests that
were given by the teacher, then the students were assumed to achieve the MCML and should stop the
cycle. The formula of the minimum criteria of mastery learning with equation 1. 𝑋̅= average score,
∑X= the total of students score, and ∑N= the total of students.
X ̅= (∑X)/(∑N) x 100% (1)
Table 1. Criteria for the learning process of students and teachers show the criteria of the learning
process between students and teachers, there are four categories indicating the success index of the
application of learning methods .
No
Level of success
Predicate of Success
1
85-100 %
Very well
2
84-75 %
Good
3
74-65 %
Enough
4
< 65
Less
5
Range 15 %
3. Result
In this area will described about advancement of counting ability on addition and subtraction of
numbers for elementary school pupils with Abacus action research.
3.1. Description of Pre-Cycle Results
The observations results before applying the Abacus method indicate that students' mathematics
learning scores are still low based on the Minimal completeness criteria. The MCML Score in the
second grade of Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia in mathematics is 75. Students
who achieved the number of MCML were 23.33%. The results of these data indicate that there are still
students who have not reached MCML.
3.2. Description of Cycle I Research Result
Researchers began to apply the Abacus learning model in the first cycle to improve the achievement of
MCML. Classification of Learning Outcomes of addition and subtraction material demonstrates the
amount of students who received a range of grades 100-85 or very good criteria is 5 students
(16.12%), the range of grades 84-75 or good criteria is 5 students (16.12%), the range of grades 74 -
65 or sufficient criteria is 4 students (12.90%), the range of grades <64 or less criteria is 18 students
(58.10%). From the results of the first cycle test shows that there are still students who have not met
the MCML. Furthermore, a second cycle of research was conducted with the time determined by the
class teacher II because the value of learning outcomes is still below the MCML.
3.3. Description of Cycle II Research Result
The observations results In the cycle II shows that the number of students in the range of 100 - 85 or
having a good criterion was 13 students (41.93%), 84 - 75 or good criterion was 10 students (32.25%),
74 - 65 or average criterion was 4 students (12.90%), the score <64 was 4 students (12.90%). From the
results of the cycle II test, it shows that there is an increase in student value compared to the results of
the pre and cycle I test.
The 1st Progress in Science and Technology Research Symposium (PSTRS) 2019
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1594 (2020) 012041
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1594/1/012041
4
4. Discussion
Based on the value of pre-cycle learning outcomes, cycle I and cycle II then can be compared between
pre-cycle, cycle I and II in the Table 4. The comparison of the Pre-Cycle Learning Outcomes, Cycle I
and Cycle II experienced improvement from pre cycle 23.33%, cycle I 60% and cycle II 86.66% was
as followed
Table 2. the comparison of student learning outcomes in per cycle
Mastery Students
Not Mastery Students
Frequency
%
Frequency
%
7
23,33%
23
76,66%
18
60%
12
40%
26
86,66%
4
13,33%
Based on Table 2. the comparison of student learning outcomes in per cycle, cycle I with a total of 30
students who have completed as many as 18 students (60%) while 12 students who have not
completed (40%). In the second cycle with a total number of 26 students 86.66% had been completed.
The implementation of Abacus learning is able to improve student learning achievement of second
grade students at Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya [15]. This is in line with the results of the
study of Fauziya et al in 2017, in her research the result revealed an increase of 94.44% [16] and as
well as Wahyu in 2017 the result showed an increase of 84.78% [16].
5. Conclusion
We can learn that the application of the Abacus learning model that is equipped with teaching aids on
Mathematics on the addition and subtraction, mixed calculation is able to improve the students score at
Elementary School Kebraon II Surabaya, Indonesia. It can be proved by the improvement of students
score from pre-cycle, cycle 1 and cycle II. In the first cycle, there were 18 students or 60% who were
reach MCML. While in the second cycle, there were 26 students or 86% who were reach MCML. This
result indicated that the implementation of Abacus learning model was able to improve the learning
standard between students and teachers which was categorized as “good”.
Acknowledgment
We would like to thank our parents, friends, family, Nahdlatul Ulama and Indonesia.
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IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1594/1/012041
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Tujuan penelitian ini menggambarkan kesalahan dalam menyelesaikan soal cerita matematika. Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif, subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas V berjumlah 55. Teknik pengumpulan data berupa dokumentasi yang berhubungan dengan soal cerita yang telah dikerjakan siswa. Hasil penelitian berupa bentuk-bentuk kesalahan siswa yang terjadi pada setiap aspek yaitu: Pertama, adalah memahami soal yang yaitu menuliskan hal yang diketahui dan ditanyakan: (a) tidak menuliskan sama sekali, (b) tidak lengkap, (c) persis dengan soal, (d) menuliskan hal yang diketahui pada hal ditanyakan ataupun sebaliknya. Kedua, membuat model matematika yaitu: (a) tidak membuat model, (b) model tidak tepat. Ketiga, melakukan perhitungan yaitu: (a) tidak mengikuti prosedur, (b) perhitungan tidak tepat. Keempat, dalam menarik kesimpulan: (a) tidak sesuai dengan konteks jawaban, (b) tidak menuliskan sama sekali, (c) sama persis dengan pertanyaan. Selanjutnya kesalahan terbanyak yang terjadi yaitu: Pertama, aspek melakukan perhitungan, Kedua, membuat model matematika, Ketiga, memahami soal, dan Keempat, aspek menarik kesimpulan.
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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan (1) ciri-ciri perencanaan pembelajaran matematika; (2) ciri-ciri pelaksanaan matematika; dan (3) ciri-ciri evaluasi kurikulum matematika. Jenis penelitian kualitatif dengan desain etnografi. Lokasi di SD Negeri Mangkubumen 83 Surakarta. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara mendalam, dokumentasi, dan observasi. Analisis data dengan tiga tahapan yaitu reduksi data, sajian data, dan penarikan simpulan dengan verifikasinya. Hasil penelitian (1) perencanaan pembelajaran matematika disusun oleh guru secara berkelompok dengan berpedoman pada kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan (KTSP), dikembangkan sesuai dengan kondisi lingkungan sekolah masing-masing. (2) Tujuan pembelajaran matematika berpedoman pada kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan. Materi pembelajaran matematika terdiri dari 6 (enam) standar kompetensi yang terbagi untuk semester I sebanyak 4 (empat) standar kompetensi, dan 2 (dua) standar kompetensi untuk semester II. Metode pembelajaran matematika yang digunakan oleh guru adalah metode deduktif, demonstrasi, diskusi, ekspositori,latihan, dan tanya jawab. Jenis media pembelajaran matematika bermacam-macam,dengan tujuan untuk menjelaskan konsep matematika. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap awal, tahap inti pembelajaran, dan tahap akhir. (3) Evaluasi kurikulum mata pelajaran Matematika, dilakukan oleh kepalasekolah selama proses pembelajaran dan akhir semester dengan cara observasi, dan pengamatan dokumentasi. Komponen evaluasi kurikulum terdiri dari: penilaian standar isi, penilaian perencanaan pembelajaran, pelaksanaan pembelajaran, standar penilaian, dan standar kelulusan
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Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada anak kelompok B1 di TK Amelia Kecamatan Sumbersari Kabupaten Jember. Latar belakang diadakannya penelitian ini karena kegiatan pembelajaran yang digunakan guru kurang menarik, sehingga mengakibatkan kemampuan berhitung permulaan anak kelompok B1 belum berkembang dengan baik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berhitung permulaan anak melalui metode demonstrasi dengan media sempoa. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK) yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Subjek penelitiannya adalah anak kelompok B1 di TK Amelia Kecamatan Sumbersari Kabupaten Jember berjumlah 18 anak yang terdiri atas 10 anak laki-laki dan 8 anak perempuan. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah dokumentasi, wawancara, dan tes. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan berhitung permulaan anak kelompok B1 di TK Amelia Kecamatan Sumbersari Kabupaten Jember mengalami peningkatan dengan kualifikasi sangat baik. Nilai rata-rata kelas pada pra siklus 64.21, siklus I pertemuan 1 79.86, siklus I pertemuan 2 85.07, dan siklus II meningkat menjadi 91.32. Kata Kunci: kemampuan berhitung permulaan, demonstrasi media sempoa, penelitian tindakan kelas.
Model Pembelajaran Matematika Siswa Kelas Satu Sekolah Dasar
  • Frengky
Frengky. Model Pembelajaran Matematika Siswa Kelas Satu Sekolah Dasar. J Pisikologi [Internet]. 2008;35(2):151-63. Available from: https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jpsi/article/view/7949/6147